Verse-by-Verse Bible Commentary

2 Samuel 2:9

He made him king over Gilead, over the Ashurites, over Jezreel, over Ephraim, and over Benjamin, even over all Israel.
New American Standard Version

Bible Study Resources

Concordances:
Nave's Topical Bible - Abner;   Armies;   Ashurites;   Benjamin;   Ephraim;   Hebron;   Ish-Bosheth;   Israel;   Jezreel;   Judah;   Mahanaim;   Scofield Reference Index - Kingdom;   Thompson Chain Reference - Ephraim;   Tribe;   Torrey's Topical Textbook - Benjamin, Tribe of;  
Dictionaries:
Bridgeway Bible Dictionary - David;   Ephraim;   Judah, tribe and kingdom;   Easton Bible Dictionary - Ashurites;   Ish-Bosheth;   Israel;   Fausset Bible Dictionary - Ashurites;   Benjamin;   Gilead;   Mahanaim;   Sheba (1);   Holman Bible Dictionary - Ashurite;   Mahanaim;   Samuel, Books of;   Hastings' Dictionary of the Bible - Abner;   Ashurites;   Gilead;   Jezreel;   Morrish Bible Dictionary - Abner ;   Ashurites;   Ishbosheth ;   Jezreel ;   The Hawker's Poor Man's Concordance And Dictionary - Joab;   Mahanaim;   Mount gilead;   People's Dictionary of the Bible - Gilead;   Hebron;   Smith Bible Dictionary - Ash'urites, the;   Watson's Biblical & Theological Dictionary - Ishbosheth;   Mahanaim;  
Encyclopedias:
International Standard Bible Encyclopedia - Ashhur;   Ashurites;   Geshur;   Gilead (1);   Jezreel;   Samuel, Books of;   The Jewish Encyclopedia - Abner;   Asshurites;   Benjamin;   Ephraim;   Gilead;   Ish-Bosheth;   Palestine;   Rehoboam;  

Adam Clarke Commentary

Made him king over Gilead - These were places beyond Jordan; for as the Philistines had lately routed the Israelites, they were no doubt in possession of some of the principal towns, and were now enjoying the fruits of their victory. Abner was therefore afraid to bring the new king to any place where he was likely to meet with much resistance, till he had got his army well recruited.

Who the Ashurites were is not generally agreed; probably men of the tribe of Ashur.

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Clarke, Adam. "Commentary on 2 Samuel 2:9". "The Adam Clarke Commentary". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/acc/2-samuel-2.html. 1832.

Albert Barnes' Notes on the Whole Bible

The Ashurites - If the tribe of Asher, the verse indicates the order in which Abner recovered the different districts from the Philistines, and added them to the dominions of Ish-bosheth, beginning with Gilead, and then gradually adding, on the west of Jordan, first the territory of Asher as far as Carmel and the whole plain of Esdraelon, and then the country of Ephraim and Benjamin, being in fact all Israel, as distinguished from Judah; and this reconquest may have occupied five years. Ish-bosheth‘s reign over Israel may not have been reckoned to begin until the conquest was complete.

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Barnes, Albert. "Commentary on 2 Samuel 2:9". "Barnes' Notes on the Whole Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/bnb/2-samuel-2.html. 1870.

John Gill's Exposition of the Whole Bible

And he made him king over Gilead,.... Which lay beyond Jordan, and included the tribes of Gad and Reuben, and the half tribe of Manasseh; these he prevailed upon to acknowledge Ishbosheth, their king, and proclaimed him king over them:

and over the Ashurites: that is, those of the house or tribe of Asher, as the Targum, and indeed none else can well be thought of; some indeed read the Geshurites, as the Vulgate Latin version; but these were never expelled by the Israelites, and had at this time a king over them, 2 Samuel 3:3; see Joshua 13:13,

and over Jezreel; the great plain which went along the borders of Zebulun, Issachar, and Naphtali, and included these tribes:

and over Ephraim, and over Benjamin: the tribes of Ephraim and Benjamin:

and over all Israel, excepting the tribe of Judah; that is, he prevailed first on one of these, then on another, until he got all the tribes of Israel to own him for their king; David all this time being still and quiet, and not opposing him, waiting God's own time to open the way for his possession of the kingdom over all Israel, and having a strict regard to his oath to Saul, 1 Samuel 24:21.

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The New John Gill's Exposition of the Entire Bible Modernised and adapted for the computer by Larry Pierce of Online Bible. All Rights Reserved, Larry Pierce, Winterbourne, Ontario.
A printed copy of this work can be ordered from: The Baptist Standard Bearer, 1 Iron Oaks Dr, Paris, AR, 72855
Bibliographical Information
Gill, John. "Commentary on 2 Samuel 2:9". "The New John Gill Exposition of the Entire Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/geb/2-samuel-2.html. 1999.

Geneva Study Bible

And made him king over Gilead, and over the Ashurites, and over Jezreel, and over Ephraim, and over Benjamin, and over f all Israel.

(f) Over the eleven tribes.
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Beza, Theodore. "Commentary on 2 Samuel 2:9". "The 1599 Geneva Study Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/gsb/2-samuel-2.html. 1599-1645.

Wesley's Explanatory Notes

And made him king over Gilead, and over the Ashurites, and over Jezreel, and over Ephraim, and over Benjamin, and over all Israel.

Gilead — Largely so taken, for all the land of Israel beyond Jordan.

Ashurites — That is, the tribe of Asher, as the Chaldee paraphrast and others understand it.

Jezreel — A large and rich valley situate in the borders of the tribes of Zebulun, Issachar and Naphtali, and so put for them all.

All Israel — Except Judah.

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These files are public domain and are a derivative of an electronic edition that is available on the Christian Classics Ethereal Library Website.
Bibliographical Information
Wesley, John. "Commentary on 2 Samuel 2:9". "John Wesley's Explanatory Notes on the Whole Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/wen/2-samuel-2.html. 1765.

John Trapp Complete Commentary

2 Samuel 2:9 And made him king over Gilead, and over the Ashurites, and over Jezreel, and over Ephraim, and over Benjamin, and over all Israel.

Ver. 9. And over all Israel.] Except the tribe of Judah, and some few others. [1 Chronicles 12:1-40] This was an ill precedent, and as it were a preparative to that great schism in Rehoboam’s days, that could never be made up again.

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Trapp, John. "Commentary on 2 Samuel 2:9". John Trapp Complete Commentary. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/jtc/2-samuel-2.html. 1865-1868.

Matthew Poole's English Annotations on the Holy Bible

Gilead; largely so taken for all the land of Israel beyond Jordan, as it is Joshua 22:9 Jude 10:8.

The Ashurites, i.e. the tribe of Asher, as the Chaldee Paraphrast and others understand it.

Jezreel; a large and rich valley situate in the borders of the tribes of Zebulun, Issachar, and Naphtali, and so put synecedochically for them all.

All Israel; except Judah, as it follows.

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Bibliographical Information
Poole, Matthew, "Commentary on 2 Samuel 2:9". Matthew Poole's English Annotations on the Holy Bible. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/mpc/2-samuel-2.html. 1685.

Whedon's Commentary on the Bible

9.Gilead — The mountainous region east of the Jordan. See map, page 234.

The Ashurites — Who these were it is impossible to determine. They could not have been the people of Asshur, (Assyria,) nor the Asshurim of Genesis 25:3. Better is the reading of the Chaldee, the house of Asher, by which is meant the territory of the tribe of Asher in the north of Palestine, and the adjacent country north of the plain of Jezreel. The Vulgate, Syriac, and Arabic read, the Geshurites. But these could not have been the Geshurites of 1 Samuel 27:8, nor is it likely that Ishbosheth reigned over the kingdom of Talmai, whose daughter David had taken to wife. 2 Samuel 3:3.

Jezreel — The city and great plain of this name. See on Joshua 15:56; Joshua 17:16. This great plain was mainly occupied by the tribes of Issachar and Zebulun.

Over all Israel — With the exception, of course, of Judah, over which David had been anointed king. The recovering of all the territory specified in this verse, and the subjecting of it to Ishbosheth, probably occupied Abner and his army some time. See on 2 Samuel 2:10.

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Whedon, Daniel. "Commentary on 2 Samuel 2:9". "Whedon's Commentary on the Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/whe/2-samuel-2.html. 1874-1909.

George Haydock's Catholic Bible Commentary

Gessuri. There was one south of Juda: but this country was probably near Hermon, and might be tributary to Israel. David perhaps married this king's daughter, in order to detach him from the party of Isboseth, chap. iii. 3. Hebrew reads, "Assuri;" and St. Jerome observes, that many explained it of the tribe of Aser, (Trad. Heb.[Hebrew tradition?]) with the Chaldee, (Du Hamel; Menochius) or of the Assurians, Genesis xxv. 3. --- Israel, by degrees. In the mean time the Philistines occupied many cities, which might prevent Isboseth from attempting to fix his residence on the west side of the Jordan, ver. 19.

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Haydock, George Leo. "Commentary on 2 Samuel 2:9". "George Haydock's Catholic Bible Commentary". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/hcc/2-samuel-2.html. 1859.

E.W. Bullinger's Companion Bible Notes

and. Note the Figure of speech Polysyndeton (App-6) in 2 Samuel 2:9.

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Bullinger, Ethelbert William. "Commentary on 2 Samuel 2:9". "E.W. Bullinger's Companion bible Notes". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/bul/2-samuel-2.html. 1909-1922.

Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible - Unabridged

And made him king over Gilead, and over the Ashurites, and over Jezreel, and over Ephraim, and over Benjamin, and over all Israel.

Over Gilead - used in a loose sense for the land beyond Jordan. Their declaration in favour of the only remnant of Saul's house was soon followed by the adherence of the other tribes of Israel.

Ashurites - the tribe of Asher, in the extreme north.

Jezreel - the extensive valley bordering on the central tribes.

Over all Israel. David neither could nor would force matters, but was content to wait God's time, and Over all Israel. David neither could nor would force matters, but was content to wait God's time, and studiously avoided any collision with the rival king until hostilities were threatened from that quarter.

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Jamieson, Robert, D.D.; Fausset, A. R.; Brown, David. "Commentary on 2 Samuel 2:9". "Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible - Unabridged". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/jfu/2-samuel-2.html. 1871-8.

Ellicott's Commentary for English Readers

(9) The Ashurites, and over Jezreel.—This verse apparently expresses the gradual extension of Ishbosheth’s dominion as the country became freed from the Philistines. At first, his authority was established over Gilead—i.e., the country on the east of the Jordan; then “over the Ashurites.” No satisfactory explanation of this name as it stands has been found, but it is probably meant for Asherites, or the tribe of Asher, the reading of some MSS. and of the Chaldee Version; the name of this tribe standing for the whole region west of the Jordan, and north of the plain of Esdraelon; then southwards, “over Jezreel,”the wide plain between the mountains of Gilboa and the little Hermon; then “over Ephraim,” including the half-tribe of Manasseh; and, still southwards, “over Benjamin;” and finally, “over all Israel,” excepting, of course, Judah.

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Ellicott, Charles John. "Commentary on 2 Samuel 2:9". "Ellicott's Commentary for English Readers". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/ebc/2-samuel-2.html. 1905.

Treasury of Scripture Knowledge

And made him king over Gilead, and over the Ashurites, and over Jezreel, and over Ephraim, and over Benjamin, and over all Israel.
Gilead
Numbers 32:1-42; Joshua 13:8-11; Psalms 108:8
Ashurites
The LXX. read [ ] Thasiri; and the Vulgate Gessuri, "Geshurites;" but it is probable that for ashuri, "Ashurites," we should read ashairi, "Asherites," or those of the tribe of Asher.
Genesis 30:13; Numbers 1:40
over Jezreel
Joshua 19:18
Reciprocal: Genesis 25:3 - Asshurim;  Judges 20:1 - with the;  2 Samuel 3:6 - Abner;  2 Samuel 3:21 - will gather;  1 Kings 18:45 - Ahab;  2 Kings 10:3 - Look even;  1 Chronicles 12:29 - the greatest part of them;  Psalm 18:43 - from;  Psalm 60:6 - divide

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Bibliographical Information
Torrey, R. A. "Commentary on 2 Samuel 2:9". "The Treasury of Scripture Knowledge". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/tsk/2-samuel-2.html.