Verse-by-Verse Bible Commentary

2 Samuel 21:19

There was war with the Philistines again at Gob, and Elhanan the son of Jaare-oregim the Bethlehemite killed Goliath the Gittite, the shaft of whose spear was like a weaver's beam.
New American Standard Version

Bible Study Resources

Concordances:
Nave's Topical Bible - Armies;   Beam;   Championship;   David;   Elhanan;   Goliath;   Jaare-Oregim;   Lahmi;   Weaving;   Thompson Chain Reference - Goliath;   Spears;   Torrey's Topical Textbook - Benjamin, Tribe of;   Judah, the Tribe of;   Philistines, the;   Rephaim, or Giants, the;  
Dictionaries:
American Tract Society Bible Dictionary - Gath;   Bridgeway Bible Dictionary - Anak;   Gath;   Easton Bible Dictionary - Anakim;   Elhanan;   Giants;   Gob;   Goliath;   Jaare-Oregim;   Philistines;   Weaving, Weavers;   Fausset Bible Dictionary - Anakim;   Elhanan;   Gath;   Giants;   Gob;   Jaare-Oregim;   Jesse;   Lahmi;   Philistia;   Holman Bible Dictionary - El-Hanan;   Giants;   Gob;   Jair;   Lahmi;   Loom;   Samuel, Books of;   Hastings' Dictionary of the Bible - Bethlehem;   David;   Elhanan;   Gath;   Giant;   Haggai;   Israel;   Jaare-Oregim;   Lahmi;   Rephaim;   Samuel, Books of;   Shamgar;   Spinning and Weaving;   Morrish Bible Dictionary - Bethlehemite ;   Elhanan ;   Gezer, Gezrites ;   Giant;   Gittites ;   Gob;   Goliath ;   Jaareoregim ;   Jair ;   The Hawker's Poor Man's Concordance And Dictionary - Giants;   People's Dictionary of the Bible - Armor;   Arms;   Goliath;   Jair;   Smith Bible Dictionary - Arms, Armor;   Elha'nan;   Gob;   Goli'ath;   Ja'are-Or'egim;  
Encyclopedias:
Condensed Biblical Cyclopedia - Hebrew Monarchy, the;   International Standard Bible Encyclopedia - Beam;   Beth-Lehemite;   Elhanan;   Gath;   Gittites;   Goliath;   Heredity;   Ishbi-Benob;   Jaare-Oregim;   Jair;   Samuel, Books of;   Weaving;   The Jewish Encyclopedia - Elhanan;   Giants;   Goliath;   Jair;   Shamgar;  

Adam Clarke Commentary

Elhanan the son of Jaare-oregim - slew - Goliath the Gittite - Here is a most manifest corruption of the text, or gross mistake of the transcriber; David, not Elhanan, slew Goliath. In 1 Chronicles 20:5, the parallel place, it stands thus: "Elhanan, the son of Jair, slew Lahmi, the brother of Goliath the Gittite, whose spear-staff was like a weaver's beam." This is plain; and our translators have borrowed some words from Chronicles to make both texts agree. The corruption may be easily accounted for by considering that ארגים oregim, which signifies weavers, has slipped out of one line into the other; and that הלחמי בית beith hallachmi, the Beth-lehemite, is corrupted from לחמי את eth Lachmi ; then the reading will be the same as in Chronicles. Dr. Kennicott has made this appear very plain in his First Dissertation on the Hebrew Text, p. 78, etc.

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Clarke, Adam. "Commentary on 2 Samuel 21:19". "The Adam Clarke Commentary". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/acc/2-samuel-21.html. 1832.

Albert Barnes' Notes on the Whole Bible

The Hebrew text is manifestly very corrupt. First, for “Jaare-oregim,” 1 Chronicles 20:5 gives us the reading Jair. “Oregim” has evidently got in by a transcriber‘s error from the line below, where “oregim” is the Hebrew for “weavers.” Again, the word the “Bethlehemite” is very doubtful. It is supported by 2 Samuel 23:24, but it is not found in the far purer text of 1 Chronicles 20:5, but instead of it we find the name of the Philistine slain by Elhanan, “Lahmi the brother of Goliath the Gittite.” It is probable, therefore, that either the words “the Bethlehemite,” are a corruption of “Lahmi,” or that the recurrence of “Lahmi,” and the termination of “Beth-lehemite” has confused the transcriber, and led to the omission of one of the words in each text.

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Barnes, Albert. "Commentary on 2 Samuel 21:19". "Barnes' Notes on the Whole Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/bnb/2-samuel-21.html. 1870.

John Gill's Exposition of the Whole Bible

And there was again a battle in Gob with the Philistines,.... Another battle with them in the same place:

where Elhanan the son of Jaareoregim, a Bethlehemite, slew the brother of Goliath the Gittite; the word "brother" is rightly supplied from 1 Chronicles 20:5; where his name is said to be Lahmi, for not Goliath himself was slain, though some so interpret it, and take Elhanan to be David; so Jarchi, and with which agrees the Targum; but he was slain not at Gob, but in the valley of Elah, nor had David any such name as Elhanan; he was one of David's worthies, 2 Samuel 23:24; where he is called the son of Dodo, and in 1 Chronicles 20:5, the son of Jair; and Lahmi there may not be the name of Goliath's brother, but, as here, the country name of Elhanan; for the wordsF26Vid. Buxtorf. Anticritic. par. 2. c. 2. p. 421. there may be rendered,"and Elhanan the son of Jair, the Lehemite (i.e. the Bethlehemite), slew the brother of Goliath the Gittite,'and so perfectly agrees, with this:

the staff of whose spear was like a weaver's beam; not of Goliath's brother, but of Goliath himself, 1 Samuel 17:7.

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The New John Gill's Exposition of the Entire Bible Modernised and adapted for the computer by Larry Pierce of Online Bible. All Rights Reserved, Larry Pierce, Winterbourne, Ontario.
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Gill, John. "Commentary on 2 Samuel 21:19". "The New John Gill Exposition of the Entire Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/geb/2-samuel-21.html. 1999.

Geneva Study Bible

And there was again a battle in Gob with the Philistines, where Elhanan the son of Jaareoregim, a Bethlehemite, slew [the brother of] p Goliath the Gittite, the staff of whose spear [was] like a weaver's beam.

(p) That is, Lahmi the brother of Goliath, whom David slew, (1 Chronicles 20:5).
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Beza, Theodore. "Commentary on 2 Samuel 21:19". "The 1599 Geneva Study Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/gsb/2-samuel-21.html. 1599-1645.

John Trapp Complete Commentary

2 Samuel 21:19 And there was again a battle in Gob with the Philistines, where Elhanan the son of Jaareoregim, a Bethlehemite, slew [the brother of] Goliath the Gittite, the staff of whose spear [was] like a weaver’s beam.

Ver. 19. Slew the brother of Goliath.] The name of this monster was Lahmi, [1 Chronicles 20:5] but it may be, that after his brother’s death, he took and bore his name, or that he was called Goliath, as we say of a very huge or strong man, that he is another Hercules, a second Samson. Albert, Marquis of Brandenburg was called Achilles Teutonicus.

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Trapp, John. "Commentary on 2 Samuel 21:19". John Trapp Complete Commentary. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/jtc/2-samuel-21.html. 1865-1868.

Thomas Coke Commentary on the Holy Bible

2 Samuel 21:19. A battle in Gob with the Philistines Houbigant, with whom Calmet agrees, observes, that both here and in the next verse, the reading of the parallel place, 1 Chronicles 20:4-5 is to be preferred. It is there read, in Gezur, a city on the borders of Israel, near the Philistines; and as David slew Goliath, our translators, 2 Samuel 21:19 have inserted the words, the brother of. There can be no question, we think, that the text must be corrected from the parallel place in Chronicles. Houbigant reads it, where Elhanam, the son of Jair, a Beth-lehemite, slew Lahmi, the brother of Goliath, a Gittite, &c. Commentators have collected various instances of men, who, like the giant mentioned in 2 Samuel 21:20 have had six fingers on their hands, and six toes on their feet. Tavernier, in his relation of the Grand Seignior's Seraglio, p. 95 tells us, that the eldest son of the emperor of Java, who reigned in the year 1648, when he was in that island, had six fingers on each hand, and as many toes on each foot, all of equal length: and, not to be tediously prolix in recounting such instances, M. Maupertuis, in his 17th Letter tells us, that he met with two families at Berlin, where six-digitism, as he calls it, was equally transmitted both on the side of father and mother.

REFLECTIONS.—The Philistines, though subdued for a season, yet now, towards the latter end of David's reign, attempt to shake off their yoke and recover their liberty, emboldened in the attempt by those giants whose fall is here recorded.

1. David, though old, would himself lead his troops to battle. Being singled out by Ishbi-benob the giant, and not now, as in the days of youth and vigour, able to wield the shield and spear, he is in imminent danger of being slain, when Abishai bravely succours him, and enables him to slay the giant, or smites him himself (for the text will bear either sense). Struck with the danger that their king had escaped, the great officers and people about David resolve that he shall no more expose a life so valuable, lest, by any accident, this light of Israel should be extinguished. Note; (1.) Age creeps upon us so silently that we do not perceive it, till experience proves us unequal to our former undertakings. (2.) The enemies of God's people, confident of their power, think nothing can resist them; but they learn, to their cost, that it is in vain to fight against God. (3.) When we are ready to faint in our spiritual conflicts, Jesus, our captain, is near to succour us; and through his help we shall come off conquerors.

2. Three other battles soon followed, the Philistines making a desperate push to recover their losses: but in each they are defeated, and the mighty warriors who led them slain. And thus the race of the sons of Anak was rooted out by David and his servants. Note; (1.) While we are in this world, we must expect continual conflicts, with the enemies of our souls. (2.) The giant-like corruptions of our heart will fall before the victorious grace of Jesus.

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Coke, Thomas. "Commentary on 2 Samuel 21:19". Thomas Coke Commentary on the Holy Bible. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/tcc/2-samuel-21.html. 1801-1803.

Matthew Poole's English Annotations on the Holy Bible

Elhanan. The brother of Goliath the Gittite: the relative word brother is not in the Hebrew text, but is fitly supplied out of the parallel place, 1 Chronicles 20:5, where it is expressed. And such defects of relatives are not unusual in Scripture. Thus the word wife is understood, Matthew 1:6 John 19:25; and father or mother, Mark 15:40,47, compared with Mark 16:1 Luke 24:10; and son, Matthew 4:21 Mark 2:14 John 21:15; and brother, Luke 6:16, compared with Jude 1:1. And such ellipses do also frequently occur in profane authors. Although the place may be and is otherwise rendered, Elhanan, the son of Jaare-oregiro, slew Beth-halachmi, or Lahmi, (as he is called by way of abbreviation, 1 Chronicles 20:5, which is very frequent in the Hebrew tongue,) who was (which words are frequently understood in the Hebrew text) with (so eth is oft rendered, as hath been noted before) Goliath the Gittite, i.e. in his company, bred up with him to the war, and related to him as his brother. Or, he slew Beth-halachmi, a Goliath (or another Goliath) of Gath, or the Gittite. So the name of the giant was Beth-halachmi, who may be here called Goliath, not only for his near relation to him, being his brother, but for his exact resemblance of him in feature, or in stature and strength, or in courage and military skill; as John the Baptist was called Elias for the like reason. Peradventure also, after the death of the first and famous Goliath the Gittite, 1Sa 17, that name was either given to him by others, or taken by himself.

Like a weaver’s beam, in thickness. See 1 Samuel 17:7.

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Poole, Matthew, "Commentary on 2 Samuel 21:19". Matthew Poole's English Annotations on the Holy Bible. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/mpc/2-samuel-21.html. 1685.

Whedon's Commentary on the Bible

19.Elhanan the son of Jaare-oregim — This text, in the Hebrew, is certainly corrupt. Our translators have partially emended it by inserting the brother of, from 1 Chronicles 20:5. The word oregim is transferred from the end of the verse, מנור ארגים, menor oregim, beam of weavers, בית הלחמי, beth hallachmi, the Beth-lehemite, is a corruption of את לחמי, eth lachmi, the name of Goliath’s brother, called Lahmi in Chronicles. We consider the text in Chronicles as the correct one, and this passage as corrupted by some early transcribers.

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Whedon, Daniel. "Commentary on 2 Samuel 21:19". "Whedon's Commentary on the Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/whe/2-samuel-21.html. 1874-1909.

Joseph Benson's Commentary of the Old and New Testaments

2 Samuel 21:19. Elhanan, a Beth-lehemite — Another of David’s worthy and valiant commanders. Slew the brother of Goliath — The relative word, brother, is not in the Hebrew text, but is properly supplied out of the parallel place. 1 Chronicles 20:5, where it is expressed. The staff of whose spear was like a weaver’s beam — For thickness; that is, like the large roller on which the cloth is fastened in weaving.

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Benson, Joseph. "Commentary on 2 Samuel 21:19". Joseph Benson's Commentary. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/rbc/2-samuel-21.html. 1857.

George Haydock's Catholic Bible Commentary

Adeodatus, the son of Forrest. So it is rendered in the Latin Vulgate, by giving the interpretation of the Hebrew names, which are Elhanan, the son of Jaare. (Challoner) --- We should translate all the proper names, or none; as the present mode is extremely perplexing. Adeodatus might therefore be rendered, "God given;" (Dieudonne, as the French have it, though they will not translate Saltus, but leave Jaare) or, if Adeodatus must remain, as it is sometimes a proper name, why may not Saltus? A mere English reader might suppose that Forrest was a Hebrew name, and, with Swift in jest, maintain the high antiquity of our language. (Haydock) --- Regularly proper names should be retained. (Calmet) --- But the learned have often chosen to give the import of foreign names, in the language in which they have been writing. See Du Thou's History. Thus Dubois is styled Sylvius; Newman, Neander; &c. --- An embroiderer. Protestants make this a part of the man's name, "Jaare-oregim." Septuagint, "the son of Ariorgeim." In 1 Paralipomenon xx, no notice is taken of his profession. (Haydock) --- That passage will evince that Elhanan is not the same with David, as some would infer from the mention of Goliath's death, but the son of Jair, uncle of Joab, (chap. xxxiii. 24.) who was born at Bethlehem, though the verse in Paralipomenon would insinuate less correctly, that the giant's name was Lechem, thus, "Elehanan....slew Lechem, the brother," &c., as the copyist had written ath instead of bith. (Calmet) --- Our version has not this mistake: "Adeodatus, the son of Saltus, a Bethlehemite, slew the brother of Goliath, the Gethite," &c., 1 Paralipomenon xx. 5. (Haydock) --- "It would be difficult to find a passage more disfigured than the present; and, without the help of the Paralipomenon, it would be impossible to make it out." (Calmet) --- Kennicott makes a similar remark. (Diss. i. and ii.) But he believes that the Book of Chronicles, though the latest, and usually the most corrupt, of the Old Testament, is here perfectly correct; and that the passage before us is strangely corrupted, "Jaare Oregim, a Bethlehemite," being placed instead of, ..."Jaor slew Lahmi," as he thinks that oregim, "weavers," has been inserted from the line below, p. 79. Josephus ([Antiquities?] vii. 10.) relates this transaction as follows, "When the king had sent a fresh army against them, Nephan, his relation, displayed the greatest valour. for engaging in a single combat with the bravest man of the Philistines, and killing his antagonist, he caused the rest to turn their backs, and many of the enemy fell in that battle." Thus he evades all the difficulty, adding much out of his own head; and by Nephan, designating Elehanan, the son of his (Joab's) uncle, (chap. xxiii. 24.) or Dodo, a word which the Vulgate renders patrui ejus, "his paternal uncle," though it hat a wider signification, and denotes other relations. Hence, as Joab was the nephew of David, this brave man might be in the same degree, and born of one of the children of Isai; or, perhaps, Josephus infers that he was a kinsman of David, because he was of the same city. (Haydock) --- Goliath. He might have the same name as his brother, who had been slain by David forty-three years before; (Salien) or the title of brother may only signify, that this giant resembled the former in size and strength, Proverbs xviii. 9. --- Beam. See 1 Kings xvii. 7. (Calmet)

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Haydock, George Leo. "Commentary on 2 Samuel 21:19". "George Haydock's Catholic Bible Commentary". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/hcc/2-samuel-21.html. 1859.

E.W. Bullinger's Companion Bible Notes

the brother of Goliath. Omit the italics, and understand another giant of the same name as the Goliath of 1Samuel 17.

staff. Hebrew "wood", put by Figure of speech Metonymy (of Cause) for what was made from it. App-6.

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Bullinger, Ethelbert William. "Commentary on 2 Samuel 21:19". "E.W. Bullinger's Companion bible Notes". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/bul/2-samuel-21.html. 1909-1922.

Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible - Unabridged

And there was again a battle in Gob with the Philistines, where Elhanan the son of Ja'are-oregim, a Bethlehemite, slew the brother of Goliath the Gittite, the staff of whose spear was like a weaver's beam.

There was again a battle in Gob. The scene of this contest is not mentioned (1 Chronicles 20:4). [The Septuagint has: en Rom; Alexandrine, en Gob.]

Where Elhanan the son of Jaare-oregim, a Beth-lehemite, slew the brother of Goliath the Gittite, [ 'Elchaanaan (Hebrew #445), God-bestowed] - one of David's warriors. [ Ya`

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Jamieson, Robert, D.D.; Fausset, A. R.; Brown, David. "Commentary on 2 Samuel 21:19". "Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible - Unabridged". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/jfu/2-samuel-21.html. 1871-8.

Ellicott's Commentary for English Readers

(19) Jaare-oregim.—The parallel place, 1 Chronicles 20:5, reads simply “Jair.” It is generally supposed that “oregim(= weavers) has accidentally crept into the text from the line below, and “Jai” and “Jaare” are the same with a slight transposition of the letters. Another name for the same person must have been “Dodo,” if this Elhanan, as seems altogether probable, is the same with “Elhanan the son of Dodo of Bethlehem,” one of the thirty-seven heroes, in 2 Samuel 23:24.

The brother of.—These words, not found in the Hebrew here, are taken from Chronicles, where also the name of the giant, “Lahmi,” is given. It is quite possible, however, that the word “Beth-lemite,” which is wanting in Chronicles, is a corruption of “Lahmi the brother of.” There is a curious Jewish tradition that this Elhanan was David himself, and this has been preserved in the paraphrase of the Chaldee, “and David the son of Jesse, the weaver of veils for the sanctuary, who was of Bethlehem, slew Goliath the Gittite.”

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Ellicott, Charles John. "Commentary on 2 Samuel 21:19". "Ellicott's Commentary for English Readers". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/ebc/2-samuel-21.html. 1905.

Treasury of Scripture Knowledge

And there was again a battle in Gob with the Philistines, where Elhanan the son of Jaareoregim, a Bethlehemite, slew the brother of Goliath the Gittite, the staff of whose spear was like a weaver's beam.
Elhanan, etc
Instead of [y`ry 'rgym byt hlchmy 't glyt] of the text, we should certainly read, as in the parallel text, "and Elhanan the son of Jair, slew Lahmi the brother of Goliath."
1 Chronicles 11:26
Jaare-oregim
or, Jair.
1 Chronicles 20:5
Goliath
1 Samuel 17:4-11
Reciprocal: 1 Samuel 17:7 - the staff

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Torrey, R. A. "Commentary on 2 Samuel 21:19". "The Treasury of Scripture Knowledge". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/tsk/2-samuel-21.html.