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Verse-by-Verse Bible Commentary

Hebrews 1:10

And, "YOU, LORD, IN THE BEGINNING LAID THE FOUNDATION OF THE EARTH, AND THE HEAVENS ARE THE WORKS OF YOUR HANDS;

Adam Clarke Commentary

And, Thou, Lord - This is an address to the Son as the Creator, see Hebrews 1:2; for this is implied in laying the foundation of the earth. The heavens, which are the work of his hands, point out his infinite wisdom and skill.


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Bibliography
Clarke, Adam. "Commentary on Hebrews 1:10". "The Adam Clarke Commentary". https:https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/acc/hebrews-1.html. 1832.

Albert Barnes' Notes on the Whole Bible

And - That is, “To add another instance;” or, “to the Son he saith in another place, or in the following language.” This is connected with Hebrews 1:8. “Unto the Son he saith Hebrews 1:8, Thy throne,” etc. - and Hebrews 1:10 he “also” saith, “Thou Lord,” etc. That this is the meaning is apparent, because:

(1) the “object” of the whole quotation is to show the exalted character of the Son of God, and,

(2) an address here to Yahweh would be wholly irrelevant. Why, in an argument designed to prove that the Son of God was superior to the angels, should the writer break out in an address to Yahweh in view of the fact that he had laid the foundations of the world, and that he himself would continue to live when the heavens should be rolled up and pass away? Such is not the manner of Paul or of any other good writer, and it is clear that the writer here designed to adduce this as applicable to the Messiah. Whatever difficulties there may be about the principles on which it is done, and the reason why This passage was selected for the purpose, there can be no doubt about the design of the writer. He meant to be understood as applying it to the Messiah beyond all question, or the quotation is wholly irrelevant, and it is inconceivable why it should have been made. “Thou Lord.” This is taken from Psalm 102:25-27. The quotation is made from the Septuagint with only a slight variation, and is an accurate translation of the Hebrew. In the Psalm, there can be no doubt that Yahweh is intended. This is apparent on the face of the Psalm, and particularly because the “name” Yahweh is introduced in Hebrews 1:10, and because He is addressed as the Creator of all things, and as immutable. No one, on reading the Psalm, ever would doubt that it referred to God, and if the apostle meant to apply it to the Lord Jesus it proves most conclusively that he is divine. In regard to the difficult inquiry why he applied this to the Messiah, or on what principle such an application can be vindicated, we may perhaps throw some light by the following remarks. It must be admitted that probably few persons, if any, on reading the “Psalm,” would suppose that it referred to the Messiah; but:

(1) the fact that the apostle thus employs it, proves that it was understood in his time to have such a reference, or at least that those to whom he wrote would admit that it had such a reference. On no other principle would he have used it in an argument. This is at least of some consequence in showing what the prevailing interpretation was.

(2) it cannot be demonstrated that it had no such reference, for such was the habit of the sacred writers in making the future Messiah the theme of their poetry, that no one can prove that the writer of this Psalm did not design that the Messiah should be the sub ject of his praise here.

(3) there is nothing in the Psalm which may not be applied to the Messiah; but there is much in it that is especially applicable to him. Suppose, for example, that the Psalmist Psalm 102:1-11, in his complaints, represents the people of God before the Redeemer appeared - as lowly, sad, dejected, and afflicted - speaking of himself as one of them, and as a fair representative of that people, the remainder of the Psalm will well agree with the promised redemption. Thus, having described the sadness and sorrow of the people of God, he speaks of the act that God would arise and have mercy upon Zion Psalm 102:13-14, that the pagan would fear the name of the Lord, and all the kings of the earth would see his glory Psalm 102:15, and that when the Lord should build up Zion, he would appear in his glory; Psalm 102:16. To whom else could this be so well applied as to the Messiah? To what time so well as to his time? Thus, too in Psalm 102:20, it is said that the Lord would look down from heaven “to hear the groaning of the prisoner, and to loose them that are appointed to death” - language remarkably resembling that used by Isaiah, Isaiah 61:1, which the Saviour applies to himself, in Luke 4:17-21. The passage then quoted by the apostle Psalm 102:25-27 is designed to denote the “immutability” of the Messiah, and the fact that in him all the interests of the church were safe. He would not change. He had formed all things, and he would remain the same. His kingdom would be permanent amidst all the changes occurring on earth, and his people had no cause of apprehension or alarm; Psalm 102:28.

(4) Paul applies this language to the Messiah in accordance with the doctrine which he had stated Hebrews 1:2, that it was by him that God “made the worlds.” Having stated that, he seems to have felt that it was not improper to apply to him the passages occurring in the Old Testament that speak of the work of creation. The argument is this, “He was in fact the creator of all things.” But to the Creator there is applied language in the Scriptures which shows that he was far exalted above the angels. He would remain the same, while the heavens and the earth should fade away. His years are enduring and eternal. “Such” a being must be superior to the angels; such a being must be divine. The words “Thou Lord” - σὺ Κύριε su Kurie- are not in the Hebrew of the Psalm, though they are in the Septuagint. In the Hebrew, in the Psalm (Psalm 102:24,), it is an address to God - “I said, O my God” - אלי 'Eeliy- but there can be no doubt that the Psalmist meant to address Yahweh, and that the word “God” is used in its proper sense, denoting divinity; see Hebrews 1:1, Hebrews 1:12, of the Psalm. “In the beginning;” see Genesis 1:1.

When the world was made; compare notes on John 1:1, where the same phrase is applied to the Messiah - “In the beginning was the word, where the same phrase is applied to the Messiah - “In the beginning was the word.” “Hast laid the foundation of the earth.” Hast made the earth. This language is such as is common in the Scriptures, where the earth is represented as laid on a foundation, or as supported. It is figurative language, derived from the act of rearing an edifice. The meaning here is, that the Son of God was the original creator or founder of the universe. He did not merely arrange it out of pre-existing materials, but he was properly its creator or founder. “And the heavens are the works of thine hands.” This must demonstrate the Lord Jesus to be divine. He that made the vast heavens must be God. No creature could perform a work like that; nor can we conceive that power to create the vast array of distant worlds could possibly be delegated. If that power could be delegated, there is not an attribute of Deity which may not be, and thus all our notions of what constitutes divinity would be utterly confounded. The word “heavens” here, must mean all parts of the universe except the earth; see Genesis 1:1. The word “hands” is used, because it is by the hands that we usually perform any work.


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Bibliography
Barnes, Albert. "Commentary on Hebrews 1:10". "Barnes' Notes on the Whole Bible". https:https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/bnb/hebrews-1.html. 1870.

Coffman's Commentaries on the Bible

And, Thou, Lord in the beginning didst lay the foundation of the earth, And the heavens are the works of thy hands: They shall perish; but thou continuest: And they all shall wax old as doth a garment; And as a mantle shalt thou roll them up, As a garment, and they shall be changed: But thou art the same, And thy years shall not fail.

This quotation is from Psalms 102:25-27; and the great significance of its use here is in the fact that words originally addressed to Jehovah are unhesitatingly applied to Jesus Christ. Westcott was quoted by Hewitt writing of this verse that it is "the application to the Incarnate Son of words addressed to Jehovah."[17]

Not merely the fact of creation by the Almighty, but the divine supervision of the universe and watchful control of all its changes are affirmed here. Bruce justified the application of this passage to Christ on the basis of the twin facts that the author had already said (Hebrews 1:2) that:

It was through the Son the worlds were made (and that) person to whom these words were spoken is addressed explicitly as the "Lord," and it is God who addresses him thus![18]

Christ as the changeless one is the theme of these verses. The universe is constantly changing, however imperceptible those changes appear to the fleeting glance of people. Whatever the wreck of the matter and crush of worlds the future holds, the work and glory of Christ will not be affected. Of special interest is the comparison of the sidereal creation to a garment, indicating that the starry heavens themselves are but the usable and disposable accessories of Godhead. They are God's garments and are subject to age and change. Exell has this,

The stars are the jewels on his brow; the sky his flowing train; the flowering landscapes, the shining seas, the gorgeous clouds - the fine needlework and wrought gold of his imperial raiment.[19]

In the light of this revelation, how foolish, therefore, must appear such things as sun worship, or the temptation to view the universe as eternal.

[17] Thomas Hewitt, op. cit., p. 59.

[18] F. F. Bruce, op. cit., pp. 21-22.

[19] Joseph S. Exell, The Biblical Illustrator (Grand Rapids, Michigan: Baker Book House, 1967), p. 53.


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James Burton Coffman Commentaries reproduced by permission of Abilene Christian University Press, Abilene, Texas, USA. All other rights reserved.

Bibliography
Coffman, James Burton. "Commentary on Hebrews 1:10". "Coffman Commentaries on the Old and New Testament". https:https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/bcc/hebrews-1.html. Abilene Christian University Press, Abilene, Texas, USA. 1983-1999.

John Gill's Exposition of the Whole Bible

And thou Lord, in the beginning hast laid the foundation of the earth,.... The person here addressed, as the Lord or Jehovah, and as the Maker of the heavens and the earth, is the same with the Son spoken to, and of, before; for the words are a continuation of the speech to him, though they are taken from another psalm, from Psalm 102:25. The phrase, "thou, Lord" is taken from Psalm 102:12 and is the same with, "O my God", Psalm 102:24 and whereas it is there said, "of old", and here, in the beginning, the sense is the same; and agreeably to the Septuagint, and the apostle, Jarchi interprets it by מתחילה, "at", or "from the beginning"; and so the Targum paraphrases it, מן שרויז, "from the beginning", that the creatures were created, &c. that in the beginning of the creation, which is the apostle's meaning; and shows the eternity of Christ, the Lord, the Creator of the earth, who must exist before the foundation of the world; and confutes the notion of the eternity of the world: and the rounding of it shows that the earth is the lower part of the creation; and denotes the stability of it; and points out the wisdom of the Creator in laying such a foundation; and proves the deity of Christ, by whom that, and all things in it, were made:

the heavens are the works of thine hands: there are more heavens than one; there are the airy heaven, and the starry heaven, and the heaven of heavens, the third heaven; and they were created the beginning, as the earth was, Genesis 1:1 and are the immediate work of Christ; they were made by himself, not by the means of angels, who were not in being till these were made; nor by any intermediate help, which he could not have, and which he did not need: the phrase is expressive of the power of Christ in making the upper parts of the creation, and of his wisdom in garnishing them, in which there is a wonderful display of his glory; and the whole serves to set forth the dignity and excellency of his person.


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The New John Gill's Exposition of the Entire Bible Modernised and adapted for the computer by Larry Pierce of Online Bible. All Rightes Reserved, Larry Pierce, Winterbourne, Ontario.
A printed copy of this work can be ordered from: The Baptist Standard Bearer, 1 Iron Oaks Dr, Paris, AR, 72855

Bibliography
Gill, John. "Commentary on Hebrews 1:10". "The New John Gill Exposition of the Entire Bible". https:https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/geb/hebrews-1.html. 1999.

Geneva Study Bible

9 And, Thou, Lord, in the beginning hast u laid the foundation of the earth; and the heavens are the works of thine hands:

(9) He proves and confirms the dignity of Christ revealed in the flesh, by these six evident testimonies by which it appears that he far surpasses all angels, so much so that he is called both Son, and God in (Hebrews 1:5-8) , (Hebrews 1:10) , (Hebrews 1:13).

(u) Made the earth firm and sure.


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Bibliography
Beza, Theodore. "Commentary on Hebrews 1:10". "The 1599 Geneva Study Bible". https:https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/gsb/hebrews-1.html. 1599-1645.

Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible

And — In another passage (Psalm 102:25-27) He says.

in the beginningEnglish Version, Psalm 102:25, “of old”: Hebrew, “before,” “aforetime.” The Septuagint, “in the beginning” (as in Genesis 1:1) answers by contrast to the end implied in “They shall perish,” etc. The Greek order here (not in the Septuagint) is, “Thou in the beginning, O Lord,” which throws the “Lord” into emphasis. “Christ is preached even in passages where many might contend that the Father was principally intended” [Bengel].

laid the foundation of — “firmly founded” is included in the idea of the Greek.

heavens — plural: not merely one, but manifold, and including various orders of heavenly intelligences (Ephesians 4:10).

works of thine hands — the heavens, as a woven veil or curtain spread out.


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These files are a derivative of an electronic edition prepared from text scanned by Woodside Bible Fellowship.
This expanded edition of the Jameison-Faussett-Brown Commentary is in the public domain and may be freely used and distributed.

Bibliography
Jamieson, Robert, D.D.; Fausset, A. R.; Brown, David. "Commentary on Hebrews 1:10". "Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible". https:https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/jfb/hebrews-1.html. 1871-8.

William Godbey's Commentary on the New Testament

10. We see here that our Savior, the second person of the Trinity, actually created this world; or, rather, that God in the person of the Eternal Son created this world, with its atmospheric environments and luminaries to vitalize it. No wonder He was not willing for Satan to wither and blight it, and add it to hell; but He generously volunteered and came to its rescue.


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Bibliography
Godbey, William. "Commentary on Hebrews 1:10". "William Godbey's Commentary on the New Testament". https:https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/ges/hebrews-1.html.

Robertson's Word Pictures in the New Testament

Lord (ΚυριεKurie). In the lxx, not in the Hebrew. Quotation (the sixth) from Psalm 102:26-28 through Hebrews 1:10-12. Note emphatic position of συsu here at the beginning as in Hebrews 1:11-12 (συ δεsu de). This Messianic Psalm pictures the Son in his Creative work and in his final triumph.

Hast laid the foundation (ετεμελιωσαςethemeliōsas). First aorist active of τεμελιοωthemelioō old verb from τεμελιοςthemelios (foundation) for which see Colossians 1:23.


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The Robertson's Word Pictures of the New Testament. Copyright © Broadman Press 1932,33, Renewal 1960. All rights reserved. Used by permission of Broadman Press (Southern Baptist Sunday School Board)

Bibliography
Robertson, A.T. "Commentary on Hebrews 1:10". "Robertson's Word Pictures of the New Testament". https:https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/rwp/hebrews-1.html. Broadman Press 1932,33. Renewal 1960.

Vincent's Word Studies

d Sixth quotation (Hebrews 1:10-12), exhibiting the superior dignity of the Son as creator in contrast with the creature. Psalm 102:26-28. The Psalm declares the eternity of Jahveh.

And - in the beginning ( καὶ - κατ ' ἀρχάς )

And connects what follows with unto the Son he saith, etc., Hebrews 1:8. Κατ ' ἀρχὰς inthe beginning, N.T.oOften in Class., lxx only Psalm 119:152. The more usual formula is ἐν ἀρχῇ or ἀπ ' ἀρχῆς .

Hast laid the foundation ( ἐθεμελίωσας )

Only here in Hebrews. In Paul, Ephesians 3:18; Colossians 1:23.


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Bibliography
Vincent, Marvin R. DD. "Commentary on Hebrews 1:10". "Vincent's Word Studies in the New Testament". https:https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/vnt/hebrews-1.html. Charles Schribner's Sons. New York, USA. 1887.

Wesley's Explanatory Notes

And, Thou, Lord, in the beginning hast laid the foundation of the earth; and the heavens are the works of thine hands:

Thou — The same to whom the discourse is addressed in the preceding verse. Psalm 102:25,26


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These files are public domain and are a derivative of an electronic edition that is available on the Christian Classics Ethereal Library Website.

Bibliography
Wesley, John. "Commentary on Hebrews 1:10". "John Wesley's Explanatory Notes on the Whole Bible". https:https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/wen/hebrews-1.html. 1765.

Abbott's Illustrated New Testament

Hebrews 1:10-12; Psalms 102:25-27.


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Bibliography
Abbott, John S. C. & Abbott, Jacob. "Commentary on Hebrews 1:10". "Abbott's Illustrated New Testament". https:https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/ain/hebrews-1.html. 1878.

Calvin's Commentary on the Bible

10.And, Thou, Lord, in the beginning, etc. This testimony at first sight may seem to be unfitly applied to Christ, especially in a doubtful matter, such as is here handled; for the subject in dispute is not concerning the glory of God, but what may be fitly applied to Christ. Now, there is not in this passage any mention made of Christ, but the majesty of God alone is set forth. I indeed allow that Christ is not named in any part of the Psalm; but it is yet plain that he is so pointed out, that no one can doubt but that his kingdom is there avowedly recommended to us. Hence all the things which are found there, are to be applied to his person; for in none have they been fulfilled but in Christ, such as the following, — “Thou shalt arise and have mercy on Sion, that the heathens may fear the name, and all the kings of the earth thy glory.” Again, — “When the nations shall be gathered together, and the kingdoms, to serve the Lord.” Doubtless, in vain shall we seek to find this God through whom the whole world have united in one faith and worship of God, except in Christ.

All the other parts of the Psalm exactly suit the person of Christ, such as the following, that he is the eternal God, the creator of heaven and earth, that perpetuity belongs to him without any change, by which his majesty is raised to the highest elevation, and he himself is removed from the rank of all created beings.

What David says about the heavens perishing, some explain by adding, “Were such a thing to happen,” as though nothing was affirmed. But what need is there of such a strained explanation, since we know that all creatures are subjected to vanity? For to what purpose is that renovation promised, which even the heavens wait for with the strong desire as of those in travail, except that they are now verging towards destruction?

But the perpetuity of Christ which is here mentioned, brings no common comfort to the godly; as the Psalm at last teaches us, they shall be partakers of it, inasmuch as Christ communicates himself and what he possesses to his own body. (26)


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Calvin, John. "Commentary on Hebrews 1:10". "Calvin's Commentary on the Bible". https:https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/cal/hebrews-1.html. 1840-57.

William Newell's Commentary on Romans and Revelation

Verse 10: Thou Lord, in the beginning didst lay the foundation of the earth, And the heavens are the works of Thy hands:

The circumstances of this passage are profoundly moving to a spiritual heart. For in Psalm 102:23, 24, our Lord Jesus in speaking thus to the Father: "He weakened My strength in the way; He shortened my days. I said, O My God, take Me not away in the midst of My days: Thy years are throughout all generations."

How blessedly human are such words! At thirty-three a man has just found his vigor, and the things of earthly life have their greatest interest and power. This beautiful, touching appeal is made by the Man Christ Jesus to God as His God, when it is revealed to Him that His days are to be shortened, that His strength is to be weakened--for, "He was crucified through weakness" (2 Cor. 13:4). "Take me not away in the midst of My days," pleaded the Man Christ Jesus. And then the argument with His God: "Thy years are throughout all generations." How this must have touched the very heart of God His Father! And what answer does He make to His Son? Now, have simple faith and be prepared for what the Spirit of God does at this place. For, though Christ is speaking in Psalm 102:23, 24, God answers Him in verses 25-27! We should look upon the earth and the heavens as becoming old" (Heb. 1:11). Thus shall we become occupied with Him to Whom God says, But Thou art the same, and Thy years shall not fail.

Again we remark that these mighty words of comfort are addressed by God the Father to His dear Son then in humiliation, in answer to His cry, "Take Me not away in the midst of My days." The Father declares to His Son, pointing to the eternity past, that He, the Son, Whom He addressed as Lord (Heb. 1:10), made the earth and the heavens! Then, pointing to the eternity coming, He assures Him, But Thou art the same, and Thy years shall not fail. It is God the Father's answer to His Son's cry--and what an answer!

And what a testimony by the Father to the Son's Creatorship is this verse of Hebrews 1!* The Father willed creation, the Son spake it, the Spirit executed it! (Ps. 104:30). (Fosdick, the infidel who has publicly, in print and by voice, denied all the fundamentals of the faith of the gospel, has a sermon on "The Danger of Worshipping Jesus of Nazareth." What will God say to the Fosdick atom in that day--in view of this verse, where God addresses Jesus as, "Thou, Lord," and makes Him the Creator?)


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Bibliography
Newell, William. "Commentary on Hebrews 1:10". William Newell's Commentary on Romans, Hebrews and Revelation. https:https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/wnc/hebrews-1.html. 1938.

John Trapp Complete Commentary

10 And, Thou, Lord, in the beginning hast laid the foundation of the earth; and the heavens are the works of thine hands:

Ver. 10. The works of thy hands] Psalms 8:3, they are called the works of God’s fingers, artificially elaborated; that heaven of heavens especially, whose artificer and workman is God, Hebrews 11:10, τεχνιτης. The apostle there intimates that it is curiously and cunningly contrived.


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Bibliography
Trapp, John. "Commentary on Hebrews 1:10". John Trapp Complete Commentary. https:https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/jtc/hebrews-1.html. 1865-1868.

Expository Notes with Practical Observations on the New Testament

What proof more can be desired of Christ's Divinity, than what is here given by our apostle? the name and attributes of God are given to him, as also an everlasting throne and kingdom; divine honour is required to be paid to him: and here such divine works are ascribed to him, wherein no creature can have any share of efficiency with him; such is the making of the world, Thou, Lord, laidest the foundations of the earth, and the heavens are the works of thy hands:

Here we have Christ's omnipotency declared, Thou has laid the foundations of the earth, and the heavens are thy handy-works: and his eternity and immutability asserted, When the heavens perish, thou remainest: when thy wax old, and are changed thou art the same.

Learn hence, That the whole world, the heavens and the earth being made by our Lord Jesus Christ, is and evident proof that he is exalted above all creatures, and that he is and almighty and unchangeable God, Thou, Lord, hast laid, &c.

Learn, 2. That such is the frailty of man's nature, and such the perishing condition of all created things, that nothing will or can yield stable consolation to us, but a firm belief of the omnipotency and immutability of our Lord Jesus Christ.


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Bibliography
Burkitt, William. "Commentary on Hebrews 1:10". Expository Notes with Practical Observations on the New Testament. https:https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/wbc/hebrews-1.html. 1700-1703.

Greek Testament Critical Exegetical Commentary

10.] And ( πρὸς τὸν υἱὸν λέγει: see a similar καί introducing a new citation in Acts 1:20. The comma, or colon, or capital letter, as in text, should be retained after καί),—Thou in the beginning (Heb. לְפָנִים . ad faciem, antea; probably here rendered κατʼ ἀρχάς by the LXX with reference to Genesis 1:1. The expression is found in Philo, and often in the classics: cf. Herod. iii. 153, 159, and instances in Wetst.; and see Kühner, Gr. Gr. § 607.1), Lord ( κύριε has no word to represent it in the Hebrew. But it is taken up from אֵלִי in Genesis 1:25; and indeed from the whole strain of address, in which יְהֹוָה has been thrice expressed—in Genesis 1:1; Genesis 1:12; Genesis 1:15. The order of the words in this clause is somewhat different in our text from that of the LXX in either of the great MSS.; (12) having κατʼ ἀρχὰς τὴν γῆν, σύ, κύριε, α κατʼ ἀρχὰς σύ, κύριε, τὴν γῆν, and (13) omitting σὺ κύριε. The transposition has apparently been made from the alex. text, and for the sake of throwing the κύριε into emphasis. On the bearing and interpretation of the Psalm, see below), foundedst (“A primis fundamentis terram fecisti, et simul eam firmam et stabilem fundasti.” Corn.-a-lap., in Bleek, who remarks that the verb יָסַד, θεμελιόω, is not so usual of the heavens, as of the earth. Still in Psalms 8:3, we have the Greek verb ἐθεμελίωσας, applied to the heavens: but the Heb. is כּוֹנָֽנְתָּה ) the earth, and the heavens (“Nil obstat,” says Bengel, “quominus sub cœlis angeli innuantur, quemadmodum creatio hominis innuitur sub terra prætereunte.” The same thought is implied in Theodoret’s διὰ γὰρ οὐρανοῦ κ. γῆς πάντα τὰ ἐν αὐτοῖς περιέλαβεν. Still, I would rather view the citation as made in proof of the eternal and unchangeable power and majesty of the Son, than as implicitly referred to the angels by the word οὐρανοί. And so most Commentators. The plur. οὐρανοί, representing the Heb. שָׁמַיִם, evidently includes in the Greek also the idea of plurality: see Ephesians 4:10 ; 2 Corinthians 12:2) are works of thine hands (see Psalms 8:3. Bl. mentions an opinion of Heinrichs that the ἔργα τῶν χειρ. alludes to textile work, the heavens being considered as a veil spread out. But there does not seem sufficient warrant for this).


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Bibliography
Alford, Henry. "Commentary on Hebrews 1:10". Greek Testament Critical Exegetical Commentary. https:https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/hac/hebrews-1.html. 1863-1878.

Johann Albrecht Bengel's Gnomon of the New Testament

Hebrews 1:10. καὶ, and) This particle connects the testimonies.— σὺ κατʼ ἀρχὰςοὐκ ἐκλείψουσι) Psalms 102:26-28; LXX. κατʼ ἀρχὰς σὺ, κύριε, τἡν γῆν, etc., the remainder in the same words. The time of the creation is intimated, to which the end of the world is opposed; and by this very fact, Dissertation 3. of Artemonius is done away with.— σὺ, Thou) The same to whom the discourse is directed in the preceding ver.— κύριε, O Lord) The LXX. have repeated that from ver. 23 of the same psalm. Christ is preached (proclaimed) even in those passages, where many might contend that the writer was principally speaking of the Father.— γῆν, the earth: οὐρανοὶ, the heavens) A gradation. There is no reason why the angels may not be included in the word heavens, as the creation of man is included under the word earth, which passes away.


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Bibliography
Bengel, Johann Albrecht. "Commentary on Hebrews 1:10". Johann Albrecht Bengel's Gnomon of the New Testament. https:https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/jab/hebrews-1.html. 1897.

Matthew Poole's English Annotations on the Holy Bible

And, Thou, Lord: this connective particle joins this to the former proof, that Christ had a more excellent name than angels, even that of God. That he was God, he proved out of Psalms 45:6,7. He seconds it in this and the two following verses, which he quotes out of Psalms 102:25-27. The strength of which lieth thus: He who was Jehovah, and the great Creator of the world, is God; such is Christ, the great gospel Prophet. This is evident in the prayer recorded in the Psalm made to him, compared with the Spirit’s testimony, Hebrews 1:8; the very works appropriated to Jehovah there, are the acknowledged works of God the Son, as redemption, Psalms 102:20,21, vocation of the Gentiles, Psalms 102:15,18,22.

In the beginning; in the beginning of time, when that came to be the measure and limit of things, as Genesis 1:1. Before there were any such creatures as angels, he was Jehovah, John 1:1; and then manifested himself to be Jehovah. The enemies of Christ’s Deity say that the name Jehovah is not in the verse of the Psalm quoted by the Spirit; yet thou, the relative used in all those verses, refers to God, the antecedent, prayed to in Psalms 102:24, and to Jehovah, the name given him in Psalms 102:1,12,15,16,18,19,21,22, of that Psalm; all importing one and the same person. And it is well known that Kuriov, Lord, doth eminently decipher the Redeemer in the New Testament; he is not an instrument of Jehovah to create by, but the fountain of all being, Jehovah himself.

Hast laid the foundation of the earth; and the heavens are the works of thine hands: by founding the earth, and the heavens being the work of his hands, is meant the whole work of creation throughout the space of six days: he was the true, full, sole, and self-causality of the earth’s being, and all creatures in it, and of the heavens, and all beings which are in them; he was the great Architect and Founder of them all; they were his peculiar workmanship, possession, and dominion, 1 Corinthians 8:6: compare John 1:3 Colossians 1:16. If the heavens were the works of his hands, and all in them, then he was the Creator of angels, and therefore must be, for person, name, and office, more excellent than they.


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Poole, Matthew, "Commentary on Hebrews 1:10". Matthew Poole's English Annotations on the Holy Bible. https:https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/mpc/hebrews-1.html. 1685.

Justin Edwards' Family Bible New Testament

Thou, Lord, in the beginning; taken from Psalms 102:25-27, another psalm which prays for the coming of God in glory to build up Zion, verse Psalms 102:16, and which, like Psalms 97:1-12, has its true fulfilment in Christ, who is God manifested in the flesh.


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Edwards, Justin. "Commentary on Hebrews 1:10". "Family Bible New Testament". https:https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/fam/hebrews-1.html. American Tract Society. 1851.

Cambridge Greek Testament for Schools and Colleges

10. καί, Σὺ κατʼ ἀρχὰς κύριε. The quotation is from Psalms 102:25-27. The word “Lord” is not in the original, but it is in the LXX.; and the Hebrew Christians who already believed that it was by Christ that “God made the world” (see note on Hebrews 1:2) would not dispute the Messianic application of these words to Him, though the Jews did not regard it as a Messianic Psalm and it is never so applied by any Rabbi. It is a prayer of the afflicted written at some late period of the exile. Calvin (on Ephesians 4:8) goes so far as to say of such passages that the Apostle “by a pious diversion of their meaning (piâ deflectione) accommodates them to the Person of Christ.” The remark illustrates the courageous honesty and stern good sense of the great Reformer: but no Jewish-Christian exegete would have thought that he was practising a mere pious misapplication of the sacred words, or have admitted the objection of Cardinal Cajetan that “in a matter of such importance it was unbecoming to use such an argument.” The writer’s object is not proof—which was for his readers unnecessary; he wished to illustrate acknowledged truths by admitted principles.

κατʼ ἀρχάς. Heb. לְפָנִים, “face-wards,” i.e. of old. It is a classic phrase, and in the LXX. ἀπ ʼ ἀρχῆς or ἐν ἀρχῇ are more common.


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"Commentary on Hebrews 1:10". "Cambridge Greek Testament for Schools and Colleges". https:https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/cgt/hebrews-1.html. 1896.

Whedon's Commentary on the Bible

10. And—Quoted from Psalms 102:26-28, where see notes. Though this psalm is within the Messianic number, there is nothing in its contents which limits it to him. We are at liberty, indeed, whether applied to the Trinity or to the Son, to see that our author intends it to be an expansion of his own words in Hebrews 1:2, by whom also he made the worlds. It is to the Logos, the executive Maker of the worlds, that in accordance with the mind of the Church he applies them.

In the beginning—Literal Greek, καταρχας, at beginnings. At the various commencements, whether of different things in the same world, or of serial worlds in succession. Less solemn and aboriginal than St. John’s εν αρχη, “In the beginning was the Word.” For even if a scientist maintains that matter is chronologically eternal, still in the order of nature and truth God, the Word, is back of it. It is dependent and phenomenal: He is independent, unconditioned, and absolute. If creation, or creations, be eternal in series, it is because He eternally and freely creates.

Laid the foundation—It is not illegitimate for modern science to read into these words the definite facts comprehensively embraced in them. By the divine Word, the author of order in chaos, the work of order, whatever it was, was performed. If that chaos was a nebula, there was nothing in the mere nebula itself by which it could frame itself into an intellective system. If it condensed and hardened, without some regulative mind it would harden into an unintelligent solidity. It required an indwelling Mind, a divine Logos, to translate the unintelligent mass into intelligent forms. As easily could a pile of type lying in pi form themselves into a poem without a forming mind, as a pile of matter frame itself into a cosmos without the formative Logos. No atheistic philosophy, whether of Hume or Herbert Spencer, has been able to bridge this chasm.

Foundation—Geology reveals such “foundation” in the primitive rocks, and in the strata of successive ages.

Heavens—The atmospheric expanse; and we may add, as speaking optically from our earth-centre, the firmament and the starry heavens.

Works of thine hands—Spoken anthropomorphically, that is, under momentary conception, as if God were an infinite man; which abstracting away from him all imperfection, and adding all perfection, we rightfully do. Weak-minded pseudo-philosophers raise a great protest against such anthropomorphism, showing a sudden sensitiveness at our degrading God—a God in whom they themselves do not believe. And yet Mr. Spencer, who leads in this outcry against anthropomorphizing “the Absolute,” thinks he elevates him by denying to him the attribute of intelligence. A better philosopher, Sir Isaac Newton, says, (at the close of his “Optics,”) that the entire universe, including all material things from the planets down to animal bodies, the organs of sense and motion, and the instinct of brutes and insects, “can be the effect of nothing else than the wisdom and skill of a powerful everliving Agent, who, being in all places, is more able by his will to move the bodies within his boundless, uniform sensorium, (of space,) and thereby to form and reform the parts of the universe, than we are by our will to move the parts of our own bodies.” In his “Principia” he says: “It is confessed that God supreme exists necessarily. By the same necessity he is always and everywhere. Whence he is all similar to himself—all eye, all ear, all brain; all perceptive, intellective, and active force; but in a manner not at all human or corporeal, but in a mode to us unknown.”—Liber iii, De Mundi Systemate.

That acute Christian philosopher, Tayler Lewis, rebuking the squeamish avoidance of anthropomorphisms by later Jewish writers, as Philo and the Rabbis, shows that the divine mind is truly competent to see things as man sees them, and to realize the human feeling. If God knows how things appear to our human thought he must be able to see them not only as he absolutely sees them, but as we finitely see them; that is, he thinks our thoughts. “May not God come actually into the human sphere and the human finity? May he not, if it pleases him, tabernacle in the human mind, knowing things as we know them, feeling them as we feel them? For, unless he thus knows them as we know them, feels them as we feel them, there would be a knowledge unknown to him as it really is—that is, as it exists in our mind.” And yet, Moses, who uses the strongest anthropomorphisms, (and we may add, Newton, as in the above quotation,) “knew that God was infinite as well as Spinoza” knew it.


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Whedon, Daniel. "Commentary on Hebrews 1:10". "Whedon's Commentary on the Bible". https:https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/whe/hebrews-1.html. 1874-1909.

The Expositor's Greek Testament

Hebrews 1:10. In Hebrews 1:10-12 the writer introduces another quotation from Psalms 102 (in LXX Psalm 101:25–7). The quotation is verbatim from the LXX except that σὺ is lifted from the fifth to the first place in the sentence, for emphasis, and that a second ὡς ἱμάτιον is inserted after αὐτούς in Hebrews 1:12. With the introductory καὶ Weiss understands πρὸς τὸν υἱὸν λέγει, as in Hebrews 1:8. He is also of opinion that the writer considers that the words were spoken by Jehovah and that κύριε, therefore, must be the Messiah. This is possible, but it is not necessary for the justification of the Messianic reference. This follows from the character of the psalm, which predicts the manifestation of Jehovah as the Saviour of His people, even though this may only be in the far future (see Psalms 103:13 : “Thou shalt arise and have mercy upon Zion.… So the heathen shall fear the name of the Lord, etc.”) Prof. B. W. Bacon of Yale has investigated this matter afresh and finds that, so far from the application of these verses to the Messiah being an audacious innovation, or even achieved, as Calvin says, “pia deflectione,” “the psalm itself was a favourite resort of those who sought in even pre-Christian times for proof-texts of Messianic eschatology”; also that “we have specific evidence of the application of Psalms 102:23-24 to the Messiah by those who employed the Hebrew or some equivalent text” and finally that by the rendering of ענה in Psalms 102:24 (English Psalms 102:23) by respondit or ἀπεκρίθη “we have the explanation of how, in Christian circles at least, the accepted Messianic passage could be made to prove the doctrine that the Messiah is none other than the pre-existent wisdom of Proverbs 8:22-31, “through whom,” according to our author, Hebrews 1:2, “God made the worlds.” Indeed, we shall not be going too far if with Bruce we say: “It is possible that the writer (of Heb.) regarded this text (Psalms 102:25-27) as Messianic because in his mind creation was the work of the pre-existent Christ. But it is equally possible that he ascribed creative agency to Christ out of regard to this and other similar texts believed to be Messianic on other grounds.” See Preuschen’s Zeitschrift für N.T. Wissenschaft, 1902, p. 280.

In Hebrews 1:13-14, we have the final contrast between the place of the Son and that of the angels in human redemptive history. This contrast is connected by the form of its statement with Hebrews 1:5 (“to which of the angels, etc.”). There it was the greater name that was in question, here it is the higher station and function. πρὸς τίνα δὲ κ. τ. λ. “But to which of the angels has He at any time said …?” implying that to the Son He has said it, as is proved by the citation from Psalms 110. On this psalm (see note on Hebrews 1:9). δὲ connects this ver. with Hebrews 1:8, and stands in the third place as frequently in classics when a preposition begins the sentence (Herod., viii., 68, 2; Thuc., i., 6; Soph., Philoct., 764. See examples in Klotz’ Devarius, p. 379). κάθου ἐκ δεξιῶν μου, see Hebrews 1:3; ἐκ δεξ. is not classical, but frequent in Hellenistic Greek, see references, ἕως ἂν θῶ.… “Until I set thine enemies as a footstool for thy feet.” ὑποπόδιον is a later Greek word used in LXX and N.T. The figure arose from the custom of conquerors referred to in Joshua 10:24. Here it points to the complete supremacy of Christ. This attained sovereignty is the gauge of the World’s consummation. The horizon of human history is the perfected rule of Jesus Christ. It is the end for which all things are now making. Whereas the angels are but the agents whose instrumentality is used by. God for the furtherance of this end. οὐχὶ πάντες εἰσὶ λειτουργικὰ πνεὐματα.… “Are they not all ministering spirits sent forth to serve for the sake of those who are to obtain salvation?” They have no function of rule, but are directed by a higher will to promote the interests of those who are to form Christ’s kingdom. This is true of all of them [ πάντες] whatever hierarchies there be among them. λειτουργικὰ, cf. Hebrews 5:5. λειτουργός with its cognates has come to play a large part in ecclesiastical language. It is originally “a public servant”; from λεῖτος, an unused adjective connected with λαός, meaning “what belongs to the people” and ἔργον. It occurs frequently in LXX, sometimes denoting the official who attends on a king (Joshua 1:1), sometimes angels (Psalms 103:21), commonly the priests and Levites (Nehemiah 10:39), οἱ ἱερεῖς οἱ λειτουργοί, and Isaiah 61:6. In N.T. it is used of those who render service to God or to Christ or to men (cf. Lepine’s Ministers of Jesus Christ, p. 126). εἰς διακονίαν ἀποστελλόμενα, present part., denoting continuous action. “Sent forth”; therefore as servants by a higher power (cf. Acts 1:25, διακονίας ταύτης κ. ἀποστολῆς). διακονία originally means the ministry of a body servant or table servant (cf. Luke 4:39; Mark 1:13, οἱ ἄγγελοι διηκόνουν αὐτῷ) and is used throughout N.T. for ministry in spiritual things. μέλλοντας might almost be rendered “destined” as in Matthew 3:7; Matthew 11:14; Matthew 16:27; Matthew 17:12, etc. κληρονομεῖν, see on Hebrews 1:4. σωτηρίαν in the classics means either preservation or deliverance. In N.T. the word naturally came to be used as the semi-technical term for the deliverance from sin and entrance into permanent wellbeing effected by Christ. See Luke 1:71; Luke 1:77; John 4:22; Acts 4:12; Acts 16:17; Romans 1:16, etc. In Hebrews 2:3 the salvation referred to is termed τηλικαύτη. Cf. Hooker’s outburst, Eccles. Pol., i., iv., 1, and Sir Oliver Lodge (Hibbert Journal, Jan., 1903, p. 223): “If we are open to influence from each other by non-corporeal methods, may we not be open to influence from beings in another region or of another order? And if so, may we not be aided, inspired, guided by a cloud of witnesses—not witnesses only, but helpers, agents like ourselves of the immanent God?” On guardian angels, see Charles’ Book of Jubilees, Moulton in J. T. S., August 1902, and Rogers’ edition of Aristoph., Eccles., 999, and the Orphic Fragment quoted by Clement (Strom., v.) σῷ δὲ θρόνῳ πυρόεντι παρεστᾶσιν πολυμόχθοι ἄγγελοι οἷσι μέμηλε βροτοῖς ὡς πάντα τελεῖται. Cf. Shakespeare’s “Angels and ministers of grace defend us”.


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Bibliography
Nicol, W. Robertson, M.A., L.L.D. "Commentary on Hebrews 1:10". The Expositor's Greek Testament. https:https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/egt/hebrews-1.html. 1897-1910.

George Haydock's Catholic Bible Commentary

And again: thou in the beginning, O Lord, hast founded the earth, &c. The text, as well as the authority of interpreters, shew these words to be still spoken of the Son of God, of Christ, who was both true God and man. And thought part of Psalm ci. from which these words are taken, contain a prayer to God for the restoring of the city of Jerusalem, yet in this psalm is chiefly signified the glory of Christ, and of his Church, which will be spread over all nations. See St. John Chrysostom, Estius, Cornelius a Lapide, &c. --- As a vesture shalt thou change them, &c. The apostle, in the second verse of this chapter, had said that the world was made by the Son of God: now he tells us that all created things shall wax old like a garment, shall decay and perish, (at least from their present state and condition) shall be changed; but thou, who art both God and man, art always the same, without decay or change. (Witham) --- The apostle here applies the work of the creation to the Son of God, and thus furnishes a clear and striking proof of his divinity, against the Unitarians. To elude this proof, some of them pretend that these verses have been fraudulently added; but they are found in all the Greek copies, and in all ancient versions of this epistle. Others try to give forced interpretations to these verses, but the words are convincingly clear to all who do not purposely shut their eyes.


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Haydock, George Leo. "Commentary on Hebrews 1:10". "George Haydock's Catholic Bible Commentary". https:https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/hcc/hebrews-1.html. 1859.

E.W. Bullinger's Companion Bible Notes

Lord. App-98.

in the beginning. Greek. kat" archas. See John 1:1.

hast . . . foundation. Literally didst found. Greek. themelioo. App-146.

earth. Greek. ge. App-129.


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Bullinger, Ethelbert William. "Commentary on Hebrews 1:10". "E.W. Bullinger's Companion bible Notes". https:https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/bul/hebrews-1.html. 1909-1922.

Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible - Unabridged

And, Thou, Lord, in the beginning hast laid the foundation of the earth; and the heavens are the works of thine hands:

And. In another passage He says, in the beginning. The Septuagint (as in Genesis 1:1) answers by contrast to the end implied in "they shall perish," etc. The English version, 'of old:' Hebrew, 'aforetime.' Greek order here (not in Septuagint) is, 'Thou in the beginning, Lord,' which throws "Lord" into emphasis. 'Christ is preached even in passages where many might contend that the Father was principally intended' (Bengel).

Laid the foundation of , [ ethemelioosas (Greek #2311)] - 'firmly.'

Heavens - plural: manifold, including various orders of heavenly intelligences (Ephesians 4:10).

Works of thine hands - the heavens, as a hand-woven curtain spread out (Psalms 104:2).


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Jamieson, Robert, D.D.; Fausset, A. R.; Brown, David. "Commentary on Hebrews 1:10". "Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible - Unabridged". https:https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/jfu/hebrews-1.html. 1871-8.

Ellicott's Commentary for English Readers

(10) And.—Hebrews 1:10-12 are by this word linked with Hebrews 1:8, as presenting the second part of the contrast between angels and the Son. As there we read of a divine sovereignty, so here of the work of creation, the power to change all created things, the divine attribute of changeless existence. This quotation from Psalms 102:25-27 agrees almost exactly with the text of the LXX. as we have it in the Alexandrian MS., except that the words “as a garment” (not found in the Psalm) must here (Hebrews 1:12) be added, according to our best authorities. The only point of any difficulty in these verses is that the writer discovers a testimony to the supremacy of the Son in words which, as they stand in the Psalm, would appear to be directly addressed to God as Creator. If, however, the Psalm be examined, it will be found (see Hebrews 1:13-14) to contain the expression of hopes which in reality were inseparably united with the fulfilment of the Messianic promise. “The Lord shall appear to build up Zion:” this is the Psalmist’s theme, and it is to the same Lord that he addresses the words which are quoted here. As in Jesus the Christian Jew saw Him who fulfilled all these promises of God to His people, the application of the words of adoration to the same Lord would at once be recognised as true.


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Ellicott, Charles John. "Commentary on Hebrews 1:10". "Ellicott's Commentary for English Readers". https:https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/ebc/hebrews-1.html. 1905.

Treasury of Scripture Knowledge

And, Thou, Lord, in the beginning hast laid the foundation of the earth; and the heavens are the works of thine hands:
Thou
Psalms 102:25-27
in
Genesis 1:1; John 1:1-3; Revelation 3:14
hast
Proverbs 8:29; Isaiah 42:5; 48:13; 51:13; Jeremiah 32:17; Zechariah 12:1
the works
Deuteronomy 4:19; Psalms 8:3,4; 19:1; Isaiah 64:8

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Torrey, R. A. "Commentary on Hebrews 1:10". "The Treasury of Scripture Knowledge". https:https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/tsk/hebrews-1.html.

The Bible Study New Testament

He also said. This is from Psalm 102:25-27. Created the earth. See Hebrews 1:2 and notes. This is to prove that angels had nothing to do with Creation. It also proves that the evil god (Satan) had nothing to do with Creation. See notes on 1 Timothy 4:4.


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Ice, Rhoderick D. "Commentary on Hebrews 1:10". "The Bible Study New Testament". https:https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/ice/hebrews-1.html. College Press, Joplin, MO. 1974.

E.M. Zerr's Commentary on Selected Books of the New Testament

This and the following two verses ( Hebrews 1:11-12) are quoted from Psalm 102:24-27. David was the famous ancestor of Christ, yet he recognizes him as his Lord ( Matthew 22:43-45). The work of creation is ascribed to Christ because he was associated with his Father in that work. It is so taught in John 1:1-3, and it is indicated likewise by the plural pronoun "us" in Genesis 1:26; Genesis 3:22.


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Zerr, E.M. "Commentary on Hebrews 1:10". E.M. Zerr's Commentary on Selected Books of the New Testament. https:https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/znt/hebrews-1.html. 1952.

Haldane's Exposition on the Epistle to the Romans

And, Thou, Lord, in the beginning hast laid the foundation of the earth; and the heavens are the works of thine hands.

And, thou, Lord.—The102Psalm, from which this quotation is taken describes, in an address to His Father, the sufferings of Christ and the depth of His humiliation. Ver1-11. The sweet Psalmist of Israel then contemplates Jehovah arising in His might to favor Sion, and anticipates the universal spread of the Gospel. Ver16-22. He then adverts to His own suffering and death, ver23 , and describes the supplications which He offered to Him who was able to save Him from death. Ver24. The concluding verses contain the answer to the prayer. Had the Psalm not been quoted by the Apostle, we should, probably, have understood the conclusion of the Psalm as the continuance of the prayer, but we learn from the Apostle that it is the answer which Christ received. In the depth of His humiliation He is acknowledged as the Creator of heaven and earth. John 1:3. The Apostle had previously stated that God had made the worlds by His Song of Solomon , ver2; and here, in reply to the expression of Christ's deep and overwhelming affliction, He is reminded that His years are throughout all generations:—"Of old hast thou laid the foundations of the earth: and the heavens are the work of thy hands. They shall perish, but thou shalt endure: yea, all of them shall wax old like a garment; as a vesture shalt thou change them, and they shall be changed; but thou art the same, and thy years shall have no end." Psalm 102:25-27. It had been given to the Son to have life in Himself, although in connexion with his humanity He had received a commandment to lay it down, that He might take it again; and not only Song of Solomon , but the children of His servants should continue, and their seed should be established before Him, which exactly corresponds with our Lord's words—"Because I live, ye shall live also." John 14:19.


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Haldane, Robert. "Commentary on Hebrews 1:10". "Haldane's Exposition on the Epistle to the Romans and Hebrews". https:https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/hal/hebrews-1.html. 1835.

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