Verse-by-Verse Bible Commentary

Daniel 9:1

In the first year of Darius the son of Ahasuerus, of Median descent, who was made king over the kingdom of the Chaldeans—
New American Standard Version

Bible Study Resources

Concordances:
Nave's Topical Bible - Ahasuerus;   Darius;   Medes;   Persia;   Prophets;   Thompson Chain Reference - Darius;  
Dictionaries:
American Tract Society Bible Dictionary - Ahasuerus;   Daniel;   Darius;   Seed;   Bridgeway Bible Dictionary - Chaldea;   Daniel;   Media;   Persia;   Charles Buck Theological Dictionary - Reconciliation;   Easton Bible Dictionary - Ahasuerus;   Captivity;   Chaldees;   Fausset Bible Dictionary - Babel;   Cyrus;   Darius;   Holman Bible Dictionary - Daniel, Book of;   Medes, Media;   Number Systems and Number Symbolism;   Hastings' Dictionary of the Bible - Ahasuerus;   Darius;   Persia, Persians;   Prayer;   Thessalonians, Second Epistle to the;   Morrish Bible Dictionary - Ahasuerus ;   Babylon ;   Chaldeans, Chaldees;   Dari'us;   Medes, Media ;   Persia, Persians;   People's Dictionary of the Bible - Ahasuerus;   Darius;   Smith Bible Dictionary - Ahasue'rus;   Dari'us;   Me'dian, the;   Watson's Biblical & Theological Dictionary - Ahasuerus;   Astyages;   Darius;   Division of the Earth;  
Encyclopedias:
Condensed Biblical Cyclopedia - Babylonish Captivity, the;   International Standard Bible Encyclopedia - Ahasuerus;   Darius;   Medes;   Michael;   Kitto Biblical Cyclopedia - Ahasuerus;   The Jewish Encyclopedia - Esther;   Media;  
Devotionals:
Every Day Light - Devotion for February 17;  

Adam Clarke Commentary

In the first year on Darius - This is the same Darius the Mede, spoken of before, who succeeded Belshazzar, king of the Chaldeans. See Daniel 5:31.

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Clarke, Adam. "Commentary on Daniel 9:1". "The Adam Clarke Commentary". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/acc/daniel-9.html. 1832.

Albert Barnes' Notes on the Whole Bible

In the first year of Darius - See the notes at Daniel 5:31, and Introuction to Ezra 1:1, this occurred before the close of the seventy years of the captivity.

The son of Ahasuerus - Or the son of Astyages. See Introduction to Daniel 6 Section II. It was no unusual thing for the kings of the East to have several names, and one writer might refer to them under one name, and another under another.

Of the seed of the Medes - Of the race of the Medes. See as above.

Which was made king over the realm of the Chaldeans - By conquest. He succeeded Belshazzar, and was the immediate predecessor of Cyrus. Cyaxares II ascended the throne of Media, according to the common chronology, 561 b.c. Babylon was taken by Cyrus, acting under the authority of Cyaxares, 538 b.c., and, of course, the reign of Cyaxares, or Darius, over Babylon commenced at that point, and that would be reckoned as the “first year” of his reign. He died 536 b.c., and Cyrus succeeded him; and as the order to rebuild the temple was in the first year of Cyrus, the time referred to in this chapter, when Daniel represents himself as meditating on the close of the captivity, and offering this prayer, cannot long have preceded that order. He had ascertained that the period of the captivity was near its close, and he naturally inquired in what way the restoration of the Jews to their own land was to be effected, and by what means the temple was to be rebuilt.

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Barnes, Albert. "Commentary on Daniel 9:1". "Barnes' Notes on the Whole Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/bnb/daniel-9.html. 1870.

Coffman Commentaries on the Bible

This chapter recounts the prophecy of the seventy weeks, probably the most debated portion of the whole prophecy. The chapter has four divisions: (1) Daniel comes to understand that the "seventy years" of Israel's captivity are about to end (Daniel 9:1-2); (2) his fervent prayer that God will indeed bless and restore Israel to Palestine (Daniel 9:3-19); (3) Gabriel interrupts his prayer in order to show Daniel things to come (Daniel 9:10-23); and (4) the prophecy of the seventy weeks (Daniel 9:24-27).

Chapter Orientation (Daniel 9:1-2)

Daniel 9:1-2

"In the first year of Darius the son of Ahasuerus of the seed of the Medes, who was made king over the realm of the Chaldeans, in the first year of his reign, I, Daniel, understood by the books the number of years whereof the word of Jehovah came to Jeremiah the prophet, for the accomplishment of the desolations of Jerusalem, even seventy years."

Daniel himself was a prophet, indeed one of the greatest of the prophets, yet when he eagerly desired to know more of God's will, he gave diligent attention and study to the prophets who were before him. What a remarkable contrast is here with the behavior of some of our present day religious leaders who pretend to be in constant communication with God Himself over every petty little thing confronting them, even their budget problems! The great avenue of communication established between the Father in heaven and his earthly children is still that of the Word of God, namely, the holy Bible. How did Daniel acquire that knowledge that the "seventy years" of the Babylonian captivity were about to end? He read it in the prophecy of Jeremiah, as follows: "For thus saith Jehovah, After seventy years are accomplished for Babylon, I will visit you, and perform my good word toward you, in causing you to return to this place" (Jeremiah 29:10).

Here is also something especially important regarding prayer. God had indeed promised Israel to restore them to Palestine after the "seventy years" were ended; nevertheless, Daniel considered it most important to offer this impassioned prayer to God with the most earnest supplications and petitions that God would indeed fulfil his glorious promises to the people. The prayers of God's people are a constant necessity for the reception of those great blessings which God Himself has already promised.

By Daniel's mention of the "books" in this passage, it is quite evident that many of the Old Testament books were at that time in existence. A little later he mentioned "the curse" from the Deuteronomy 28. The critical conceit that would interpret "the books" here as the completed canon of the Old Testament (with a view to preventing Daniel's prophecy from being considered a part of the canon) is merely another groundless, unproved, and ridiculous assertion.

"Darius ... who was made king over the realm of the Chaldeans ..." (Daniel 9:2). This monarch, Darius the Mede, the son of Ahasuerus, is still unknown by name to history and to the monuments; but that is no argument against Daniel,

"Belshazzar's name was also likewise unknown to the monuments, until the discovered memorials of Nabonnaid fully continued Daniel's record. But the poor critics have not yet learned their lesson; and they will continue to doubt the Word of God until some day to their eternal loss they will find out their complete defeat as well as the wickedness of their destructive work."[1]

As a matter of fact, the very text here gives evidence of the secondary nature of Darius' kingship, thus providing the probable reason why the monuments ignored him.

"After pointing out the near unique structure of the original language here, especially the Hophal; Keil declared that, `It shows that Darius did not become king over the Chaldean kingdom by virtue of a hereditary right to it, nor that he gained the kingdom by means of conquest, but that he received it from the conqueror of Babylon.'"[2]

Thus we have additional confirmation of some of the conclusions reached in our study of Daniel 6:1, above.

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Coffman Commentaries reproduced by permission of Abilene Christian University Press, Abilene, Texas, USA. All other rights reserved.
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Coffman, James Burton. "Commentary on Daniel 9:1". "Coffman Commentaries on the Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/bcc/daniel-9.html. Abilene Christian University Press, Abilene, Texas, USA. 1983-1999.

John Gill's Exposition of the Whole Bible

In the first year of Darius the son of Ahasuerus, of the seed of the Medes,.... This is the same with Darius the Median, that took the kingdom after the death of Belshazzar; so called, to distinguish him from Darius the Persian; and yet Porphyry has the gall to assert that this was Darius the Persian, under whom the temple was built, that Daniel might appear to live later than he did: Ahasuerus, whose son he was, is not he that was the husband of Esther, and was many years later than this; but the same with Astyages king of the Medes, and who is called Ahasuerus, in the Apocrypha:

"But before he died he heard of the destruction of Nineve, which was taken by Nabuchodonosor and Assuerus: and before his death he rejoiced over Nineve.' (Tobit 14:15)

the father of Cyaxares, the same with this Darius, who was uncle to Cyrus that conquered Babylon, and made him king of it, and of the whole empire; for this was not the first year of his reign over Media, where he had reigned many years before, but over Chaldea, as follows:

which was made king over the realm of the Chaldeans; by Cyrus his nephew; who having taken Babylon, and settled his affairs, undertook a journey to Persia, and made Media in his way; where he met with his uncle Cyaxares, the same with this Darius, and delivered the kingdom of Babylon to him, and married his daughter, with whom he had for her dowry the kingdom of Media, as XenophonF25Cyropaedia, l. 8. c. 36. relates. Now it was in the first year of his reign over the Chaldeans that Daniel had the following vision of the seventy weeks; which, according to Bishop UsherF26Annales Vet. Test. A. M. 3467. and Mr. WhistonF1Chronological Tables, cent. 10. , was in the year of the world 3467 A.M. and 537 B.C. Dean PrideauxF2Connexion, &c. part 1. p. 125,128. places it in the year 538; and Mr. BedfordF3Scripture Chronology, p. 711. in the year 536.

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Bibliographical Information
Gill, John. "Commentary on Daniel 9:1". "The New John Gill Exposition of the Entire Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/geb/daniel-9.html. 1999.

Geneva Study Bible

In the first year of Darius the son of a Ahasuerus, of the seed of the Medes, which was made king over the b realm of the Chaldeans;

(a) Who was also called Astyages.

(b) For Cyrus led with ambition, and went about wars in other countries, and therefore Darius had the title of the kingdom, even though Cyrus was king in effect.

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Beza, Theodore. "Commentary on Daniel 9:1". "The 1599 Geneva Study Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/gsb/daniel-9.html. 1599-1645.

Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible

Daniel 9:1-27. Daniel‘s confession and prayer for Jerusalem: Gabriel comforts him by the prophecy of the seventy weeks.

The world powers here recede from view; Israel, and the salvation by Messiah promised to it, are the subject of revelation. Israel had naturally expected salvation at the end of the captivity. Daniel is therefore told, that, after the seventy years of the captivity, seventy times seven must elapse, and that even then Messiah would not come in glory as the Jews might through misunderstanding expect from the earlier prophets, but by dying would put away sin. This ninth chapter (Messianic prophecy) stands between the two visions of the Old Testament Antichrist, to comfort “the wise.” In the interval between Antiochus and Christ, no further revelation was needed; therefore, as in the first part of the book, so in the second, Christ and Antichrist in connection are the theme.

first year of Darius — Cyaxares II, in whose name Cyrus, his nephew, son-in-law, and successor, took Babylon, 538 b.c. The date of this chapter is therefore 537 b.c., a year before Cyrus permitted the Jews to return from exile, and sixty-nine years after Daniel had been carried captive at the beginning of the captivity, 606 b.c.

son of Ahasuerus — called Astyages by Xenophon. Ahasuerus was a name common to many of the kings of Medo-Persia.

made king — The phrase implies that Darius owed the kingdom not to his own prowess, but to that of another, namely, Cyrus.

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Jamieson, Robert, D.D.; Fausset, A. R.; Brown, David. "Commentary on Daniel 9:1". "Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/jfb/daniel-9.html. 1871-8.

Wesley's Explanatory Notes

In the first year of Darius the son of Ahasuerus, of the seed of the Medes, which was made king over the realm of the Chaldeans;

In the first year of Darius — That is, immediately after the overthrow of the kingdom of Babylon, which was the year of the Jews deliverance from captivity.

Of the Medes — This Darius was not Darius the Persian, under whom the temple was built, as some have asserted, to invalidate the credibility of this book; but Darius the Mede, who lived in the time of Daniel.

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Wesley, John. "Commentary on Daniel 9:1". "John Wesley's Explanatory Notes on the Whole Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/wen/daniel-9.html. 1765.

Hawker's Poor Man's Commentary

CONTENTS

We have here as interesting a Chapter as in the whole book of prophecy, and which wholly treats of the Lord Jesus Christ. Daniel is taught of God, by books, to count the number of the years determined to the Babylonish captivity. He is deeply engaged in fasting and prayer, when he is favoured with a vision. The exact period to Jerusalem's bondage is marked out to him.

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Hawker, Robert, D.D. "Commentary on Daniel 9:1". "Hawker's Poor Man's Commentary". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/pmc/daniel-9.html. 1828.

John Trapp Complete Commentary

Daniel 9:1 In the first year of Darius the son of Ahasuerus, of the seed of the Medes, which was made king over the realm of the Chaldeans;

Ver. 1. In the first year of Darius,] i.e., Of Darius Priseus, who, together with Cyrus the Persian, took Babylon, and with it the kingdom or monarchy of the Chaldeans, [Daniel 5:31] by the consent of Cyrus, who married his daughter, and had the kingdom of Media with her for a dowry, after Darius’ death, as Xenophon (a) testifieth.

The son of Ahasuerus.] Called Cyaxares by the Greek historians. Both these names signify a great prince, an emperor; like as now we say the Great Turk, the Great Cham of Cacaia, &c.

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Trapp, John. "Commentary on Daniel 9:1". John Trapp Complete Commentary. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/jtc/daniel-9.html. 1865-1868.

Thomas Coke Commentary on the Holy Bible

Daniel 9:1. In the first year of Darius This is the same Darius the Median spoken of before, chap. Daniel 5:31 and who succeeded Belshazzar king of the Chaldeans.

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Coke, Thomas. "Commentary on Daniel 9:1". Thomas Coke Commentary on the Holy Bible. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/tcc/daniel-9.html. 1801-1803.

Matthew Poole's English Annotations on the Holy Bible

DANIEL CHAPTER 9

Daniel, considering the time of the captivity, Daniel 9:1,2, maketh confession of his people’s sins, Daniel 9:3-15, and prayeth for the restoration of Jerusalem, Daniel 9:16-19. Gabriel informeth him of the seventy weeks, and of the time and death of the Messiah, and of the succeeding troubles, Daniel 9:20-27.

In the first year of Darius; that is, immediately after the overthrow of the kingdom of Babylon, which was also the year of the Jews’ deliverance from their seventy years’ captivity; therefore punctually here set down. The Lord hath carefully recorded the several periods of time that relate to his church, and the signal providences both of mercy or judgment exercised towards it; for hereby God is glorified in the signal displaying of his attributes, and the saints’ graces exercised, especially faith and patience, by calling to mind what God hath done in time past, Psalms 77:5-7. This Darius was not Darius the Persian, under whom the temple was built, as Porphyrius would have it, that thereby he might persuade unlearned men that Daniel lived long after the time that he did live in. Therefore this is called Darius the Mede, and by the Greeks called Cyaxares.

Which was made king over the realm of the Chaldeans; and this is confirmed by Xenophon.

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Poole, Matthew, "Commentary on Daniel 9:1". Matthew Poole's English Annotations on the Holy Bible. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/mpc/daniel-9.html. 1685.

Whedon's Commentary on the Bible

1.For “Darius the Mede” see our Introduction, III, 3, (5), and note Daniel 5:31. If this king really was Gubaru, appointed vicegerent by Cyrus when he captured Babylon, then this prophecy of the “seventy year-weeks” is represented as being given in the very year when the Jews received permission to return and rebuild their temple; that is, at the end of their “seventy weeks” of captivity in Babylon.

Son of Ahashuerus — This may possibly have been a marginal note, though the versions do not indicate it.

If the reference here is to the Book of Esther’s famous Ahasuerus (Xerxes) it is a bad mistake; for he was the son of Darius Hystaspes, not the father of Darius the Mede. But a famous man is usually preceded by less famous men bearing the same name. In official documents of the fifth century B.C. and later the name Ahasuerus (Khsyrs, mighty) occurs in many forms. The Hebrew ear was not keen nor the tongue glib, so that no objection can be properly raised here because of the Hebrew spelling of this name. In the very first year of the reign of the celebrated Xerxes (485 B.C.) his name was spelled in official records, Akhsu-varsi, Akki-sarsu, Akhsi-varsa, Aksi-yarsu; the form fixing itself later as Akhsi-yarsu (Oppert, Revue des Etudes Juives, 1894).

 

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Whedon, Daniel. "Commentary on Daniel 9:1". "Whedon's Commentary on the Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/whe/daniel-9.html. 1874-1909.

Peter Pett's Commentary on the Bible

‘In the first year of Darius, the son of Ahasuerus, of the seed of the Medes, who was made king over the realm of the Chaldeans, in the first year of his reign, I, Daniel, understood by the books the number of years about which the word of YHWH came to Jeremiah the prophet for the bringing to conclusion of the desolations of Jerusalem, even seventy years.’

For Darius the Mede see chapter 6 opening. Here he is called the son of Ahasuerus (Persian khshayarsha). This was a name applied to royalty (the Greek equivalent is Xerxes) in the Medo-Persian empire and there is no reason why someone with such a name should not be father to Darius the Mede. And he is said to be ‘of the seed of the Medes’. This stresses that ‘the Mede’ refers to his birth and not to the empire over which he was king.

‘Was made king over the realm of the Chaldeans.’ ‘Was made.’ He was acting as an under-king to the ruler of the whole empire. We only hear of the first year of his reign and it may well be that he died, or was replaced, shortly after, for within two years Daniel begins to date in terms of Cyrus (Daniel 10:1), whose son took over the governorship of Babylon. As Darius was 62 years old when he was ‘made king’ (Daniel 5:31) he would not rule for long, and he was probably appointed as having a recognised ability for the organisation of administrators (Daniel 6:2). Nothing is known of him historically, but in view of his short tenure this is not necessarily surprising. He has been variously identified with Cyrus himself, and with Cyrus’ general Gobryas, but his age at accession makes these identifications unlikely. There is no good to reason to deny his historicity, or for not accepting his identity at face value.

‘Understood by the books.’ Daniel clearly had a number of ‘books’ which included at least a part of the prophet Jeremiah (see Jeremiah 36:2-3; Jeremiah 36:28). It is very possible that he had other parts of the Old Testament as well, especially Deuteronomy. These told him that Jerusalem’s period of barrenness and emptiness was to be seventy years, after which His people would return to the city (Jeremiah 25:11-14; Jeremiah 29:10-11; compare 2 Chronicles 36:21). The prayer that follows is clearly based on Scripture and confirms that Daniel was heavily influenced by Jeremiah and Deuteronomy, even to the use of the divine name YHWH, which is found nowhere else in Daniel.

‘Seventy years’ would be considered a round number indicating the divine perfection of the period involved and a fairly long period, thinking in terms of a lifetime (Psalms 90:10). Daniel at this stage had been in Babylon since 605 BC (sixty six years) and was thus probably around eighty. He would therefore have felt that God’s time was surely near.

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Pett, Peter. "Commentary on Daniel 9:1". "Peter Pett's Commentary on the Bible ". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/pet/daniel-9.html. 2013.

Expository Notes of Dr. Thomas Constable

What Daniel did and saw in this chapter dates from538 B.C, the first year of Darius the Mede"s (Cyrus") rule as king over the former Neo-Babylonian Empire (cf. Ezra 1:1). [Note: See my comments on5:31,6:1 for explanation of the identity of Darius the Mede.] This means that Belshazzar"s feast (ch5) occurred between chapters8,9. We cannot date Daniel"s experience in the lions" den (ch6) as accurately. That may have happened before or after the events recorded here.

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Constable, Thomas. DD. "Commentary on Daniel 9:1". "Expository Notes of Dr. Thomas Constable". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/dcc/daniel-9.html. 2012.

George Haydock's Catholic Bible Commentary

Darius, the Mede. (Chap. v. 31.) If his reign had commenced at the same time with that of Cyrus, at Babylon, as it is commonly supposed, Daniel would have been under no anxiety respecting the people's liberation, as it took place that year, (Calmet) though perhaps not at the commencement. (Haydock) --- Cyrus had now ruled over the Persians above two years, so that the first of Darius at Babylon agrees with the third of his reign over his countrymen. (Chap. x.) (Calmet) --- Assuerus, or Achasuerus, is not a proper name, but means "a great prince." (Worthington)

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Haydock, George Leo. "Commentary on Daniel 9:1". "George Haydock's Catholic Bible Commentary". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/hcc/daniel-9.html. 1859.

E.W. Bullinger's Companion Bible Notes

the first year: 426 B. C, Daniel being then eighty-seven. See App-50.

Darius. This is an appellative, and means the Maintainer or Restrainer: i.e. Cyrus. See App-57; and special note on 2 Chronicles 36:21.

Ahasuerus, an appellative = the venerable king Astyages. See App-57.

made king: i.e. Cyrus was appointed king of Babylon by Astyages his father.

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Bullinger, Ethelbert William. "Commentary on Daniel 9:1". "E.W. Bullinger's Companion bible Notes". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/bul/daniel-9.html. 1909-1922.

Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible - Unabridged

In the first year of Darius the son of Ahasuerus, of the seed of the Medes, which was made king over the realm of the Chaldeans;

The world-powers here recede from the view; Israel, and the salvation by Messiah promised to it, are the subject of revelation. Israel, had naturally expected salvation at the end of the captivity. Daniel is therefore told that, after the 70 years of the captivity, 70 times seven must elapse, and that even then Messiah would not come in glory, as the Jews might through misunderstanding expect from the earlier prophets, but by dying would put away sin. This ninth chapter, consisting of Messianic-prophecy, stands between the two visions of the Old Testament Antichrist, to comfort 'the wise.' In the interval between Antiochus and Christ no further revelation was needed; therefore, as in the first part of the book so in the second, Christ and Antichrist in connection are the theme.

In the first year of Darius - Cyaxares II, in whose name Cyrus, his nephew, son-in-law, and successor, took Babylon, 538 BC The date of this chapter is therefore 537 BC, a year before Cyrus permitted the Jews to return from exile, and 69 years after Daniel had been carried captive at the beginning of the captivity 606 BC

Son of Ahasuerus - called Astyages by Xenophon. Ahasuerus was a name common to many of the kings of Mode-Persia.

Made king over the realm of the Chaldeans. The phrase implies that Darius owed the kingdom, not to his own prowess, but to that of another, namely, Cyrus.

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Jamieson, Robert, D.D.; Fausset, A. R.; Brown, David. "Commentary on Daniel 9:1". "Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible - Unabridged". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/jfu/daniel-9.html. 1871-8.

Ellicott's Commentary for English Readers

IX.

(1) On Darius the Mede see Excursus D.

Was made king.—The phrase corresponds with “took the kingdom” (Daniel 5:31), and shows that Darius was not king by his own right, but that he received his authority from another—i.e., Cyrus.

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Ellicott, Charles John. "Commentary on Daniel 9:1". "Ellicott's Commentary for English Readers". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/ebc/daniel-9.html. 1905.

Treasury of Scripture Knowledge

In the first year of Darius the son of Ahasuerus, of the seed of the Medes, which was made king over the realm of the Chaldeans;
A. M. 3466. B.C. 538. Darius
1:21; 5:31; 6:1,28; 11:1
Ahasuerus
This was the Astyages of the heathen historians; as we learn from Tobit 14:15, where the taking of Nineveh is ascribed to Nebuchadnezzar and Assuerus, who were the same with Nabopolassar and Astyages.
which
or, in which he, etc.
Reciprocal: Esther 1:1 - Ahasuerus;  Jeremiah 51:28 - the kings;  Daniel 5:28 - Thy

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Torrey, R. A. "Commentary on Daniel 9:1". "The Treasury of Scripture Knowledge". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/tsk/daniel-9.html.

Calvin's Commentary on the Bible

In this chapter Daniel will explain to us two things. First, how very ardently he was accustomed to pray when the time of redemption, specified by Jeremiah, drew nigh; and next, he will relate the answer he received from God to his earnest entreaties. These are the two divisions of this chapter. First, Daniel informs us how he prayed when he understood from books the number of the years Whence we gather, that God does not here promise his children earthly blessings, but eternal life, and while they grow torpid and ease aside all care and spiritual concern, he urges them the more earnestly to prayer. For what benefit do God’s promises confer on us, unless we embrace them by faith? But prayer is the chief exercise of faith. This observation of Daniel’s is worthy of notice. He was stimulated to prayer because he knew from books the number of the years But I will defer the rest till to-morrow.

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Calvin, John. "Commentary on Daniel 9:1". "Calvin's Commentary on the Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/cal/daniel-9.html. 1840-57.