Verse-by-Verse Bible Commentary

John 19:36

For these things came to pass to fulfill the Scripture, " Not a bone of Him shall be broken ."
New American Standard Version

Bible Study Resources

Concordances:
Nave's Topical Bible - Bones;   Jesus, the Christ;   Quotations and Allusions;   The Topic Concordance - Jesus Christ;   Torrey's Topical Textbook - Paschal Lamb, Typical Nature of;   Prophecies Respecting Christ;   Types of Christ;  
Dictionaries:
American Tract Society Bible Dictionary - Exodus;   Fulfilled;   Passover;   Baker Evangelical Dictionary of Biblical Theology - Feasts and Festivals of Israel;   Persecution;   Zechariah, Theology of;   Charles Buck Theological Dictionary - Christianity;   Humiliation of Christ;   Jesus Christ;   Easton Bible Dictionary - Passover;   Fausset Bible Dictionary - Bones;   Burial;   Passover;   Holman Bible Dictionary - John, the Gospel of;   Hastings' Dictionary of the Bible - Eucharist;   John, Gospel of;   Lamb of God;   Moses;   Hastings' Dictionary of the New Testament - Atonement (2);   Blood and Water ;   Foresight;   Forgiveness (2);   Guilt (2);   Interpretation;   Israel, Israelite;   Legs ;   Moses ;   Necessity;   Old Testament (I. Christ as Fulfilment of);   Passover;   Preparation ;   Propitiation (2);   Psalms (2);   Quotations (2);   Septuagint;   Morrish Bible Dictionary - Lord's Table, the;   ;   The Hawker's Poor Man's Concordance And Dictionary - Passover;   Watson's Biblical & Theological Dictionary - Cross;   Passover;   Prophecy;  
Encyclopedias:
International Standard Bible Encyclopedia - Canon of the Old Testament;   Exodus, the Book of;   Passover;   Quotations, New Testament;  
Devotionals:
Every Day Light - Devotion for November 13;  

Albert Barnes' Notes on the Whole Bible

That the scripture should be fulfilled - See Exodus 12:46. John here regards the paschal lamb as an emblem of Christ; and as in the law it was commanded that a bone of that lamb should not be broken, so, in the providence of God, it was ordered that a bone of the Saviour should not be broken. The Scripture thus received a complete fulfillment respecting both the type and the antitype. Some have supposed, however, that John referred to Psalm 34:20.

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Barnes, Albert. "Commentary on John 19:36". "Barnes' Notes on the Whole Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/bnb/john-19.html. 1870.

The Biblical Illustrator

John 19:36

A bone of Him shall not be broken

The inviolate body of Christ


Why not?

1. His enemies might tear His flesh, &c., take away His life, heap upon Him every dishonour, but they could not break a bone of the body of Jesus. An attempt was made. Pilate commanded the soldiers to break the legs of the crucified. This was done to the two malefactors, but when they came to Jesus they could not break His legs. Roman soldiers were not accustomed to break the commands of their governors; but there stood what was mightier than the governor, mightier than Caesar: a text of Scripture.

2. From the manner in which the Evangelist speaks, it is evident that there is some important lesson to learn (John 19:35). The evangelists generally are content with a simple statement, and leave it to produce upon the reader its own impression; but here, as if there were important things that must be believed, he stays, contrary to his usual manner, to asseverate. Now, what are the lessons?

I. THAT CHRIST, OUR PASSOVER, IS SACRIFICED FOR US. Notice

1. A peculiarity of John. He appears as if he had gone back to the days of his youth, and the events were all passing before him. Matthew, Mark, and Luke wrote as historians, but John as a witness. He saw and felt it all again. He says: “Then came the soldiers,”--and what did they do? They brake the legs of the two malefactors? That would have been Matthew’s way of putting it. But John says, “and brake the legs of the first.” That is done; “and of the other that was crucified with him.” That is done. “But when they came to Jesus,”--he watches them coming--“and saw”--He observed their looks--“that He was dead already;” there was the certain expression of death on the countenance of the blessed Saviour that could not be mistaken; and the soldiers were sure He was dead; and John was sure too. And so “they brake not His legs.” It does not seem as an afterthought, nor as though he was hunting for an argument, but just then, while he was looking on, the law of the Passover was suggested to his mind, and he felt something like this: “There is the fulfilment of Scripture there; not a bone of Him is broken. There is the Passover slain for us.”

2. There was everything to remind John of the Passover. He had eaten the Passover with Christ the night before. Friends of his from Galilee had come up to keep the Passover; before them all, Christ, our Passover, was sacrificed; it was the great paschal day.

3. And what is the lesson for us? Christ was the Paschal Lamb of the Christian Church. Through the shedding of His blood we plead for mercy; the avenging angel passes by; the wrath of God is averted; there is no demand for death; peace and joy may remain in our houses.

II. THAT NO DISHONOUR WHATSOEVER WAS TO BE DONE TO THE BODY OF JESUS AFTER HIS spirit had departed.

1. His life was gone, and He was no longer a consenting party. The dishonour as well as the agony He suffered was meritorious, and by it He was perfected in obedience, and was working out our salvation; but there can be nothing meritorious in any sufferings of a dead body; and therefore the body was, after death, under the guardian care of His heavenly Father; and so it was honoured in every possible way. Observe this in the narrative. What a contrast was there between the morning and the evening of that Friday! In the morning He is hung on a malefactor’s cross; in the evening He is lying in the rich man’s tomb. Great purposes were accomplished by the dishonour. “Who, when He was reviled, reviled not again,” &c. He endured the cross, and despised the shame, and showed the meekness and gentleness of His forgiving spirit when others were insulting Him. After death there could be no such object to accomplish.

2. The contrast is very remarkable; but observe how it is brought about. What was to become of the body of Jesus? It was not uncommon to leave the bodies hanging, the prey of carrion birds and ravenous beasts. But it was the great feast-time of the Jews, and it would have been a pollution to have allowed the bodies to remain there. What was to become of Jesus? There was a friend of His, a member of the Sanhedrim, who had the right to go to Pilate and ask a favour; “a disciple, but secretly, for fear of the Jews.” A man afraid to avow himself a disciple before the Jews, would he avow himself a disciple before Pilate? Well, he did so. God is never at a loss for an instrument, and sometimes He employs the most unlikely. Nicodemus also was emboldened now, and so the two, and the servants, could thus reverently take down the body of Jesus, and convey it to the tomb with every possible honour. It was as if God had marked His approval of the great work which Jesus had finished. He has not long to lie in the tomb, but every honour shall be done Him while He is there. His body saw no corruption. (R. Halley, D. D.)

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Bibliographical Information
Exell, Joseph S. "Commentary on "John 19:36". The Biblical Illustrator. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/tbi/john-19.html. 1905-1909. New York.

John Gill's Exposition of the Whole Bible

For these things were done,.... The not breaking his bones and piercing his side, and that not by chance, and without design; but,

that the Scripture should be fulfilled, a bone of him shall not be broken; referring either to Psalm 34:20 he keepeth all his bones, not one of them is broken; which if to be understood of the righteous in general, had a very particular and remarkable accomplishment in Christ; though a certain single person seems to be designed; nor is it true in fact of every righteous man, some of whom have had their bones broken; and such a sense would lead to despair in case of broken bones; for whereas such a calamity befalls them, as well as wicked men, under such an affliction, they might be greatly distressed, and from hence be ready to conclude, that they are not righteous persons, and are not under the care and protection of God, or otherwise this promise would be made good: nor have the words any respect to the resurrection of the dead, as if the sense of it was, that none of the bones of the righteous shall be finally broken; and though they may be broken by men, and in their sight, yet the Lord will raise them again, and restore them whole and perfect at the general resurrection; for this will be true of the wicked, as well as of the righteous: and much less is the meaning of the words, one of his bones shall not be broken, namely, the bone "luz", the Jews speak of; which, they sayF9Bereshit Rabba, sect. 28. fol. 23. 3. Vajikra Rabba, sect. 18. fol. 159. 3. Zohar in Gen. fol. 51. 1. & 82. 1. , remains uncorrupted in the grave, and is so hard that it cannot be softened by water, nor burnt in the fire, nor ground in the mill, nor broke with an hammer; by and from which God will raise the whole body at the last day: but the words are to be understood of Christ, he is the poor man that is particularly pointed at in Psalm 34:6 who, was poor in his state of humiliation, and who cried unto the Lord, and he heard him, and saved him; and he is the righteous one, whose afflictions were many, and out of which the Lord delivered him, Psalm 34:19 whose providential care of him was very particular and remarkable; he kept his bones from being broken, when others were; and by this incident this passage had its literal fulfilment in him: or else it may refer to the passover lamb, a type of Christ, 1 Corinthians 5:7 a bone of which was not to be broken, Exodus 12:46. The former of these passages is a command, in the second person, to the Israelites, concerning the paschal lamb, "neither shall ye break a bone thereof"; and the latter is delivered in the third person, "nor shall they break any bone of it"; which may be rendered impersonally, "a bone of it, or of him, shall not be broken; or a bone shall not be broken in him"; and so the Syriac and Persic versions read the words here; and in some copies it is, "a bone shall not be broken from him"; and so read the Vulgate Latin and Ethiopic versions; and he that violated this precept, according to the traditions of the Jews, was to be beaten. MaimonidesF11Hilchot Korban Pesach. c. 10. sect. 1, 2, 3, 4. says,

"he that breaks a bone in a pure passover, lo, he is to be beaten, as it is said, "and a bone ye shall not break in it": and so it is said of the second passover, "and a bone ye shall not break in it"; but a passover which comes with uncleanness, if a man breaks a bone in it, he is not to be beaten: from the literal sense it may be learned, that a bone is not to be broken, whether in a pure or defiled passover: one that breaks a bone on the night of the fifteenth, or that breaks a bone in it within the day, or that breaks one after many days, lo, he is to be beaten; wherefore they burn the bones of the passover in general, with what is left of its flesh, that they may not come to damage: none are guilty but for the breaking of a bone on which there is flesh of the quantity of an olive, or in which there is marrow; but a bone in which there is no marrow, and on which there is no flesh of the quantity of an olive, a man is not guilty for breaking it; and if there is flesh upon it of such a quantity, and he breaks the bone in the place where there is no flesh, he is guilty, although the place which he breaks is quite bare of its flesh: he that breaks after (another) has broken, is to be beaten.'

And with these rules agree the following canonsF12Misn. Pesachim, c. 7. sect. 10, 11. ,

"the bones and sinews, and what is left, they burn on the sixteenth day, but if that falls on the sabbath, they burn them on the seventeenth, because these do not drive away the sabbath or a feast day.'

And so it fell out this year in which Christ suffered, for the sixteenth was the sabbath day: again,

"he that breaks a bone in a pure passover, lo, he is to be beaten with forty stripes; but he that leaves anything in a pure one, and breaks in an impure one, is not to be beaten with forty stripes;'

yea, they sayF13Maimon. Korban Pesach. c. 10. sect. 9. , though

"it was a little kid and tender, and whose bones are tender, they may not eat them; for this is breaking of the bone, and if he eats he is to be beaten, for it is the same thing whether a hard or a tender bone be broken.'

Now in this as in many other respects the paschal lamb was a type of Christ, whose bones were none of them to be broken, to show that his life was not taken away by men, but was laid down freely by himself; and also the unbroken strength of Christ under the weight of sin, the curse of the law, and wrath of God, and conflict with Satan, when he obtained eternal redemption for us: and also this was on account of his resurrection from the dead, which was to be in a few days; though had his bones been broken he could easily have restored them, but it was the will of God it should be otherwise. Moreover, as none of the bones of his natural body were to be broken, so none that are members of him in a spiritual sense, who are bone of his bone and flesh of his flesh, shall ever be lost.

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The New John Gill's Exposition of the Entire Bible Modernised and adapted for the computer by Larry Pierce of Online Bible. All Rights Reserved, Larry Pierce, Winterbourne, Ontario.
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Bibliographical Information
Gill, John. "Commentary on John 19:36". "The New John Gill Exposition of the Entire Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/geb/john-19.html. 1999.

Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible

that the scripture should be fulfilled, A bone of him shall not be broken — The reference is to the paschal lamb, as to which this ordinance was stringent (Exodus 12:46; Numbers 9:12. Compare 1 Corinthians 5:7). But though we are to see here the fulfillment of a very definite typical ordinance, we shall, on searching deeper, see in it a remarkable divine interposition to protect the sacred body of Christ from the last indignity after He had finished the work given Him to do. Every imaginable indignity had been permitted before that, up to the moment of His death. But no sooner is that over than an Unseen hand is found to have provided against the clubs of the rude soldiers coming in contact with that temple of the Godhead. Very different from such violence was that spear-thrust, for which not only doubting Thomas would thank the soldier, but intelligent believers in every age, to whom the certainty of their Lord‘s death and resurrection is the life of their whole Christianity.

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These files are a derivative of an electronic edition prepared from text scanned by Woodside Bible Fellowship.
This expanded edition of the Jameison-Faussett-Brown Commentary is in the public domain and may be freely used and distributed.
Bibliographical Information
Jamieson, Robert, D.D.; Fausset, A. R.; Brown, David. "Commentary on John 19:36". "Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/jfb/john-19.html. 1871-8.

John Lightfoot's Commentary on the Gospels

36. For these things were done, that the scripture should be fulfilled, A bone of him shall not be broken.

[A bone of him shall not be broken.] These words may have some reference to that of Psalm 34:20: but they are more commonly referred by expositors to that law about the Paschal lamb, Exodus 12:46: for "Christ is our Passover," 1 Corinthians 5:7.

"If any one break a bone of the Passover, let him receive forty stripes." "The bones, the sinews, and what remains of the flesh, must all be burned on the sixteenth day. If the sixteenth day should happen on the sabbath" [and so indeed it did happen in this year wherein Christ was crucified], "then let them be burned on the seventeenth: for they drive away neither the sabbath nor any holy day."

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Lightfoot, John. "Commentary on John 19:36". "John Lightfoot Commentary on the Gospels". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/jlc/john-19.html. 1675.

Robertson's Word Pictures in the New Testament

Be broken (συντριβησεταιsuntribēsetai). Second future passive of συντριβωsuntribō to crush together. A free quotation of Exodus 12:46 about the paschal lamb.

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The Robertson's Word Pictures of the New Testament. Copyright Broadman Press 1932,33, Renewal 1960. All rights reserved. Used by permission of Broadman Press (Southern Baptist Sunday School Board)
Bibliographical Information
Robertson, A.T. "Commentary on John 19:36". "Robertson's Word Pictures of the New Testament". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/rwp/john-19.html. Broadman Press 1932,33. Renewal 1960.

Wesley's Explanatory Notes

For these things were done, that the scripture should be fulfilled, A bone of him shall not be broken.

A bone of it shall not be broken — This was originally spoken of the paschal lamb, an eminent type of Christ. Exodus 12:46.

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These files are public domain and are a derivative of an electronic edition that is available on the Christian Classics Ethereal Library Website.
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Wesley, John. "Commentary on John 19:36". "John Wesley's Explanatory Notes on the Whole Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/wen/john-19.html. 1765.

The Fourfold Gospel

For these things came to pass, that the scripture might be fulfilled, A bone of him shall not be broken1.

  1. A bone of him shall not be broken. See Psalms 34:20.

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These files are public domain and are a derivative of an electronic edition that is available on the Christian Classics Ethereal Library Website. These files were made available by Mr. Ernie Stefanik. First published online in 1996 at The Restoration Movement Pages.
Bibliographical Information
J. W. McGarvey and Philip Y. Pendleton. "Commentary on John 19:36". "The Fourfold Gospel". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/tfg/john-19.html. Standard Publishing Company, Cincinnati, Ohio. 1914.

Abbott's Illustrated New Testament

This was said originally of the paschal lamb. (Exodus 12:46,Nu+9:12.)

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Abbott, John S. C. & Abbott, Jacob. "Commentary on John 19:36". "Abbott's Illustrated New Testament". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/ain/john-19.html. 1878.

Calvin's Commentary on the Bible

Кость Его да не сокрушится. Это свидетельство заимствовано из двенадцатой главы Книги Исход, ст. 46 (также Числ.9:12), где Моисей говорит о пасхальном агнце. Иоанн считает общепризнанным, что этот агнец – символ истинного и единственного жертвоприношения, искупившего Церковь. И не мешает то, что он закалывался в память уже совершенного искупления. Бог велел таким образом праздновать Свое благодеяние, чтобы одновременно дать Церкви обещание будущего избавления. Посему Павел без рассуждений относит ко Христу заповеданную Моисеем пасхальную пищу. Из этой аналогии вера черпает немалый плод. Ведь все обряды закона, по сути, имеют в виду явленное Христом спасение. То же самое хочет сказать Иоанн: Христос не только истинный залог нашего искупления, но и истинная его уплата. Ибо в Нем исполнилось то, что некогда было показано древнему народу в образе пасхи. Все это учило иудеев искать во Христе суть спасения, изображаемого, но не даваемого законом.

 

 

 

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Calvin, John. "Commentary on John 19:36". "Calvin's Commentary on the Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/cal/john-19.html. 1840-57.

John Trapp Complete Commentary

36 For these things were done, that the scripture should be fulfilled, A bone of him shall not be broken.

Ver. 36. Not a bone of him was broken] So he appeared to be the true Paschal Lamb, that was roasted whole in the fire of his Father’s wrath, to deliver us from the wrath to come. The soldiers could not break his legs, because God had otherwise ordered it. Voluntas Dei, necessitas rei.

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Trapp, John. "Commentary on John 19:36". John Trapp Complete Commentary. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/jtc/john-19.html. 1865-1868.

Greek Testament Critical Exegetical Commentary

36.] ‘For’—i.e. as connected with the true Messiahship of Christ, ‘these things were a fulfilment of Scripture.’ It is possible that Psalms 33:20 (LXX) may be also referred to;—but no doubt the primary reference is to the Paschal Lamb of Exod., as in reff.: see 1 Corinthians 5:7.

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Alford, Henry. "Commentary on John 19:36". Greek Testament Critical Exegetical Commentary. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/hac/john-19.html. 1863-1878.

Johann Albrecht Bengel's Gnomon of the New Testament

John 19:36. ὀστοῦν οὐ συντριβήσεται αὐτοῦ, not a bone of Him shall be broken) Instead of αὐτοῦ, some Greek MSS. have ἀπʼ αὐτοῦ from the LXX. I know not whether also any versions have this reading. αὐτοῦ is more in accordance with the subject itself in John; nay more, it accords also with the Hebrew בו in Moses: the LXX. in Exodus 12:46, have καὶ ὀστοῦν οὐ συντρίψετε ἀπʼ αὐτοῦ; in Numbers 9:12, καὶ ὀστοῦν οὐ συντρίψουσιν (Alex. οὐ συντρίψεται) ἀπʼ αὐτοῦ. But also in Psalms 34(33):20, ἐν ἐξ αὐτῶν ( τῶν ὀστέων) οὐ συντριβήσεται, John accords with Moses, in that he employs the singular number ὀστοῦν; he accords with the Psalm, in that he passes over (omits) the particle καὶ, which he would not omit if he were referring to the Mosaic ועצם: Comp. ch. John 6:45, καὶ ἔσονται πάντες διδακτοὶ θεοῦ, where the καὶ is retained in the quotation from the original, Isaiah 54:13; and in that he says οὐ συντριβήσεται. Therefore the Psalm refers back to Moses, John to the Psalm, as also to Moses. The Passover was a type, 1 Corinthians 5:7, “Purge out the old leaven, that ye may be a new lump, as ye are unleavened; for even Christ our Passover is sacrificed for us;” and that type is fulfilled in the passion of Christ. The bones of Jesus Christ did not undergo breaking or injury; nor did His flesh undergo corruption. The cross was the direst of capital punishments; and yet any other would have been less suitable for the raising again of the body [in its unbroken integrity] presently after.

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Bengel, Johann Albrecht. "Commentary on John 19:36". Johann Albrecht Bengel's Gnomon of the New Testament. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/jab/john-19.html. 1897.

Matthew Poole's English Annotations on the Holy Bible

Now was there any thing of this but in fulfilling of the Scripture; for it was God’s law about the passover, Exodus 12:46 Numbers 9:12, concerning the paschal lamb, (which was a type of Christ, John 1:29 1 Corinthians 5:7), that a bone of it should not be broken. So as by this breaking no bone of Christ’s body, they might have understood that he was figured out by the paschal lamb.

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Poole, Matthew, "Commentary on John 19:36". Matthew Poole's English Annotations on the Holy Bible. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/mpc/john-19.html. 1685.

Justin Edwards' Family Bible New Testament

The scripture; Exodus 12:46; Numbers 9:12.

A bone of him shall not be broken; these words, originally spoken of the paschal lamb, which was the type of Christ, were now fulfilled in the great antitype. The providences of God are so ordered as to be a fulfilment of his word; and both unite in proclaiming that his counsel shall stand, and that he will do all his pleasure. Isaiah 46:10.

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Edwards, Justin. "Commentary on John 19:36". "Family Bible New Testament". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/fam/john-19.html. American Tract Society. 1851.

Whedon's Commentary on the Bible

36.A bone’ not be broken—John quotes these words with but slight verbal variation from Exodus 12:46, and Numbers 9:12. In those passages it is the Passover lamb to which the words apply. In John’s view, therefore, Christ himself is the paschal victim, so that the words must be true of him. In other words, the Passover lamb is a predictive emblem of the Redeemer. So Paul affirms (1 Corinthians 5:7) Christ, our Passover, (or paschal victim,) is slain for us. That it was a substitutive victim is plain from the facts of the original institution of the Passover. Israel was as true a sinner as Egypt; but for Israel the paschal victim died instead. And as, when the destroying angel saw the paschal blood he passed over unharming, so when divine justice beholds in our behalf the atoning blood, it spares our souls. As the paschal victim by its blood redeemed Israel from Egypt and transmitted them to Canaan, so Christ’s atoning blood delivers us from the bonds of sin and furnishes our passport to the heavenly land. And this paschal lamb was to be without blemish, was to be eaten entire, without the breaking of a single bone. And this is the physical symbol of that perfectness, completeness, and sacredness belonging to the Redeemer’s person. So in our Saxon-English dialect the word holiness is but a different form of the word wholeness. Corporeally, our Saviour’s person was so divinely guarded, that except those scourgings and wounds prefigured by the slaughter of the emblematic victims of sacrifice, no harm could mar him. In his body must therefore be fulfilled the requirement laid upon the paschal lamb; not a bone of him shall be broken.

This bodily inviolable wholeness, belonging both to the emblematic and real victims, must, moreover, be taken with all the momentous import it contains. Christ’s whole nature is perfect before God and man; hence is he acceptable to God completely and perfectly; and hence should he be accepted by man in all the same completeness and perfectness. Thereby we aspire to the same perfection; and thereby, becoming the very body of Christ, we finally attain its own perfectness, and become acceptable once and forever before God the Father Almighty.

 

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Whedon, Daniel. "Commentary on John 19:36". "Whedon's Commentary on the Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/whe/john-19.html. 1874-1909.

The Expositor's Greek Testament

John 19:36. . He records these things, contained in this short paragraph, because they further identify Jesus as the promised Messiah. . The law regarding the Paschal lamb ran thus (Exodus 12:46): , cf.Psalms 34:20. Evidently John identified Jesus as the Paschal Lamb, cf.1 Corinthians 5:7. . Another Scripture also here found its fulfilment, Zechariah 12:10. The original is: “They shall look upon me whom they pierced”. The Sept[93] renders: : “They shall look towards me because they insulted me”. John gives a more accurate translation: : “They shall look on Him whom ( ) they pierced”. The same rendering is adopted in the Greek versions of Aquila, Theodotion and Symmachus, and is also found in Ignatius, Ep. Trall., 10; Justin, I. Apol., i. 77; and cf.Revelation 1:7, and Barnabas, Ep., 7. In the lance thrust John sees a suggestive connection with the martyr-hero of Zechariah’s prophecy.

[93] Septuagint.

 

 

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Nicol, W. Robertson, M.A., L.L.D. "Commentary on John 19:36". The Expositor's Greek Testament. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/egt/john-19.html. 1897-1910.

George Haydock's Catholic Bible Commentary

You shall not break a bone of him. This, which was literally spoken of the paschal lamb, (Exodus xii. 46.) the evangelist applies to Christ, of whom the lamb was a figure. (Witham) --- This had been said of the paschal lamb, which was a figure of Jesus Christ. (Exodus xii. 46. and Numbers ix. 12.)

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Haydock, George Leo. "Commentary on John 19:36". "George Haydock's Catholic Bible Commentary". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/hcc/john-19.html. 1859.

E.W. Bullinger's Companion Bible Notes

A. bone, &c. This has reference to Exodus 12:46. Numbers 9:12. Thus in all things He was the antitype of the Passover lamb.

broken. Greek suntribo. Not the same word as in verses: John 19:31, John 19:32. Compare Psalms 34:20.

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Bullinger, Ethelbert William. "Commentary on John 19:36". "E.W. Bullinger's Companion bible Notes". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/bul/john-19.html. 1909-1922.

Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible - Unabridged

For these things were done, that the scripture should be fulfilled, A bone of him shall not be broken.

For these things were done, that the scripture should be fulfilled, A bone of him shall not be broken.

The Scripture referred to can be no other than the stringent and remarkable ordinance regarding the Paschal Lamb, that a bone of it should not be broken (Exodus 12:46; Numbers 9:12). And if so, we have this apostle as well as Paul (1 Corinthians 5:7), holding forth the Paschal Lamb as a typical foreshadowing of "the Lamb of God." There indeed in Psalms 34:1-22 a verse which some-regarding it as Messianic-have thought to the passage referred to by the Evangelist: "He keepeth all his bones; not one of them is broken" (Psalms 34:20). But that is rather a definite way of expressing the minute care with which God watches over His people in the body; and the right view of its bearing on Christ is to mark how congruous it was that that should be literally realized in Him which was designed but generally to express the safety of all His saints. But we shall miss one of the most august designs of God in the suffer ings of His Son if we rest here. Up to the moment of His death, every imaginable indignity had been permitted to be done to the sacred body of the Lord Jesus-as if, so long as the Sacrifice was incomplete, the Lord, who had laid upon Him the iniquity of us all, would not interpose. But no sooner has He "finished" the work given Him to do than an Unseen Hand is found to have provided against the clubs of the rude soldiers coming in contact with that Temple of the Godhead. Very different from such violence was that spear-thrust, for which not only doubting Thomas would thank the soldier, but intelligent believers in every age, to whom the certainty of their Lord's death and resurrection is the life of their whole Christianity.

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Jamieson, Robert, D.D.; Fausset, A. R.; Brown, David. "Commentary on John 19:36". "Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible - Unabridged". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/jfu/john-19.html. 1871-8.

Ellicott's Commentary for English Readers

(36) For these things were done (better, came to pass), that the scripture should be fulfilled.—The emphatic witness of the previous verse is not therefore to be confined to the one fact of the flowing of the blood and the water, but to the facts in which the fulfilment of Scripture was accomplished, and which establish the Messiahship of Jesus.

He saw—that which might have seemed an accidental occurrence—that they brake not the legs of Jesus; he saw—that which might have seemed a sort of instinct of the moment—that the Roman soldier pierced the side of Jesus; he saw in the water and blood which flowed from it visible proof that Jesus was the Son of man; but he saw, too, that these incidents were part of the divine destiny of the Messiah which the prophets had foretold, and that in them the Scripture was fulfilled. (Comp. Note on John 13:18.)

A bone of him shall not be broken.—The reference is, as the margin gives it, to the Paschal Lamb, in which the Baptist had already seen a type of Christ (comp. Note on John 1:29), and which St. Paul afterwards more definitely identifies with Him (1 Corinthians 5:7). It is not equally apposite to refer to Psalms 34:20, as the thought there is of preservation in life, but the words of the Psalm are doubtless themselves a poetic adaptation of the words of Exodus.

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Ellicott, Charles John. "Commentary on John 19:36". "Ellicott's Commentary for English Readers". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/ebc/john-19.html. 1905.

Treasury of Scripture Knowledge

For these things were done, that the scripture should be fulfilled, A bone of him shall not be broken.
that the
Exodus 12:46; Numbers 9:12; Psalms 22:14; 34:20; 35:10
Reciprocal: Numbers 9:11 - fourteenth;  1 Kings 2:27 - that he;  2 Kings 15:12 - And so;  Matthew 1:22 - that;  Matthew 2:15 - that;  Matthew 4:14 - it;  Matthew 21:4 - this;  Matthew 26:24 - Son of man goeth;  Mark 14:21 - goeth;  John 10:35 - the scripture;  John 12:38 - That;  John 15:25 - the;  John 19:24 - that;  Acts 1:16 - this;  Acts 13:27 - they have;  Acts 13:29 - when;  Ephesians 4:10 - fill

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Torrey, R. A. "Commentary on John 19:36". "The Treasury of Scripture Knowledge". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/tsk/john-19.html.

Ernst Hengstenberg on John, Revelation, Ecclesiastes, Ezekiel & Psalms

Ver. 36. "For these things were done, that the scripture should be fulfilled, A bone of Him shall not be broken."— γάρ justifies the connection which the preceding words established between the truth of the recorded facts and believing. ταῦτα refers to those preceding facts generally. One of these, however, is prominently stated: "They brake not His legs." This was brought about in the providence of God, who caused Jesus to die before the soldiers came to break the bones, that in this way an utterance of the Old Testament might be fulfilled. This correspondence between prophecy and fulfilment is itself a strong motive to faith. By scripture is here meant, as in ch. John 13:18, Mark 12:10; Mark 15:28, an individual passage of Scripture: it is equivalent to τὸ γεγραμμένον τοῦτο, Luke 20:17; Luke 20:37. Scripture is whatsoever is written and is found in the Book simply. "That the scripture might be fulfilled" is equivalent to "that what is written might come to pass." John was not looking at the passage, Psalms 34:21 : for there the bones of a living righteous man are spoken of; there the singular ὀστοῦν is not used; and the αὐτοῦ is wanting. We expect in relation to this something beyond what is common to all saints. The allusion was rather to two passages which treat of the paschal lamb: Exodus 12:46, "Neither shall ye break a bone thereof," Sept. καὶ ὀστοῦν οὐ συντρίψετε ἀπ̓ αὐτοῦ; and Numbers 9:12, "Nor break any bone of it." John easily substitutes συντριβήσεται for συντρίψετε, συντρίψουσι, that their application might be more obvious to the Antitype, in regard to which the Evangelist makes most prominent the Divine causality. The view that the paschal lamb was typical of Christ is not found only in 1 Corinthians 5:7. In ch. John 1:29 of John's Gospel, Christ is the Antitype of the paschal lamb: ch. John 6:4 also points to Christ as the true Paschal Lamb. Jesus declared Himself to be the Paschal Lamb, in that He withdrew before His enemies until He could die at the Passover; as well as by instituting the Supper in the place of the Jewish feast.

For a clear apprehension of the connection between this Mosaic ordinance and the fact we now consider, it is necessary that we should look at the design and significance of that ordinance. There can be no doubt that it was intended to obviate the profanation of the paschal lamb. No violence was to be offered to it: nothing which might tend to obliterate the distinction between the all-holy sacrifice of the Lord and a common sacrificial animal. In Micah 3:3, the greediness is described of those who, not content with eating the flesh, broke the bones asunder that they might find out everything eatable. Such greediness was to be excluded from the holy meal. Exodus 12:46 leads us to a similar reason of the ordinance: "Neither shall ye break a bone thereof" is there preceded by, "In one house shall it be eaten; thou shalt not carry forth aught of the flesh abroad out of the house." Both fall under the same law: the lamb was to be treated with sacred respect, and not as a common sacrifice. So also in Numbers 9:12, "They shall leave none of it until the morning, nor break any bone of it." The parallel clause leads to the same reason of the ordinance. If any part of the holy lamb remained over, it was not to be used as common food, nor given to other persons; it must be burnt. If we thus discern the reason of the Mosaic ordinance, the passage we now consider has some light shed on it. It was the same divine decorum which forbade all indignity to be offered to the typical paschal lamb, and hindered all indignity from being offered to the Antitype. To the distinction between the typical lamb and common sacrifices in relation to the breaking of the bones, corresponds the distinction between Christ and the two malefactors.

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Hengstenberg, Ernst. "Commentary on John 19:36". Ernst Hengstenberg on John, Revelation, Ecclesiastes, Ezekiel & Psalms. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/heg/john-19.html.

Calvin's Commentary on the Bible

36.A bone of him shall not be broken. This citation is made from Exodus 12:46, and Numbers 9:12, where Moses treats of the paschal lamb. Note, Moses takes for granted that that lamb was a figure of the true and only sacrifice, by which the Church was to be redeemed. Nor is this inconsistent with the fact, that it was sacrificed as the memorial of a redemption which had been already made; for, while God intended that it should celebrate the former favor, he also intended that it should exhibit the spiritual deliverance of the Church, which was still future. On that account Paul, without any hesitation, applies to Christ the rule which Moses lays down about eating the lamb:

for even Christ, our Passover, is sacred for us. Therefore let us keep the feast, not with old leaven, neither with, the leaven of malice and wickedness, but with the unleavened bread of sincerity and truth,
(
1 Corinthians 5:7.)

From this analogy, or resemblance, faith derives no ordinary advantage, for, in all the ceremonies of the Law, it beholds the salvation which has been manifested in Christ. Such is also the design of the Evangelist John, when he says that Christ was not only the pledge of our redemption, but also the price of it, because in him we see accomplished what was formerly exhibited to the ancient people under the figure of the passover. Thus also the Jews are reminded that they ought to seek in Christ the substance of all those things which the Law prefigured, but did not actually accomplish.

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Calvin, John. "Commentary on John 19:36". "Calvin's Commentary on the Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/cal/john-19.html. 1840-57.