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Verse-by-Verse Bible Commentary

Hebrews 1:9

"YOU HAVE LOVED RIGHTEOUSNESS AND HATED LAWLESSNESS; THEREFORE GOD, YOUR GOD, HAS ANOINTED YOU WITH THE OIL OF GLADNESS ABOVE YOUR COMPANIONS."

Adam Clarke Commentary

Thou hast loved righteousness - This is the characteristic of a just governor: he abhors and suppresses iniquity; he countenances and supports righteousness and truth.

Therefore God, even thy God - The original, δια τουτο εχρισε σε ὁ Θεος, ὁ Θεος σου, may be thus translated: Therefore, O God, thy God hath anointed thee. The form of speech is nearly the same with that in the preceding verse; but the sense is sufficiently clear if we read, Therefore God, thy God, hath anointed thee, etc.

With the oil of gladness - We have often had occasion to remark that, anciently, kings, priests, and prophets were consecrated to their several offices by anointing; and that this signified the gifts and influences of the Divine Spirit. Christ, ὁ Χριστος, signifies The Anointed One, the same as the Hebrew Messias ; and he is here said to be anointed with the oil of gladness above his fellows. None was ever constituted prophet, priest, and king, but himself; some were kings only, prophets only, and priests only; others were kings and priests, or priests and prophets, or kings and prophets; but none had ever the three offices in his own person but Jesus Christ, and none but himself can be a King over the universe, a Prophet to all intelligent beings, and a Priest to the whole human race. Thus he is infinitely exalted beyond his fellows - all that had ever borne the regal, prophetic, or sacerdotal offices.

Some think that the word μετοχους, fellows, refers to believers who are made partakers of the same Spirit, but cannot have its infinite plenitude. The first sense seems the best. Gladness is used to express the festivities which took place on the inauguration of kings, etc.


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Bibliography
Clarke, Adam. "Commentary on Hebrews 1:9". "The Adam Clarke Commentary". https:https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/acc/hebrews-1.html. 1832.

Albert Barnes' Notes on the Whole Bible

Thou hast loved righteousness - Thou hast been obedient to the Law of God, or holy and upright. Nothing can be more truly adapted to express the character of anyone than this is to describe the Lord Jesus, who was “holy, harmless, undefiled,” who “did no sin, and in whose mouth no guile was found;” but it is with difficulty that this can be applied to Solomon. Assuredly, for a considerable part of his life, this declaration could not well be appropriate to him; and it seems to me that it is not to be regarded as descriptive of him at all. It is language prompted by the warm and pious imagination of the Psalmist describing the future Messiah - and, as applied to him, is true to the letter. “Therefore God, even thy God.” The word “even” inserted here by the translators, weakens the force of the expression. This might be translated, “O God, thy God hath anointed thee.” So it is rendered by Doddridge, Clarke, Stuart, and others.

The Greek will bear this construction, as well the Hebrew in Psalm 45:7. In the margin in the Psalm it is rendered “O God.” This is the most natural construction, as it accords with what is just said before. “Thy throne, O God, is forever. Thou art just and holy, therefore, O God, thy God hath anointed thee,” etc. It is not material, however, which construction is adopted. “Hath anointed thee.” Anciently kings and priests were consecrated to their office by pouring oil on their heads; see Leviticus 8:12; Numbers 3:3; 1 Samuel 10:1; 2 Samuel 2:7; Psalm 2:2; Isaiah 61:1; Acts 4:27; Acts 10:38; Note, Matthew 1:1. The expression “to anoint,” therefore, comes to mean to consecrate to office, or to set apart to some public work. This is evidently the meaning in the Psalm, where the whole language refers to the appointment of the personage there referred to to the kingly office. “The oil of gladness.” This probably means the perfumed oil that was poured on the head, attended with many expressions of joy and rejoicing. The inauguration of the Messiah as king would be an occasion of rejoicing and triumph. Thousands would exult at it as in the coronation of a king; and thousands would be made glad by such a consecration to the office of Messiah. “Above thy fellows.” Above thine associates; that is, above all who sustain the kingly office. He would be more exalted than all other kings. Doddridge supposes that it refers to angels, who might have been associated with the Messiah in the government of the world. But the more natural construction is to suppose that it refers to kings, and to mean that he was the most exalted of all.


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Bibliography
Barnes, Albert. "Commentary on Hebrews 1:9". "Barnes' Notes on the Whole Bible". https:https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/bnb/hebrews-1.html. 1870.

Coffman's Commentaries on the Bible

Thou hast loved righteousness and hated iniquity; Therefore God, thy God, hath anointed thee with the oil of gladness above thy fellows.

This is a continuation of the quotation from Psalms 45:6,7; and it cites the reasons for Christ's exaltation as being founded upon his love of righteousness and corresponding hatred of evil. Can one imagine an application of this Psalm to Solomon? (See under above verse.) The anointing seems not to refer to any formal or official ceremony of appointment for Christ but rather to the happiness and joy which flowed unto him because of his successful encounter and resulting triumph over sin, death, and the devil. In one sense, Christ was anointed at his baptism; but this appears rather as a reference to that overflowing of joy of Jesus, mentioned again in Hebrews 12:3.


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James Burton Coffman Commentaries reproduced by permission of Abilene Christian University Press, Abilene, Texas, USA. All other rights reserved.

Bibliography
Coffman, James Burton. "Commentary on Hebrews 1:9". "Coffman Commentaries on the Old and New Testament". https:https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/bcc/hebrews-1.html. Abilene Christian University Press, Abilene, Texas, USA. 1983-1999.

John Gill's Exposition of the Whole Bible

Thou hast loved righteousness, and hated iniquity,.... Christ loves righteous persons and righteous works, faithfulness and integrity, and a just administration of government, everything that is holy, just, and good; which has appeared in the whole course of his life on earth, in working out a righteousness for his people, and in encouraging righteousness in them, which he leads them in the way of; and his love of justice will still more appear at the last day, when he will judge the world in righteousness, and give the crown of righteousness to proper persons: and he hates iniquity; or "unrighteousness", as the Alexandrian copy and another read; as being contrary to his nature, both as God and man, and to the righteous law of God; which has appeared by his inveighing against it, and dehorting from it; by his severity exercised towards delinquents; by his suffering for it, and abolishing of it; and by chastising his own people on account of it; and his abhorrence of it will still more appear at the day of judgment, when all workers of iniquity, professors and profane, will be bid to depart from him:

therefore God, even thy God, hath anointed thee with the oil of gladness above thy fellows: the anointer is the God of Christ; that is, God the Father, who is the God of Christ, as man; and is so called, because he prepared and formed the human nature of Christ, and supported it under all its sufferings, and has glorified it; and as such Christ prayed unto him, believed in him, loved him, and obeyed him: the anointed is the Son of God, the Son spoken to, and is called God in the preceding verse; though he is not anointed as God, but as Mediator, to be prophet, and priest, and King: what he is anointed with is not material oil, but spiritual, the Holy Ghost, as it is explained in Acts 10:38  called the oil of gladness, in allusion to the use of oil at feasts and weddings, for the delight and refreshment of the guests; and because of the spiritual effects of joy and gladness, both on Christ, as man, and on his people. Now Christ was anointed as Mediator from all eternity; that is, he was invested with his office as such; and at his conception and birth he was filled with the Holy Ghost; who also descended on him at his baptism, after which he went about doing good, and healing diseases; but here it seems to refer to the time of his ascension, when he was declared to be Lord and Christ, the anointed one; and received gifts for men, the fulness of the Spirit without measure, and with which he was anointed above his "fellows"; by whom are meant, not the angels, nor the kings and princes of the earth; but the saints, who are so called, because they are of the same nature, and are of the same family, and are partakers of the same spirit, and grace; and having received the unction from him, are also kings, priests, and prophets, and will be companions with him to all eternity. Now the reason of his being anointed, or exalted, and made Lord and Christ, is, because he loves righteousness; see Philippians 2:7  or rather, because he is anointed with the Holy Spirit without measure, therefore he loves righteousness; for the words may be rendered, "thou lovest righteousness--because God, thy God, hath anointed thee".


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The New John Gill's Exposition of the Entire Bible Modernised and adapted for the computer by Larry Pierce of Online Bible. All Rightes Reserved, Larry Pierce, Winterbourne, Ontario.
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Bibliography
Gill, John. "Commentary on Hebrews 1:9". "The New John Gill Exposition of the Entire Bible". https:https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/geb/hebrews-1.html. 1999.

Geneva Study Bible

Thou hast loved righteousness, and hated r iniquity; therefore God, [even] thy God, hath s anointed thee with the oil of gladness above thy t fellows.

(r) This type of speech in which the Jews use contrasting phrases, has great force in it.

(s) In that, that the word became flesh, by sending the Holy Spirit on him without measure.

(t) For he is the head and we are his members.


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Bibliography
Beza, Theodore. "Commentary on Hebrews 1:9". "The 1599 Geneva Study Bible". https:https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/gsb/hebrews-1.html. 1599-1645.

Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible

iniquity — “unrighteousness.” Some oldest manuscripts read, “lawlessness.”

therefore — because God loves righteousness and hates iniquity.

God … thy God — Jerome, Augustine, and others translate Psalm 45:7, “O God, Thy God, hath anointed thee,” whereby Christ is addressed as God. This is probably the true translation of the Hebrew there, and also of the Greek of Hebrews here; for it is likely the Son is addressed, “O God,” as in Hebrews 1:8. The anointing here meant is not that at His baptism, when He solemnly entered on His ministry for us; but that with the “oil of gladness,” or “exulting joy” (which denotes a triumph, and follows as the consequence of His manifested love of righteousness and hatred of iniquity), wherewith, after His triumphant completion of His work, He has been anointed by the Father above His fellows (not only above us, His fellow men, the adopted members of God‘s family, whom “He is not ashamed to call His brethren,” but above the angels, fellow partakers in part with Him, though infinitely His inferiors, in the glories, holiness, and joys of heaven; “sons of God,” and angel “messengers,” though subordinate to the divine Angel - “Messenger of the covenant”). Thus He is antitype to Solomon, “chosen of all David‘s many sons to sit upon the throne of the kingdom of the Lord over Israel,” even as His father David was chosen before all the house of his father‘s sons. The image is drawn from the custom of anointing guests at feasts (Psalm 23:5); or rather of anointing kings: not until His ascension did He assume the kingdom as Son of man. A fuller accomplishment is yet to be, when He shall be VISIBLY the anointed King over the whole earth (set by the Father) on His holy hill of Zion, Psalm 2:6, Psalm 2:8. So David, His type, was first anointed at Bethlehem (1 Samuel 16:13; Psalm 89:20); and yet again at Hebron, first over Judah (2 Samuel 2:4), then over all Israel (2 Samuel 5:3); not till the death of Saul did he enter on his actual kingdom; as it was not till after Christ‘s death that the Father set Him at His right hand far above all principalities (Ephesians 1:20, Ephesians 1:21). Psalm 45:1-17 in its first meaning was addressed to Solomon; but the Holy Spirit inspired the writer to use language which in its fullness can only apply to the antitypical Solomon, the true Royal Head of the theocracy.


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These files are a derivative of an electronic edition prepared from text scanned by Woodside Bible Fellowship.
This expanded edition of the Jameison-Faussett-Brown Commentary is in the public domain and may be freely used and distributed.

Bibliography
Jamieson, Robert, D.D.; Fausset, A. R.; Brown, David. "Commentary on Hebrews 1:9". "Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible". https:https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/jfb/hebrews-1.html. 1871-8.

William Godbey's Commentary on the New Testament

9. Here we learn that God “hath anointed” the glorified humanity of Christ with a richer enduement of spiritual rhapsody than any of his comrades in the redeemed world. This would follow somewhat as a legitimate, logical sequence from the fact that the Man Christ is the only unfallen human being in all the universe. If Adam had not yielded to the physical temptation, Satan would have proceeded to the intellectual and the spiritual. But in the case of Adam the first, the devil saved two-thirds of his ammunition, and won his game. In the case of Adam the Second, he expended all of his ammunition, and finally lost his enterprise. As here we find the humanity of Christ endued by the Holy Ghost with a degree of bliss and rhapsody beyond that of all His comrades, therefore we conclude that our capacity for spiritual joy and rapture is in proportion to our purity. Of course, the cleansing blood and consuming fire are abundantly competent to make us all perfectly clean and pure. Still doubtless, all the sins we have ever committed impede and detract from our spiritual capacity for the reception of the joys, rhapsodies and glories imparted by the Holy Ghost. Hence, the person who has never been blackened by vulgar vices and low debaucheries is susceptible of a richer enduement of heavenly bliss and glory in this world and the world to come than the soul who has wallowed in the slime of Satan’s filth. While all the inhabitants of heaven are perfectly happy, since there is no sorrow in that bright world, all are not equally happy, but there are infinite degiees in the kingdom of glory, as well as in probationary grace.


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Bibliography
Godbey, William. "Commentary on Hebrews 1:9". "William Godbey's Commentary on the New Testament". https:https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/ges/hebrews-1.html.

Robertson's Word Pictures in the New Testament

Hath anointed thee (εχρισεν σεechrisen se). First aorist active indicative of χριωchriō to anoint, from which verb the verbal ΧριστοςChristos (Anointed One) comes. See Christ‘s use of εχρισενechrisen in Luke 4:18 from Isaiah 66:1.

With the oil of gladness (ελαιον αγαλλιασεωςelaion agalliaseōs). Accusative case with εχρισενechrisen (second accusative besides σεse). Perhaps the festive anointing on occasions of joy (Hebrews 12:2). See Luke 1:44.

Fellows
(μετοχουςmetochous). Old word from μετεχωmetechō partners, sharers, in N.T. only in Hebrews save Luke 5:7. Note παραpara with accusative here, beside, beyond, above (by comparison, extending beyond).


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The Robertson's Word Pictures of the New Testament. Copyright Broadman Press 1932,33, Renewal 1960. All rights reserved. Used by permission of Broadman Press (Southern Baptist Sunday School Board)

Bibliography
Robertson, A.T. "Commentary on Hebrews 1:9". "Robertson's Word Pictures of the New Testament". https:https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/rwp/hebrews-1.html. Broadman Press 1932,33. Renewal 1960.

Vincent's Word Studies

Iniquity ( ἀνομίαν )

Lit. lawlessness.

Hath anointed ( ἔχρισεν )

See on Christ, Matthew 1:1. The ideas of the royal and the festive unction are combined. The thought includes the royal anointing and the fullness of blessing and festivity which attend the enthronement.

Oil of gladness ( ἔλαιον ἀγαλλιάσεως )

The phrase N.T.oolxx. Ἀγαλλίασις exultantjoy. Comp. Luke 1:44; Acts 2:46, and the verb ἀγαλλιᾶσθαι , Matthew 5:12; Luke 10:21, etc. The noun only here in Hebrews, and the verb does not occur.

Fellows ( μετόχους )

With exception of Luke 5:7, only in Hebrews. Lit. partakers. In the Psalm it is applied to other kings: here to angels.


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Bibliography
Vincent, Marvin R. DD. "Commentary on Hebrews 1:9". "Vincent's Word Studies in the New Testament". https:https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/vnt/hebrews-1.html. Charles Schribner's Sons. New York, USA. 1887.

Wesley's Explanatory Notes

Thou hast loved righteousness, and hated iniquity; therefore God, even thy God, hath anointed thee with the oil of gladness above thy fellows.

Thou hast loved righteousness and hated iniquity — Thou art infinitely pure and holy.

Therefore God — Who, as thou art Mediator, is thy God. Hath anointed thee with the oil of gladness - With the Holy Ghost, the fountain of joy.

Above thy fellows — Above all the children of men.


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Bibliography
Wesley, John. "Commentary on Hebrews 1:9". "John Wesley's Explanatory Notes on the Whole Bible". https:https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/wen/hebrews-1.html. 1765.

Calvin's Commentary on the Bible

9.Wherefore God has appointed him, etc. This was indeed truly said of Solomon, who was made a king, because God had preferred him to his brethren, who were otherwise his equals, being the sons of the king. But this applies more suitably to Christ, who has adopted us as his joint heirs, though not so in our own right. But he was anointed above us all, as it was beyond measure, while we, each of us, according to a limited portion, as he has divided to each of us. Besides, he was anointed for our sake, in order that we may all draw out of his fatness. Hence he is the Christ, we are Christians proceeding from him, as rivulet from a fountain. But as Christ received this unction when in the flesh, he is said to have been anointed by his God; for it would be inconsistent to suppose him inferior to God, except in his human nature. (25)

The words, “above thy fellows,” are rendered by Calvin, “above thy partners,” and by Doddridge and Macknight, “above thine associates.” Christ is spoken of as king, and his associates are those in the same office; but he is so much above them that he is the “king of kings;” and yet his superior excellencies are here represented as entitling him to higher honors. — Ed.


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Calvin, John. "Commentary on Hebrews 1:9". "Calvin's Commentary on the Bible". https:https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/cal/hebrews-1.html. 1840-57.

Scofield's Reference Notes

righteousness (See Scofield "1 John 3:7").

iniquity lawlessness. (See Scofield "Romans 3:23").


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These files are considered public domain and are a derivative of an electronic edition that is available in the Online Bible Software Library.

Bibliography
Scofield, C. I. "Scofield Reference Notes on Hebrews 1:9". "Scofield Reference Notes (1917 Edition)". https:https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/srn/hebrews-1.html. 1917.

John Trapp Complete Commentary

9 Thou hast loved righteousness, and hated iniquity; therefore God, even thy God, hath anointed thee with the oil of gladness above thy fellows.

Ver. 9. Hath anointed thee] This imports two things: 1. Ordination to his office, and so the Godhead also of Christ was anointed. 2. Qualification for it, and so the manhood only. And as the holy oil was compounded of various spices, so was Christ filled with all gifts and graces, Acts 10:38; but especially with wisdom as a Prophet, holiness as a Priest, and power as a King.

Above thy fellows] i. e. Above all kings and potentates, Psalms 89:28. Or above all Christians, who partake of thine anointing, John 1:20, and are made kings and priests, Revelation 5:10. It may also be rendered pro consortibus tuis, for thy fellows, as importing a fulness in Christ for us, John 1:16.


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Bibliography
Trapp, John. "Commentary on Hebrews 1:9". John Trapp Complete Commentary. https:https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/jtc/hebrews-1.html. 1865-1868.

Thomas Coke Commentary on the Holy Bible

Hebrews 1:9. Thou hast loved righteousness, &c.— This refers to that unparalleled instance of the love of moral rectitude, which Christ has given in becoming a sacrifice for sin; by his atonement doing infinitely more, than has ever been done by any other intelligent and rational agent, towards displaying his love of righteousness, and his hatred of iniquity. See Philippians 2:8-9. Instead of fellows, some read associates. The correspondent Hebrew word to the word ΄ετοχοι, says Parkhurst, signifies associates; by whom are meant, "all men who believe on Christ." The word properly expresses "those who partake together;" brethren,—joint-heirs. See ch. Hebrews 2:11, &c. Romans 8:17. The force of this quotation lies in proving, that while the angels are but ministering spirits, (Hebrews 1:7; Hebrews 1:14.) the Son is invested with regal power, and sovereign authority. Hath anointed thee with the oil of gladness, &c. means, "Thou art exalted to superior honor and happiness; God the Father stiling thee here, God, and an eternal king, ascribing to thee a throne and kingdom, and a righteous government to reward thy righteous servants whom thou lovest, and to punish thine obdurate enemies whose iniquities render them odious to thee." So that these words again prove, both his Divine nature, and his exaltation to the government of the wor


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Bibliography
Coke, Thomas. "Commentary on Hebrews 1:9". Thomas Coke Commentary on the Holy Bible. https:https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/tcc/hebrews-1.html. 1801-1803.

Heinrich Meyer's Critical and Exegetical Commentary on the New Testament

Hebrews 1:9. ἠγάπησας δικαιοσύνην κ. τ. λ.] Thou lovedst righteousness and hatedst wrong. In the Hebrew the corresponding verbs have a present signification: thou lovest justice and hatest wrong. Our author, however, refers the aorists of the LXX. to the historic life of the Son of God upon earth.

διὰ τοῦτο] therefore, i.e. as a reward for the ἀγαπᾶν δικαιοσύνην καὶ μισεῖν ἀνομίαν. Comp. διό, Philippians 2:9. Erroneously Augustine (in Ps.), Thomas Aquinas, Gerhard, Dorscheus, Brochmann, Schöttgen, and others: for this cause, that thou mightest love righteousness, etc.

ἔχρισέν σε, θεός, θεός σου ἔλαιον κ. τ. λ.] O God, Thy God hath Thee anointed with oil of gladness above Thy companions. Here, too, the author takes θεός as an apostrophe,(39) whereas in the Hebrew אֱלֹהִים is the subject to משָׁחֲךָ, and is taken up again into the discourse, and more nearly defined by אֱלֹהֶיךָ . The anointing with the oil of joy in the psalm is a figurative designation of the blessing and abundance given by God. Our author, however, understands it of the anointing to be king, as a figure of the divine glory with which the Son, after His life upon earth and His exaltation to heaven, has been crowned. Comp. also Acts 4:27; Acts 2:36. The sense of the author is departed from when the Fathers and earlier expositors interpret the expression of the anointing of the Son with the Holy Ghost.

On the double accusative combined with ἔχρισεν (Revelation 3:18), see Winer, Gramm., 7 Aufl. p. 212. As an analogon, comp. also Aristophanes, Acharn. 114: ἵνα ΄ή σε βάψω βά΄΄α σαρδινιακόν.

παρὰ τοὺς ΄ετόχους σου] refers in the original to the contemporary kings, the rulers of other lands. But what our author understood by it in the application is obscure. Kuinoel, Ebrard, Delitzsch, and Moll suppose the author, like the Psalmist, to intend the other kings; Riehm (Lehrbegr. des Hebräerbr. p. 306), all earthly and heavenly princes; Wittich, Braun, Cramer, the kings, high priests, and prophets of the O. T., inasmuch as they were anointed as types of Christ; Klee, all the creatures; Chrysostom, Oecumenius, Theophylact, Bengel, and Bisping, men in general; Theodoret, Calvin, Beza, Cameron, Piscator, Schlichting, Maier, Kurtz, the Christians specially [Owen hesitates between all believers and prophets and apostles]; Bleek, Olshausen, Alford, and Ewald finally, after the precedent of Peirce and others, the angels, “as beings which do not indeed appear as sitting at the right hand of God, but yet as existing in immediate proximity to the divine throne.” The last supposition is the most probable. It is true de Wette regards it as the least conceivable, because the author has “placed the angels in no other position than deeply below Christ,” and Ebrard even thinks the author must have been “beside himself” if he had referred the words to the angels. But (1) it is a question throughout the whole section of a comparison of Christ with the angels; the renewed indication of this point of comparison also in Hebrews 1:9 cannot therefore in itself be found unsuitable. (2) If shortly before (Hebrews 1:7) the angels are placed deeply below Christ, so it will be admitted their inferiority is likewise expressly intimated by means of παρά in our passage. (3) The angels were, in the conception of the author, the next in rank after Christ; for they are exalted above men. To whom, therefore, could the author more fittingly apply the designation μέτοχοι than precisely to them? The objection of Delitzsch, finally, that after all angels are not anointed ones, would be of weight only if the author were obliged of necessity to think of the μέτοχοι too as anointed; he finds, on the contrary, in the anointing only of the Son, a fact expressed, from which the exaltedness of the same above His companions, i.e. of those who of all others stand nearest to Him in dignity, is necessarily deduced. For παρά is used here not in the sense of the quantity arising from the notion of comparison, but denotes the part accruing to one to the exclusion of others.


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Bibliography
Meyer, Heinrich. "Commentary on Hebrews 1:9". Heinrich Meyer's Critical and Exegetical Commentary on the New Testament. https:https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/hmc/hebrews-1.html. 1832.

Johann Albrecht Bengel's Gnomon of the New Testament

Hebrews 1:9. διὰ τοῦτο, therefore) From the love of righteousness, in which Christ excels, there is deduced here not so much His anointing, as the duration of the office for which He was anointed. This discourse has four parts: the throne—the sceptre—thou lovest—therefore. Of these the first and fourth, the second and third, are parallel by Chiasmus; for the former describe the supreme happiness of the King; the latter, His virtue.— θεός, θεός σου) It may be resolved thus: God, who is thy God. Comp. Psalms 43:4; Psalms 67:7 : but the Son Himself is called GOD, as in the preceding verse.— ἔλαιον ἀγαλλιάσεως) the oil of gladness, and everlasting joy, is the Holy Spirit.— παρὰ τοὺς μετόχους σου, above [as compared with] thy fellows) These fellows may seem to some the angels; for even the angels have the name of gods, sons of God, morning stars, although in a far lower signification; and the name of Angel is wont to be given to the Son of GOD, although with a more majestic meaning. And indeed the Son of God has the angels as His companions, Genesis 18:2; Job 33:23; Psalms 68:18; 1 Timothy 3:16; Matthew 25:31 : and it might have seemed proper that He should rather assume [take to Himself as associates] angels than the seed of Abraham, if a different economy [dispensation] had not demanded something different, ch. Hebrews 2:16; and that very humiliation, of which Ibid., Hebrews 1:7, takes for granted intercourse with them. In short, the 45th Psalm itself addresses Christ as God in this very verse, and a little before as גבור, brave, strong, Hebrews 1:4 ; a term applied to the angels, Psalms 103:20. Therefore the angels may appear to be called the fellows of Christ, especially since Paul refers all the sayings here quoted to the superiority of Christ above the angels. Nevertheless the peculiar relationship of Christ to men leads us to conclude, that men are here meant by “His fellows,” ch. Hebrews 2:11, etc. For the Bridegroom has His companions, as the Bride has hers, Psalms 45:14 : and there is the same comparison, ibid. Hebrews 1:2, Thou art fairer than the sons of MEN.


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Bibliography
Bengel, Johann Albrecht. "Commentary on Hebrews 1:9". Johann Albrecht Bengel's Gnomon of the New Testament. https:https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/jab/hebrews-1.html. 1897.

Matthew Poole's English Annotations on the Holy Bible

Thou hast loved righteousness, and hated iniquity: the administration of this King in his kingdom is suitable to his throne and sceptre, it is all goodness; for he so loved righteousness, and hated iniquity, being righteous and holy in himself, in life and death, expiating sin, and sanctifying believers. So that he acts as to both of these properly from himself, perfectly and for ever.

Therefore God: it may be a reason why he so loved righteousness, being anointed, or of his unction, because he loved the one, and hated the other; therefore God the Son is the person to whom the Father speaketh this.

Even thy God; God the Father, his God in respect of the human nature, Luke 1:35; formed by him, Galatians 4:4, as Mediator between God and sinners, John 20:17; the Head of the church, in covenant with God, his great gospel Minister.

Hath anointed thee with the oil of gladness; so his Father anointed him with the Holy Ghost and with power, John 3:34 Acts 10:38; and thereby as endowed, so exalted him above all kings and prophets who were literally anointed, and above all angels, having Divine power and authority supereminent to all communicated to him; enjoying the best and highest joy in all his transactions with the Father for us, and which may perfect joy in us, John 15:11 17:13.

Above thy fellows, the coheirs of his kingdom, beyond whatever God communicated to saints or angels. He had not the Spirit by measure, John 3:34. What others enjoy, it is from his fulness, John 1:16 Luke 4:18-21.


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Bibliography
Poole, Matthew, "Commentary on Hebrews 1:9". Matthew Poole's English Annotations on the Holy Bible. https:https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/mpc/hebrews-1.html. 1685.

Justin Edwards' Family Bible New Testament

Above thy fellows; in power and office; for God has made him "King of kings, and Lord of lords," Revelation 17:14; Revelation 19:16; exalting him not only above all human kings, but above all heavenly principalities and powers. Ephesians 1:21; Philippians 2:9-10; Colossians 1:18.


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Edwards, Justin. "Commentary on Hebrews 1:9". "Family Bible New Testament". https:https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/fam/hebrews-1.html. American Tract Society. 1851.

Cambridge Greek Testament for Schools and Colleges

9. ἡγάπησας, “Thou lovedst”—idealising the whole reign to one point. Comp. Isaiah 32:1, “Behold, a king shall reign in righteousness”; and Jeremiah 23:5, “I will raise unto David a righteous Branch.”

ἀνομίαν, “lawlessness.” Comp. 1 John 3:4, “sin is lawlessness.”

διὰ τοῦτο. Comp. Hebrews 2:9; Hebrews 2:16-17, Hebrews 5:7-8, Hebrews 12:2.

ὁ θεός, ὁ θεός σου. The first word might be a vocative “O God,” and it is so rendered even by the Jewish translator Symmachus. But this is contrary to the usage of the 2nd Book of Psalms. Where the word “God” is taken up and repeated with the suffix, there is no other instance in which the first is a vocative.

ὁ θεός σου. Comp. John 20:17, “I ascend to … my God and your God.”

ἔχρισέν σε. The anointing is fixed ideally by the aorist as a single act dependent on the ἠγάπησας, Winer, p. 346. χρίω here has the double acc. as in Revelation 3:18, κολλούριον ἔγχρισον τοὺς ὀφθαλμούς.

ἀγαλλιάσεως, “of exultation.” The word means the joy of perfect triumph, Hebrews 12:2. For the “anointing” of Christ by the Spirit see Luke 1:35; Matthew 3:16; Acts 10:38; Isaiah 61:1; but the anointing in this verse alludes to His glorification in Heaven.

παρὰ τοὺς μετόχους σου. This use of παρὰ in comparisons is common in the N. T., comp. Luke 13:2 ἁμαρτωλοὶ παρὰ πὰντας, 1 Corinthians 3:11 ἄλλος παρὰ, Winer, p. 504. In the original Psalm this refers to all contemporary princes; in its present application it means “above all the angel-dwellers on Mount Sion” (Hebrews 12:22), and “above all men who have fellowship with God” (Hebrews 3:14) only in Christ (Hebrews 2:11; 1 John 1:3).


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"Commentary on Hebrews 1:9". "Cambridge Greek Testament for Schools and Colleges". https:https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/cgt/hebrews-1.html. 1896.

Whedon's Commentary on the Bible

9. God, even thy God—Some excellent commentators make this also vocative, and read, therefore, O God, thy God hath anointed thee. See Dr. H. So Augustine, as quoted by Alford: “O thou God, thy God hath anointed thee. God is anointed by God.”

Anointed… oil of gladness— Reference is here had to anointing, not to the office of king, but to a triumphal anointing in consequence of merit and victory. The head was customarily anointed at festivals. Deuteronomy 28:40; Psalms 23:5; Psalms 92:10; Matthew 6:17.

Above thy fellows—As the anointing is not to office, so the fellows are not, as some understand, other kings, but the angels. They are not, indeed, ever said to be anointed, but it is in this very fact of the unction being bestowed on him that he is distinguished as above them.


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Whedon, Daniel. "Commentary on Hebrews 1:9". "Whedon's Commentary on the Bible". https:https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/whe/hebrews-1.html. 1874-1909.

Schaff's Popular Commentary on the New Testament

Hebrews 1:9. The dignity of the God-man He owes to His Father. God anointed Him as King and Priest, and gave Him honours such as kings, prophets, priests—His ‘fellows,’ associates that is, not necessarily equals—never knew. He therefore is now the One Priest, the King of kings and Lord of lords (see Ephesians 1:21). This supremacy is a joy to all who trust and obey Him. Nay, the earth itself is called to rejoice because He reigneth. The anointing oil that consecrates Messiah Priest and King is oil of gladness indeed!

Of these quotations, Hebrews 1:8 is taken from Psalms 45, which Jewish commentators maintain to be written of the Messiah; Hebrews 1:9 is taken from a passage that speaks of Solomon, and of Christ as an antitype; and Hebrews 1:10 is taken from a Psalm (Psalms 102:25-27) that seems to speak of Jehovah only; and yet Hebrews 1:13-14 of that Psalm are connected with the Messianic kingdom. Creating power and immortality are here ascribed to the Son, as in Psalms 102:13 universal empire is given to Him. The quotation in Hebrews 1:13 is from Psalms 110, a strictly Messianic Psalm (see Matthew 22:43-44).


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Schaff, Philip. "Commentary on Hebrews 1:9". "Schaff's Popular Commentary on the New Testament". https:https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/scn/hebrews-1.html. 1879-90.

The Expositor's Greek Testament

Hebrews 1:9. ἠγάπησας δικαιοσύνην … “Thou lovedst righteousness and didst hate lawlessness, therefore God, thy God, anointed thee with oil of gladness above thy fellows.” The quotation is verbatim from LXX of Psalms 45:8 [the Alexand. text reads ἀδικίαν in place of ἀνομίαν, so that the author used a text not precisely in agreement with that of Cod: Alex. v. Weiss]. The anointing as King is here said to have been the result [ διὰ τοῦτο] of his manifestation of qualities fitting him to rule as God’s representative, namely, love of right and hatred of iniquity. [ ἀνομία is used in 1 John 3:4, as the synonym and definition of ἁμαρτία. ἁμαρτία ἐστὶν ἀνομία. It is contrasted with δικαιοσύνῃ in 2 Corinthians 6:14, τίς γὰρ μετοχὴ δικαιοσύνῃ καὶ ἀνομίᾳ;] It is the Messiah’s love of righteousness as manifested in His earthly life which entitles Him to sovereignty. θεός is taken as a vocative here, as in Hebrews 1:8, by Lünemann, Weiss and others; and θεός σου as the direct nom. to ἔχρισε. Westcott thinks that the ἔλαιον ἀγαλλ. refers “not to the solemn anointing to royal dignity but to the festive anointing on occasions of rejoicing”. So Alford. Davidson, on the other hand, says: “As Kings were anointed when called to the throne, the phrase means made King”. So, too, Weiss and von Soden. But the psalm is not a coronation ode, but an epithalamium; the epithalamium, indeed, of the ideal King, but still a festive marriage song (Hebrews 1:10-14), to which the festal ἔλαιον ἀγαλ. is appropriate. The oil of exultation is the oil expressive of intense joy (cf. psa 23:15 of the psalm). The only objection to this view is that God is said to be the anointer, but this has its parallel in Psalms 23:5; and throughout Psalms 45. God is considered the originator of the happiness depicted (cf. Psalms 23:2). Whether the marriage rejoicings are here to be applied to the Messiah in terms of Psalms 23:16 and 17 of the psalm is doubtful. The verse is cited probably for the sake of the note of superiority contained in παρὰ τοὺς μετόχους σου. In the psalm the μέτοχοι are hardly other Kings; rather the companions and counsellors of the young King. In the Messianic application they are supposed by Bleek, Pierce, Alford, Davidson, Peake, etc., to be the angels. It seems preferable to keep the term indefinite as indicating generally the supremacy of Christ (cf. Psalms 45:2).—[ παρά “From the sense of (1) beside, parallel to, comes that of (2) in comparison with; and so (3) in advantageous comparison with, more than, beyond”. Vaughan].


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Bibliography
Nicol, W. Robertson, M.A., L.L.D. "Commentary on Hebrews 1:9". The Expositor's Greek Testament. https:https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/egt/hebrews-1.html. 1897-1910.

E.W. Bullinger's Companion Bible Notes

hast loved = lovedst. Greek. agapao. App-135.

righteousness. Greek. dikaiosune. App-191.

hated = hatedst.

iniquity. Greek. anomia. App-128.

therefore = because of (App-104. Hebrews 1:2) this.

hath. Omit.

anointed. Compare Luke 4:18. Acts 4:27; Acts 10:38. 2 Corinthians 1:21.

above. Greek. para, as Hebrews 1:4

fellows. Greek. metochos. Here, Hebrews 3:1, Hebrews 3:14; Hebrews 6:4; Hebrews 12:8, and Luke 5:7. Quoted from Psalms 45:6, Psalms 45:7. Of no other could this be said.


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Bibliography
Bullinger, Ethelbert William. "Commentary on Hebrews 1:9". "E.W. Bullinger's Companion bible Notes". https:https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/bul/hebrews-1.html. 1909-1922.

Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible - Unabridged

Thou hast loved righteousness, and hated iniquity; therefore God, even thy God, hath anointed thee with the oil of gladness above thy fellows.

Iniquity , [ adikian (Greek #93)] - 'unrighteousness.' So 'Aleph (') read 'lawlessness' [ anomian (Greek #458)].

Therefore - because God loves righteousness and hates iniquity.

God, even thy God. Jerome, Augustine etc., translate (Psalms 45:7) 'O God, thy God hath anointed thee,' whereby Christ is addressed as God. This probably the Hebrew there means, and also the Greek here: it is likely the Son is addressed "O God," as in Hebrews 1:8. The anointing meant is not that at His baptism, when He solemnly entered on His ministry for us; but that with the "oil of gladness" or 'exulting joy' (triumph, the consequence of His manifested love of righteousness and hatred of iniquity), wherewith, after His triumphant completion of His work, He has been anointed by the Father "above His fellows" (not only above us, the adopted members of God's family, whom 'He is not ashamed to call His brethren;' but above the angels, partakers with Him, though infinitely His inferiors, in the holiness and joys of heaven; "sons of God," and angel - "messengers," though subordinate to the Divine Angel - "Messenger of the covenant").

Thus He is antitype to Solomon, 'chosen of all David's sons to sit upon the throne of the kingdom of the Lord over Israel,' even as his father David was chosen before all the house of his father's sons. The image is from the custom of anointing guests at feasts (Psalms 23:5); or rather of anointing kings: not until His ascension did He assume the kingdom as Son of man. A fuller accomplishment is yet to be, when He shall be VISIBLY the anointed king over the whole earth (set by the Father) on His holy hill of Zion (Psalms 2:6; Psalms 2:8). So David, His type, was first anointed at Bethlehem (1 Samuel 16:13; Psalms 89:20); again at Hebron, first over Judah (2 Samuel 2:4), then over all Israel (2 Samuel 5:3): not until Saul's death did he enter on his actual kingdom; as not until after Christ's death the Father "set Him at His own right hand ... far above all principality" (Ephesians 1:20-21). The 45th psalm in its first meaning was addressed to Solomon; but the Holy Spirit inspired the writer to use language applying in its fullness to the antitypical Solomon, the true Read of the theocracy.


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Bibliography
Jamieson, Robert, D.D.; Fausset, A. R.; Brown, David. "Commentary on Hebrews 1:9". "Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible - Unabridged". https:https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/jfu/hebrews-1.html. 1871-8.

The Bible Study New Testament

You love the right. His choosing is said here to be the result of his good qualities which equip him to rule as God's representative. The whole quotation should be taken as a general statement of Christ being supreme over all!!!


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Ice, Rhoderick D. "Commentary on Hebrews 1:9". "The Bible Study New Testament". https:https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/ice/hebrews-1.html. College Press, Joplin, MO. 1974.

Ellicott's Commentary for English Readers

(9) The King by divine election has been exalted by divine reward. (Comp. Hebrews 2:9, and Philippians 2:9-10.)

Therefore God.—It is possible, but not probable, that the words, both here and in the Psalm, should be rendered, Therefore, O God, Thy God hath anointed Thee.

Thy fellows.—In the first application, probably, these words point to other earthly kings. (Comp. Psalms 89:27.) Hence Ephesians 1:21 will be the best commentary upon them in their higher meaning.


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Bibliography
Ellicott, Charles John. "Commentary on Hebrews 1:9". "Ellicott's Commentary for English Readers". https:https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/ebc/hebrews-1.html. 1905.

Treasury of Scripture Knowledge

Thou hast loved righteousness, and hated iniquity; therefore God, even thy God, hath anointed thee with the oil of gladness above thy fellows.
loved
7:26; Psalms 11:5; 33:5; 37:28; 40:8; 45:7; Isaiah 61:8
hated
Psalms 119:104,128; Proverbs 8:13; Amos 5:15; Zechariah 8:17; Romans 12:9; Revelation 2:6,7,15
thy God
Psalms 89:26; John 20:17; 2 Corinthians 11:31; Ephesians 1:3; 1 Peter 1:3
anointed
Psalms 2:2,6; *marg:; Psalms 89:20; Isaiah 61:1; Luke 4:18; John 1:41; 3:34; Acts 4:27; 10:38
oil
Psalms 23:5; Isaiah 61:3; Romans 15:13; Galatians 5:22
thy fellows
2:11; 1 Corinthians 1:9; 1 John 1:3

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Bibliography
Torrey, R. A. "Commentary on Hebrews 1:9". "The Treasury of Scripture Knowledge". https:https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/tsk/hebrews-1.html.

E.M. Zerr's Commentary on Selected Books of the New Testament

Loved righteousness and hated iniquity. This phrase expresses two completely opposite terms. Hated is from a Greek word that sometimes has a milder meaning than it does here. In the present passage it is defined by Thayer, "To hate, pursue with hatred, detest." Because Christ had these qualities, He was given the great honor that the verse states. The specification, God, even thy God, is made because the name "God" is the family name of the Deity, and Christ had that name by virtue of his being a member of the family. But in the work as signed to Him as head of the kingdom, He was to be a king and the Father was to be God over him ( 1 Corinthians 11:3). In old times it was customary to anoint kings with oil at their coronation. Christ was figuratively anointed with the oil of gladness or exultation. Above thy fellows means that Christ was exalted higher than any other ruler that had ever been on earth.


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Zerr, E.M. "Commentary on Hebrews 1:9". E.M. Zerr's Commentary on Selected Books of the New Testament. https:https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/znt/hebrews-1.html. 1952.

Haldane's Exposition on the Epistle to the Romans

Thou hast loved righteousness, and hated iniquity; therefore God, even thy God, hath anointed thee with the oil of gladness above thy fellows.

Thou hast loved righteousness and hated iniquity. —This refers to the character of Jesus while in this world, not, as some have supposed, after His government is over. It was the perfection of the character of Jesus that He loved righteousness and hated iniquity. In the days of His flesh He always did the things which pleased His Father; the law was within His heart. His language was, " O how love I thy law! it is my meditation all the day." He challenges His enemies to convict Him of sin. Indeed one flaw in His character would prove the Gospel a fable, for He is God manifest in the flesh, and therefore must have been absolutely perfect. Again, He received the Holy Spirit without measure, which was inconsistent with the slightest deviation from the path of righteousness. The character of Jesus is in itself a demonstration of the truth of the Gospel. Man could not have imagined such a character; and, we may say with the infidel Rousseau, that to suppose the four Gospels a forgery is more incredible than the admission of its truth. [Why then did Rousseau remain an infidel? Because, as he tells us, the Gospel contains many things to which his reason could not assent. What a comment on 1 Corinthians 2:14, "But the natural man receiveth not the things of the Spirit of God: for they are foolishness unto him: neither can he know them, because they are spiritually discerned."]

Such was the Lord's love of righteousness, that He gave Himself for His people to deliver them from all iniquity, that He might purify unto Himself a peculiar people, zealous of good works. He walked in the perfect law of liberty. His undertaking was entirely voluntary; hence He said, "Lo I come, to do thy will, O my God!" Amidst all the discouragements He met with, He never swerved by a hair's breadth from the path of rectitude. Amidst all the shame and reproach which He encountered He set his face as a flint, nor did He fail or become discouraged till He set judgment on the earth. He had only to will it, and legions of angels were ready to vindicate His glory; but He endured the cross, despising the shame, and thus was His mediatorial throne established in righteousness. All His subjects are righteous, without spot and blemish.

Therefore—on this account.—The anointing was the reward of Christ's love of righteousness and hatred of iniquity while on earth. Some suppose that the anointing takes place subsequently to His government, but it is not connected with His government, which is spoken of before. The eighth verse speaks of Him as a king, and the ninth verse shows why the kingdom was given Him, consequently it was not the reward of His administration of the kingdom. This would imply that Christ has not yet received the anointing, for the mediatorial kingdom will not cease till He hath put all enemies under His feet.

God, even thy God.—Some render this "therefore, O God thy God." The difference is not material. Owen observes, that the phrase is generally translated as in our version.

Hath anointed thee.—What is the anointing here meant? Is it that by which He was consecrated to the kingly office? or, has it reference to the anointing which was usual in cases of festivity and joy? The latter appears to be the meaning. Christ was anointed to all His offices after His baptism, when He received the Holy Ghost without measure. The anointing here spoken of took place after the manifestation of His love of righteousness and hatred of iniquity while in this world. It was that happiness and glory which He received as Mediator after his ascension.

Above thy fellows.—Some suppose that "by his fellows" is meant the angels, because the Apostle is here proving His superiority to angels, but He never assumed the nature of angels. In this respect He never had fellowship with them. Others think that "by his fellows" we are to understand the prophets, priests, and kings who were anointed with oil to their respective offices, which were all concentrated in Him while He was anointed with the Holy Ghost. It appears, however, rather to mean His people, whom He is not ashamed to call brethren. He took part with them in flesh and blood. He is the connecting link by which the whole family in heaven and in earth is united to God. The closeness and perpetuity of this union is exhibited in His person as God- man. Hence he says, "I ascend to my Father and to your Father, to my God and your God." His fellows, then, are those with whom, by His incarnation, He has fellowship; and so close is this fellowship, that both He that sanctifieth and they that are sanctified are all of one— children of one family. But in all things He hath the preeminence; all their well-springs are in Him. He is anointed with the oil of gladness above His fellows, He received the Holy Spirit without measure, of which no creature was capable, which is therefore a conclusive proof of His Divinity. The Jewish prophets, priests, and kings were anointed with oil, which was the emblem of the Spirit; they were types of Him who is the Christ, or Anointed One, and His people are called Christians because they have all an unction from the Holy One. As the precious oil, poured on the head of Aaron, ran down to the skirts of his garments, so the Spirit, poured on the great Head of the Church, is conveyed from Him to all His people, and thus they are one spirit with Him, 1 Corinthians 6:17; they are all baptized by one Spirit into one body, 1 Corinthians 12:13; and we are taught, that if any man have not the Spirit, he is none of His.


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Bibliography
Haldane, Robert. "Commentary on Hebrews 1:9". "Haldane's Exposition on the Epistle to the Romans and Hebrews". https:https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/hal/hebrews-1.html. 1835.

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