Verse-by-Verse Bible Commentary

John 2:3

When the wine ran out, the mother of Jesus *said to Him, "They have no wine."
New American Standard Version

Bible Study Resources

Concordances:
Nave's Topical Bible - Cana;   Food;   Jesus, the Christ;   Marriage;   Mary;   Miracles;   Water;   Scofield Reference Index - Miracles;   Thompson Chain Reference - Intemperance;   Mary;   Temperance-Intemperance;   Wine;   Torrey's Topical Textbook - Diet of the Jews, the;   Marriage;   Wine;  
Dictionaries:
American Tract Society Bible Dictionary - Feasts;   Wine;   Bridgeway Bible Dictionary - Galilee;   Grapes;   John, gospel of;   Marriage;   Mary;   Miracles;   Palestine;   Baker Evangelical Dictionary of Biblical Theology - Joy;   Miracle;   Charles Buck Theological Dictionary - Marriage;   Easton Bible Dictionary - Cana;   Marriage-Feasts;   Wine;   Fausset Bible Dictionary - Women;   Holman Bible Dictionary - Banquet;   Fulfill;   John, the Gospel of;   Mary;   Sign;   Water;   Hastings' Dictionary of the Bible - Joy;   Marriage;   Mary;   Hastings' Dictionary of the New Testament - Announcements of Death;   Brotherhood (2);   Celibacy (2);   Character of Christ;   Common Life;   Dates (2);   Foresight;   Happiness;   John (the Apostle);   Perfection (of Jesus);   Pleasure;   Reality;   Sea of Galilee;   Toleration, Tolerance;   Wealth (2);   Wine ;   Morrish Bible Dictionary - Marriage;   Melchisedec, Melchizedek ;   Miracles;   New Testament;   Wine;   The Hawker's Poor Man's Concordance And Dictionary - Cana;   People's Dictionary of the Bible - Chief parables and miracles in the bible;   Wine;  
Encyclopedias:
Condensed Biblical Cyclopedia - Jesus of Nazareth;   International Standard Bible Encyclopedia - Mary;   Uncleanness;   Woman;  

Adam Clarke Commentary

They have no wine - Though the blessed virgin is supposed to have never seen her son work a miracle before this time, yet she seems to have expected him to do something extraordinary on this occasion; as, from her acquaintance with him, she must have formed some adequate idea of his power and goodness.

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Clarke, Adam. "Commentary on John 2:3". "The Adam Clarke Commentary". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/acc/john-2.html. 1832.

Albert Barnes' Notes on the Whole Bible

When they wanted wine - A marriage feast among the Jews was commonly observed for seven or eight days. It is not probable that there would be a want of wine at the marriage itself, and it is possible, therefore, that Jesus came there some time during the marriage feast.

They have no wine - It is not known why Mary told this to Jesus. It would seem that she had a belief that he was able to supply it, though he had as yet worked no miracle.

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Barnes, Albert. "Commentary on John 2:3". "Barnes' Notes on the Whole Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/bnb/john-2.html. 1870.

The Biblical Illustrator

John 2:3

When they wanted wine

I.
The wine supplied was m ACCORDANCE WITH THE CUSTOM OF THE COUNTRY. The produce probably of their own industry in the vineyards around. Wine in Bible lands was not an occasional luxury as with us, but a part of the daily food of the people. A simple, natural beverage, very different to the branded wines of this country, but intoxicating, nevertheless. Such wine was among the first oblations to the Divinity Genesis 14:18). Wine and bread, in conformity with this principle, are the essential elements of the Holy Supper, because they are the essential elements in the support of life in the East.

II. THERE IS A NATURAL HARMONY BETWEEN THE FRUIT OF THE VINE AND THE BRIDAL FESTIVITY. The richest juices of the vine plant are prepared and stored up in those parts which are specially associated with the propagation of the species. For aught we know, the reproduction of the vine might be accomplished without the exquisite goblets of the grape cluster; and so the marriage rite can take place without any festivity. But God loves not a mere utilitarianism; and it is as natural that wine should form part of the festivities of marriage as that beauty and gladness should crown the accomplishment of the common purposes of the world.

III. Understanding the importance attached to wine on such an occasion, we can realize THE CALAMITY OF ITS FAILURE. “Without wine there is no joy,” a common Jewish saying. It may have been caused by the poverty of the host, or through the unexpected arrival of Jesus and His disciples. Anyhow it was an intense mortification. Why? Because we all desire to appear prosperous. Poverty is hard to bear; but its disclosure is a thousand times worse. Not because poverty is a disgrace; but because man was made for happiness, and without it he feels that he has fallen from his natural place. This is owing to sin. There was no scarcity in Eden.

IV. Viewed in this light, it is a most striking coincidence that OUR LORD’S FIRST MIRACLE SHOULD BE WROUGHT TO RELIEVE WANT. The kingdom of heaven meets humanity where the law has left it stripped and destitute.

V. This failure teaches us THE FAILURE OF THE WORLD’S JOY. It was the highest and happiest occasion on which want intruded itself. What a testimony to the insufficiency of even the richest feast of worldly attainment or experience. Marriage, the crowning bliss of life, with all its dear ties and affections, comes to a close.

VI. JESUS COMES TO US AT EVERY CRISIS OF WANT, and provides for us what we ourselves cannot supply. Christ, received as guest, becomes host, and out of His fulness supplies all our need. (H. Macmillan, LL. D.)

What kind of wine was it?

The miracle took place a few days before the Passover, and this festival usually fell on the 30th of March. The wine that was drunk at the feast must therefore have been kept for six or seven months from the previous vintage. It must, in consequence, have undergone the process of fermentation, for, without this, no organic juice could have been preserved for such a length of time. Fermentation is a natural process, which takes place in all watery solutions of vegetable substances containing saccharine matters; and depends entirely upon the growth of a microscopic fungus called the yeast-plant, which develops with extreme rapidity into myriads of minute ceils or vesicles, and while doing so resolves the sugar in solution into alcohol and carbonic acid gas. The spores, or seeds, of this fungus exist in enormous quantities everywhere; and no vegetable juice can be exposed to the air for however short a time without receiving some of them; and if the temperature and other conditions be suitable, they begin at once to grow and multiply, thereby producing fermentation and liberating alcohol. Even in ripe grapes, while they are hanging on the vine, this yeast-fungus is often developed, causing vinous fermentation. It is impossible, therefore, to produce an infusion of grapes from which these ubiquitous germs are absent--unless the juice is boiled and the vessel hermetically sealed; and even then, so tenacious are they of life, we cannot be sure that we have got rid of them, as Pasteur’s recent researches abundantly testify. And wherever these germs are present, the process of fermentation begins, and is carried on with greater or less rapidity according to the temperature. In a warm climate it goes on with extraordinary vigour. There is no such thing, therefore, as unfermented wine. The juice of the grape when immediately squeezed out may be so called; but if it is kept for a few days under ordinary conditions it inevitably undergoes the vinous fermentation. (H. Macmillan, LL. D.)

God honours our leaning upon Him

A circumstance happened to me yesterday. I cannot help telling it to you. I received a note from one of the trustees of the Orphanage to say that the running account was so low that, when the cheques were paid on Friday morning, we should have overdrawn our banking account. I did not like that state of things; but I did not fret about it. I breathed a prayer to God that He would send money to put into the bank to keep the account right. Last night, at nearly ten o’clock, I opened a letter that came from Belfast, and it had in it a cheque for £200, being the amount left as a legacy. I wrote across my acknowledgment, “O magnify the Lord with me, and let us exalt His name together!” That amount put the account square for the time being; and although the Orphanage has no ready money to go on with, still that does not matter, God will send more means during the week, and at all other times when the expenditure calls for it. At the moment when I opened the letter, and found the £200, I felt as if my hair stood on end, because of the conscious nearness of the Lord my God. My brother, Hugh Hanna, when he sent that cheque, and sent it on that particular day, did not know that it would coma just when I was praying to God for help in a time of trouble; yet it came exactly when it was sought for. (C. H. Spurgeon.)

Trouble carried to Christ

“What do you do without a mother to tell all your troubles to?” asked a child who had a mother of one who had none. “Mother told me whom to go to before she died,” answered the little orphan. “I go to the Lord Jesus; He was mother’s friend, and He’s mine.” “Jesus Christ is in the sky; He is a way off, and He has a great many things to attend to in heaven, it is not likely He can stop to mind you.” “I do not know anything about that,” said the orphan; “all I know, He says He will; and that’s enough for me.”

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Bibliographical Information
Exell, Joseph S. "Commentary on "John 2:3". The Biblical Illustrator. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/tbi/john-2.html. 1905-1909. New York.

Coffman Commentaries on the Bible

And when the wine failed, the mother of Jesus said unto him, They have no wine.

All Jewish weddings were celebrated with wine for the guests, and such a failure as is recorded here would have been an occasion of sharp embarrassment to the host. Jesus' mother knew that he had the power to alleviate the shortage and evidently hoped by this remark to enlist his aid in overcoming it.

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Coffman Commentaries reproduced by permission of Abilene Christian University Press, Abilene, Texas, USA. All other rights reserved.
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Coffman, James Burton. "Commentary on John 2:3". "Coffman Commentaries on the Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/bcc/john-2.html. Abilene Christian University Press, Abilene, Texas, USA. 1983-1999.

John Gill's Exposition of the Whole Bible

And when they wanted wine,.... Or wine was wanting; not through the intemperance of the guests, rather through the poverty of the family, who were not able to provide very largely; and it may be by reason of a larger number of guests than were expected; however, so it was ordered by Divine Providence, that there might be an opportunity for Christ to manifest forth his glory:

the mother of Jesus saith unto him, they have no wine; being concerned for the family, lest they should be put to shame and disgrace, and the entertainment should not proceed with becoming credit and honour; and knowing the power of Christ to help in this time of necessity, she modestly moves it to him, perhaps by a whisper, sitting next him; or, it may be, might call him out, and just drop the hint; being well persuaded of his power, as she might; not from any miracles wrought by him in her family for the support of it, when in distress; for as Christ wrought no miracle, in the time of his public ministry, for the support of himself, or his disciples, but for others, it is not likely he should do it for his family in private life; but from the wonderful things told her by the angel that brought the news of her conception, and by the shepherds, and by Simeon and Anna, which she had laid up in her heart; and from his being the Messiah, who, according to the general belief of the nation, was to work miracles; and particularly from the last words of the preceding chapter; See Gill on John 1:50, for she might be present at the delivery of them; and therefore might hope that as this was the first opportunity that offered after, that he would display his power in supplying the family with wine in this time of exigence.

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The New John Gill's Exposition of the Entire Bible Modernised and adapted for the computer by Larry Pierce of Online Bible. All Rights Reserved, Larry Pierce, Winterbourne, Ontario.
A printed copy of this work can be ordered from: The Baptist Standard Bearer, 1 Iron Oaks Dr, Paris, AR, 72855
Bibliographical Information
Gill, John. "Commentary on John 2:3". "The New John Gill Exposition of the Entire Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/geb/john-2.html. 1999.

Geneva Study Bible

2 And when they wanted wine, the mother of Jesus saith unto him, They have no wine.

(2) Christ takes good enough care of our salvation, and therefore has no need of others to remind of it.
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Beza, Theodore. "Commentary on John 2:3". "The 1599 Geneva Study Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/gsb/john-2.html. 1599-1645.

Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible

no wine — evidently expecting some display of His glory, and hinting that now was His time.

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These files are a derivative of an electronic edition prepared from text scanned by Woodside Bible Fellowship.
This expanded edition of the Jameison-Faussett-Brown Commentary is in the public domain and may be freely used and distributed.
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Jamieson, Robert, D.D.; Fausset, A. R.; Brown, David. "Commentary on John 2:3". "Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/jfb/john-2.html. 1871-8.

People's New Testament

And when they wanted wine. The Revision says, "When the wine failed." For some cause, perhaps from a larger number of guests than was expected, the wine gave out. In the East, where hospitality is so lavish, this would cause great mortification.

The mother of Jesus saith unto him, They have no wine. The solicitude of Mary could hardly be expected from one not a relative, but why she appeal to Jesus? In part, because it was natural speak to him in her perplexity, and in part, likewise, because she hoped he would meet the difficulty.

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These files are public domain and are a derivative of an electronic edition that is available on the Christian Classics Ethereal Library Website.
Original work done by Ernie Stefanik. First published online in 1996 at The Restoration Movement Pages.
Bibliographical Information
Johnson, Barton W. "Commentary on John 2:3". "People's New Testament". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/pnt/john-2.html. 1891.

Robertson's Word Pictures in the New Testament

When the wine failed (υστερησαντος οινουhusterēsantos oinou). Genitive absolute with first aorist active participle of υστερεωhustereō old verb from υστεροςhusteros late or lacking. See same use in Mark 10:21. A longer Western paraphrase occurs in some manuscripts. It was an embarrassing circumstance, especially to Mary, if partly due to the arrival of the seven guests.

They have no wine (Οινον ουκ εχουσινOinon ouk echousin). The statement of the fact was in itself a hint and a request. But why made by the mother of Jesus and why to Jesus? She would not, of course, make it to the host. Mary feels some kind of responsibility and exercises some kind of authority for reasons not known to us. Mary had treasured in her heart the wonders connected with the birth of Jesus (Luke 2:19, Luke 2:51). The ministry of the Baptist had stirred her hopes afresh. Had she not told Jesus all that she knew before he went to the Jordan to be baptized of John? This group of disciples meant to her that Jesus had begun his Messianic work. So she dares propose the miracle to him.

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The Robertson's Word Pictures of the New Testament. Copyright Broadman Press 1932,33, Renewal 1960. All rights reserved. Used by permission of Broadman Press (Southern Baptist Sunday School Board)
Bibliographical Information
Robertson, A.T. "Commentary on John 2:3". "Robertson's Word Pictures of the New Testament". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/rwp/john-2.html. Broadman Press 1932,33. Renewal 1960.

Vincent's Word Studies

They wanted wine ( ὑστερήσαντος οἴνου )

Literally, when the wine failed. So Rev., Wyc., and wine failing. Some early authorities read: “they had no wine, for the wine of the marriage was consumed.” Marriage festivals sometimes lasted a whole week (Genesis 29:27; Judges 14:15; Tobit 9:1-2; 10:1).

They have no wine

Implying a request for help, not necessarily the expectation of a miracle.

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Vincent, Marvin R. DD. "Commentary on John 2:3". "Vincent's Word Studies in the New Testament". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/vnt/john-2.html. Charles Schribner's Sons. New York, USA. 1887.

Wesley's Explanatory Notes

And when they wanted wine, the mother of Jesus saith unto him, They have no wine.

And wine falling short — How many days the solemnity had lasted, and on which day our Lord came, or how many disciples might follow him, does not appear.

His mother saith to him, They have not wine — Either she might mean, supply them by miracle; or, Go away, that others may go also, before the want appears.

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These files are public domain and are a derivative of an electronic edition that is available on the Christian Classics Ethereal Library Website.
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Wesley, John. "Commentary on John 2:3". "John Wesley's Explanatory Notes on the Whole Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/wen/john-2.html. 1765.

The Fourfold Gospel

And when the wine failed1, the mother of Jesus saith unto him, They have no wine3.

  1. And when the wine failed. Probably the arrival of Christ and his disciples helped to exhaust the supply. Shortage of provision when guests are invited is considered a sore humiliation the world over.

  2. The mother of Jesus saith to him. The interest which Mary took in the feast and the way in which she addressed the servants at family.

  3. They have no wine. Though she merely states the unfortunate condition to Jesus, her statement is a covert petition to him that would remedy it, as our Lord's answer shows. She practically requested him to work a miracle, nor is it strange that she should do this. Remembering the many early sayings about him which she had treasured in her heart (Luke 2:19,51), and doubtless being informed of what had occurred at his baptism, and of the proclamation which John the Baptist had made concerning him, and seeing a group of disciples gathered about him, it was very reasonable for her to expect him to do something which would reveal the high purposes for which he had been born.

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These files are public domain and are a derivative of an electronic edition that is available on the Christian Classics Ethereal Library Website. These files were made available by Mr. Ernie Stefanik. First published online in 1996 at The Restoration Movement Pages.
Bibliographical Information
J. W. McGarvey and Philip Y. Pendleton. "Commentary on John 2:3". "The Fourfold Gospel". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/tfg/john-2.html. Standard Publishing Company, Cincinnati, Ohio. 1914.

Abbott's Illustrated New Testament

When they wanted wine; that is, after exhausting the supply which had been provided. The deficiency in the supply indicated that the scene of the occurrence was in humble life; and yet, when all the circumstances of the invitation to this wedding are considered, they show that Mary's condition was not one of absolute poverty and destitution, as is sometimes supposed.

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Abbott, John S. C. & Abbott, Jacob. "Commentary on John 2:3". "Abbott's Illustrated New Testament". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/ain/john-2.html. 1878.

Calvin's Commentary on the Bible

Матерь Иисуса говорит Ему. Можно усомниться в том, что она надеялась что-то получить или выпросить у Сына, поелику Он еще не произвел ни одного чуда. Может быть, не ожидая подобного исхода, она просила Его воодушевить участников пира благочестивым увещеванием и одновременно снять позор с жениха. Думаю, что это был голос искренней συμπαθειας. Святая женщина видела, что пиршество может закончиться скандалом. Ведь приглашенные, думая, что их принимают недостойно, возроптали бы на жениха. Поэтому она захотела утешить всех присутствующих. Златоуст подозревает ее в женском стремлении сникать какую-то славу себе и своему Сыну. Это предположение совершенно необоснованно. Однако, почему тогда Христос столь сурово отвергает ее просьбу? Отвечаю: хотя ею не двигало ни тщеславие, ни какое-либо плотское желание, она все же согрешила в том, что вмешалась не в свое дело. То, что ее волновало чужое неудобство и она искала способ исправить ситуацию, – вполне человечно и добродетельно. Но, вмешиваясь в это дело, она могла омрачить славу Христову. Хотя надо отметить, что Христос говорит так не столько ради нее, сколько ради других. Ведь ее смирение и благочестие было таким, что не заслуживало столь сурового упрека. Кроме того, она согрешила неосознанно и нехотя. Однако Христос упреждает опасность того, что слова Его матери будут поняты неправильно, и другие подумают, будто Он сотворил чудо по ее повелению.

 

 

 

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Calvin, John. "Commentary on John 2:3". "Calvin's Commentary on the Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/cal/john-2.html. 1840-57.

Frédéric Louis Godet - Commentary on Selected Books

Ver. 3. "And when the wine failed, the mother of Jesus saith to Him: They have no wine."

The marriage feasts sometimes continued several days, even a whole week (Genesis 29:27; Judges 14:15; Tob. 9:12; 10:1). The failure of the wine is commonly explained by this circumstance. However this may be, it is scarcely possible to doubt that this failure was connected with the unexpected arrival of six or seven guests, Jesus and His disciples. The reading of the Sinaitic MS.: "And they had no more wine, for the wine of the wedding-feast was entirely consumed," is evidently a diluted paraphrase of the primitive text?

What does Mary mean by saying to Jesus: "They have no wine?" Bengel and Paulus have thought that Mary wished to induce Jesus to withdraw and thus to give the rest of the company the signal to depart. The reply of Jesus would signify: "What right hast thou to prescribe to me? The hour for leaving has not yet come for me." Such an explanation has no need to be refuted. The expression "my hour," always used, in our Gospel, in a grave and solemn sense, would be enough to make us feel the impossibility of it. The same thing is true of Calvin"s explanation, according to which Mary wished "to admonish Jesus to offer some religious exhortation, for fear that the company might be wearied, and also courteously to cover the shame of the bridegroom."

This expression, "They have no wine," has a certain analogy to the message of the sisters of Lazarus: "He whom thou lovest is sick." It is certainly a tacit request for assistance. But how does it occur to Mary to resort to Jesus in order to ask His aid in a case of this kind? Does she dream of a miracle? Meyer, Weiss andReuss think not; for, according to John 2:11, Jesus had not yet performed any. Mary, thus, would only think of natural aid, and the reply of Jesus, far from rejecting this request as an inconsiderate claim, would mean: "Leave me to act! I have in my possession means of which thou knowest not, and whose effect thou shalt see as soon as the hour appointed by my Father shall have struck." After this, the order of Mary to the servants, "Do whatsoever He shall say to you," presents no further difficulty. But this explanation, which supposes that Mary asks less than what Jesus is disposed to do, is contradictory to the natural meaning of the words "What is there between me and thee?" which lead rather to the supposition of an encroachment by Mary on a domain which Jesus reserves exclusively to Himself, an inadmissible interference in His office as Messiah. Besides, by what means other than a miracle could Jesus have extricated the bridegroom from his embarrassment? Meyer gives no explanation of this point. Weiss thinks of friends (like Nathanael) who had relations at Cana, and by means of whom Jesus could provide a remedy for the condition of things. But even in this sense we cannot understand the answer of Jesus, by which He certainly wishes to cause Mary to go back within her own bounds, beyond which she had, consequently, just passed. What she wished to ask for, is therefore a striking, miraculous aid worthy of the Messiah.

Whence can such an idea have come to her mind? Hase and Tholuck have supposed that Jesus had already wrought miracles within the limits of His family. John 2:11 excludes this hypothesis. Lucke amends it, by saying that He had simply manifested, in the perplexities of domestic life, peculiar gifts and skill: one of those convenient middle-course suggestions which are frequently met with in this commentator and which have procured for him such vigorous censure on the part of Baur. It affirms, in fact, too much or too little. It seems to me that the state of extraordinary exaltation is forgotten in which, at this moment, that whole company, and especially Mary, must have been. Can it be imagined for an instant, that the disciples had not related everything which had just occurred in Judea, the solemn declarations of John the Baptist, the miraculous scene of the baptism proclaimed by John, the proof of supernatural knowledge which Jesus had given on meeting Nathanael, finally that magnificent promise of greater things impending, of an open heaven, of angels ascending and descending, which their eyes were going henceforth to behold? How should not the expectation of the marvelous—that seeking after miracles, which St. Paul indicates as the characteristic feature of Jewish piety—have existed, at that moment, in all those who were present, in the highest degree?

The single fact that Jesus arrived surrounded by disciples, must have been sufficient to make them understand that a new phase was opening at that hour, that the time of obscurity and retirement had come to its end, and that the period of Messianic manifestations was about to begin. Let us add, finally, with reference to Mary herself, the mighty waking up of recollections, so long held closely in her maternal heart, the return of her thoughts to the marvelous circumstances which accompanied the birth of her son. The hour so long and so impatiently waited for had, then, at last struck! Is it not to her, Mary, that it belongs to give the decisive signal of this hour? She is accustomed to obedience from her Son; she does not doubt that He will act at her suggestion. If the words of Mary are carried back to this general situation, we easily understand that what she wishes is not merely aid given to the embarrassed bridegroom, but, on this occasion, a brilliant act fitted to inaugurate the Messianic royalty.

On the occasion of this failure of the wine, she sees the heaven opening, the angel descending, a marvelous manifestation exhibiting itself and opening the series of wonders. Any other difficulty in life would have served her as a pretext for seeking to obtain the same result: "Thou art the Messiah: it is time to show thyself!" As to Jesus, the temptation in the wilderness is here seen reproducing itself in its third form (Luke 4:9). He is invited to make an exhibition of His miraculous power by passing beyond the measure strictly indicated by the providential call. It is what He can no more do at the prayer of His mother than at the suggestion of Satan or at the demand of the Pharisees. Hence the tone of Jesus" reply, the firmness of which goes even to the point of severity.

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Godet, Frédéric Louis. "Commentary on John 2:3". "Frédéric Louis Godet - Commentary on Selected Books". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/gsc/john-2.html.

John Trapp Complete Commentary

3 And when they wanted wine, the mother of Jesus saith unto him, They have no wine.

Ver. 3. And when they wanted wine] Wine then may be wanting, though Christ be at the wedding; yea, bread, though Christ be at the board. But the hidden manna is ever ready; and anon in our Father’s house will be bread enough, and wine, God’s plenty. {a} What though we beg our bread here, heaven will make up all; and it is but winking, and we are there presently, said that martyr.

The mother of Jesus saith unto him] To show her authority belike over him. Howsoever, she was too hasty with him, and is taken up for halting. It is not for us to set the sun by our dial.

{a} Mendicato pane hic vivamus, annon hoc pulchre sarcitur, in eo quod pascimur pane cum angelis? &c. Luther.

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Trapp, John. "Commentary on John 2:3". John Trapp Complete Commentary. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/jtc/john-2.html. 1865-1868.

Thomas Coke Commentary on the Holy Bible

John 2:3. When they wanted wine, &c.— The wine beginning to fail;υστερησαντος . But a small stock possibly was provided at first, as the persons were not in the highest circumstances; and that began to fail the sooner, as greater numbers of guests attended than were expected, probably on account of Jesus, whose fame began to spread abroad. His mother, provident for the young couple, and having conceived great expectations, as she had good grounds, of her wonderfulSon,whosemiraculousconceptionshecouldneverforget,—anymorethan the wonderful circumstances which attended his birth,—and whose entrance on his public ministry she now observed with joy, witnessed as it was by a voice from heaven, and by the testimony of the Baptist—in this situation of things his mother saith unto him, They have no wine; hinting, as our Saviour's answer shews, that he would afford some miraculous supply; and it is plain, that notwithstanding the rebuke she met with, yet she had still a view to this by her direction to the servants afterwards, John 2:5.

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Coke, Thomas. "Commentary on John 2:3". Thomas Coke Commentary on the Holy Bible. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/tcc/john-2.html. 1801-1803.

Expository Notes with Practical Observations on the New Testament

This want of wine was probably so disposed by the providence of God, to give our Saviour an opportunity to manifest his divine power in working a miracle to supply it.

Observe here, 1. How the Virgin enquires into the family's wants, and then makes them known to Christ.

Learn hence, That it is an argument of piety, and an evidence of Christian love, to enquire into the wants, and to recommend the necessities of others to Christ's care and consideration; whose bounty and munificence can readily and abundantly supply them.

Thus far the Virgin's action was good: she laid open the case to Christ; They have no wine. but Christ, who discerned the thoughts of Mary's heart, finds her guilty of presumption; she thought by her motherly authority, she might have expected, if not commanded, a miracle from him: whereas Christ was subject to her as a man during his private life: but now being entered upon his office a mediator, as God-man, he gives her to understand she had no power over him, nor any motherly authority in the business of his public office; therefore he says to her, Woman, what have I to do with thee?. He that charges his angels with folly, will not be taught when and how to act by poor crawling dust and ashes.

Observe therefore, 2. Christ calls the Virgin, Woman, not Mother; but this was not out of any contempt, but to prevent her being thought more than a woman, above or beyond a woman, having brought forth the Son of God. Woman, says Christ; not Goddess, as the Papists would make her, and proclaim her free from sin, even from venial sin; but Christ's reproving her shows that she was not faultless.

Observe, 3. Christ would not bear with the Virgin's commanding on earth, will he them endure her intercession in heaven? Must she not meddle with matters appertaining to his office here below, and will it be endured by Christ, or endeavoured by her, to interpose, in the work of mediation above? No, no; were it possible for her so far to forget herself in heaven, she would receive the answer from Christ which she had on earth, Woman, what have I to do with thee? or thou with me, in my mediatorial office? But instead of this, she returns answer from heaven to her idolatrous petitioners here on earth, "What have I to do with thee? Get you to my Son, go you to Christ, he that was the Mediator of redemption; he, and only he, continues the Mediator of intercession."

O how foolish, as well as impious, is it to think, that she who had not so much power as to direct the working of one miracle on earth, should have now lodged in her hands all the power of heaven!

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Burkitt, William. "Commentary on John 2:3". Expository Notes with Practical Observations on the New Testament. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/wbc/john-2.html. 1700-1703.

Greek Testament Critical Exegetical Commentary

3.] There is no necessity to suppose that the feast had lasted several days, as De Wette and Lücke do. It has been suggested that the unexpected presence of the disciples may have occasioned a failure in the previously sufficient supply: a gloss in the old latin cod. Rhedigerianus has, “et factum est per multam turbam vocatorum vinum consummari.”

The mother of Jesus evidently is in a position of authority (see John 2:5) in the house, which was probably that of a near relative. The conjectures and traditions on the subject are many, but wholly unsatisfactory.

A graver question arises as to the intent with which this οἶνον οὐκ ἔχ. was said. She cannot have had from experience any reason to suppose that her Son would work a miracle, for this (John 2:11) was His first. Chrysostom suggests (so also Theophyl., Euthym(38), and Neander, L. J. p. 271) that, knowing Him to be Who He was, she had been by the recent divine acknowledgment of Him and His calling disciples to Himself, led to expect the manifestation of his Messianic power about this time; and here seemed an occasion for it. Some of the other explanations are: “that she had always found Him a wise counsellor, and mentioned the want to Him merely that He might suggest some way of remedying it.” Cocceius, cited by Trench. “Velim discedas, ut ceteri item discedant, antequam penuria patefiat.” Bengel. “Ut pia aliqua exhortatione convivis tædium eximeret, ac simul levaret pudorem sponsi.” Calvin, cited by Lücke. “Jesus had wrought miracles, but in secret, before this.” Tholuck.

On the whole, the most probable explanation is that of Lücke, which somewhat modifies the first here mentioned,—that our Lord Himself had recently given some reason to expect that He would shew forth His glory by wonderful works. So, very nearly, Stier, R. J. i. 38, edn. 2.

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Alford, Henry. "Commentary on John 2:3". Greek Testament Critical Exegetical Commentary. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/hac/john-2.html. 1863-1878.

Heinrich Meyer's Critical and Exegetical Commentary on the New Testament

John 2:3. ὑστερήσ. οἴνου] because a scarcity of wine had occurred,—on what day of the marriage feast (it usually lasted seven, Genesis 29:27; Judges 14:14; Tobit 9:1-2; Tobit 10:1) we are not told.(134) The expression ὑστερεῖ τι, something fails or runs short, belongs to later Greek (Mark 10:21; Isaiah 51:14; Nehemiah 9:21; Dios. v. 86).

οἶνον οὐκ ἔχουσι] they are short of wine, they, i.e. the family of the bridegroom, who provided the feast. They might be disgraced by the failure of the wine. The words, however, are not only an expression of interest, which was all the more reasonable, as the deficiency was accelerated by the invitation of her Son and His disciples; but they also contain, as Jesus Himself understood (John 2:4), an indirect appeal for help, as is confirmed by John 2:5, which was prompted by thoughtful consideration for the credit of the house providing the feast. Some find herein a call to work a miracle. But wrongly, because this would imply either that Mary had inferred from the conception, birth, etc., of her Son, His power of working miracles, which she now expected Him to display, or that Jesus had already, on some previous occasion, though in a narrower circle, done some wonderful works (the former hypothesis in Chrysostom, Theophylact, Euthymius Zigabenus, Baumgarten, Maier, Godet, Hengstenberg, and many more; the latter in Lücke and others),—assumptions which are equally incapable of proof. Wrongly too, because the supply of this want of itself so little suggested the need of a miracle, that the thought of so disproportionate a means occurring to Mary’s mind without any adequate reason, even by the recollection of such traits as are related in Luke 2:49 ff. (Brückner), or by the miracle at His baptism, or by the call of the disciples, or by the declaration of John 1:51, of which she would be informed at the marriage (Godet), is quite inexplicable, even supposing that she had observed more clearly than any others the change which had taken place in her Son, and had therefore with fuller expectation looked up to Him as the Messiah (Ewald’s view, comp. Tho luck). Far rather did she wish to prompt Jesus in a general way to render help; and this she would suppose He would do in the most natural manner (by furnishing wine), which must have appeared as obvious a way as that of miracle was remote. But Jesus, in the feeling of His divine call (John 2:4), intended to render help in a special and miraculous manner; and accordingly, with this design of His own in view, returns the answer contained in John 2:4. In this way the obscurity of the words is removed (which Lampe and De Wette dwell upon), and at the same time the objection raised from John 2:11 (by Strauss, B. Bauer, Schweizer, Scholten) against the entire narrative, upon the assumption that Mary (from the Logos standing-point of the evangelist, it is supposed!) expected a miracle. Lastly, it is purely gratuitous to suppose that Mary wished to give a hint to Jesus and His disciples to go away (Bengel, Paulus); yet Ebrard (on Olshausen) has brought this view forward again, explaining afterwards “mine hour” of the time of His death, when Jesus would have to leave the marriage (the marriage figuratively representing the period of His earthly ministry). This is not profundity, but a mere playing with exegesis.

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Meyer, Heinrich. "Commentary on John 2:3". Heinrich Meyer's Critical and Exegetical Commentary on the New Testament. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/hmc/john-2.html. 1832.

Johann Albrecht Bengel's Gnomon of the New Testament

John 2:3. ὑστερήσαντος, failing [coming short]) How many days the marriage-feast lasted, on what day of it the Lord came and the wine failed, is not known.— οὐκ ἔχουσι) The newly-wedded couple have not. She means this: I would wish you to withdraw, in order that the rest also may withdraw, before that the scarcity be made evident to all.(45) Adopting this [Bongel’s] sense as the meaning of Mary, the reply of Jesus not only does not appear harsh, but is most full of love.

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Bengel, Johann Albrecht. "Commentary on John 2:3". Johann Albrecht Bengel's Gnomon of the New Testament. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/jab/john-2.html. 1897.

Matthew Poole's English Annotations on the Holy Bible

The word usterhsantov may as well be translated, coming short, or behind, as wanting; and so some think it is to be understood; but Mary tells Jesus, they had no wine: they either had none, or she discerned it came short; they had not enough. It lets us know the frugality of him who made the feast. But whether Mary told her Son of it in expectation that he should supply it by a miracle, or that he should entertain the company with some pious discourse while the want should be supplied, is not so easy to determine: that which seems to oppose the first (and most generally received) opinion, is, that this was the first miracle he wrought, which we have upon record; nor had our Saviour by any words given her hope to see any miraculous operations from him; for though some say he had, from the last verse of the former chapter, yet the words can hardly be strained to such a sense, nor doth it appear that Mary was in Judea to hear them. But yet it seems probable she had some such expectation, both from our Saviour’s answer, John 2:4, and from her saying to the servants, John 2:5,

Whatsoever he say unto you, do it; and though Christ had as yet done no public miracle, yet what the virgin might have seen of him in thirty years time, while he lived at home with her, we cannot tell.

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Poole, Matthew, "Commentary on John 2:3". Matthew Poole's English Annotations on the Holy Bible. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/mpc/john-2.html. 1685.

Alexander MacLaren's Expositions of Holy Scripture

вина Подаваемое на стол вино было продуктом брожения. Однако, чтобы утолить жажду, не вызывая опьянения, вино в ветхозаветные времена разбавлялось водой от одной трети до одной десятой его силы. Благодаря климату и условиям даже «новое вино» быстро бродило и вызывало опьянение, если не разбавлялось (Деян. 2:13). Из-за отсутствия способов очищения воды, также было безопаснее пить вино, смешанное с водой, чем одну воду. Хотя Библия осуждает пьянство, она не обязательно осуждает потребление такого вина (Пс. 103:15; Пр. 20:1; см. пояснение к Еф. 5:18).

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MacLaren, Alexander. "Commentary on John 2:3". Alexander MacLaren's Expositions of Holy Scripture. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/mac/john-2.html.

Justin Edwards' Family Bible New Testament

They have no wine; meaning, their supply of wine has failed; for they had wine at the beginning, verse John 2:10. The words seem to contain a tacit request that Jesus would now supply the deficiency.

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Edwards, Justin. "Commentary on John 2:3". "Family Bible New Testament". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/fam/john-2.html. American Tract Society. 1851.

Whedon's Commentary on the Bible

3.When’ wine—There are two sorts, or rather states, of wine; the one, the unfermented grape juice, which is simply exhilarating; the other, the fermented, which is intoxicating. Fermentation is a phenomenon of decomposition, analagous to putrefaction in a dead animal. The grape juice is alive in the grape; consisting of sugar and albumen, held into juice form by the life power. When pressed out of the grape, the dying juice decomposes; the albumen uniting with the oxygen of the air becomes yeast, and the sugar becomes alcohol, which is the intoxicating substance. The grape juice, must, or new wine, in its live, natural, undecomposed state, is a cheering and nutricious food. By boiling it is cooked, and so protected from decomposition, and retained in its condition as a food.

The Revelation Dr. Duff, the celebrated Scotch missionary, speaking of the vine regions of Southern France, says: “Look at the peasant at his meals in vine-bearing districts! Instead of milk he has a basin of pure unadulterated ‘blood of the grape.’ In this its native original state it is a plain, simple, and wholesome liquid; which, at every repast, becomes to the husbandman what milk is to the shepherd, not a luxury, but a necessary; not an intoxicating, but a nutritive beverage. Hence to the vine-dressing peasant of Auxerre, for example, an abundant vintage, as connected with his own sustenance, is as important as an overflowing dairy to the pastoral peasant of Ayrshire, and hence, by such a view of the subject, are the language and sense of Scripture vindicated.”

Captain Treatt, as quoted by Dr. Lees, says:

“When on the south coast of Italy, last Christmas, (1845,) I inquired particularly about the wines in common use, and found that those esteemed the best were sweet and unintoxicating. The boiled juice of the grape is in common use in Sicily. About three gallons of the juice is boiled until reduced to two—it is then poured into plates to cool. The poor people mix flour into theirs while boiling, to make it go further. It is eaten at their meals with bread, and very nice it is. The Calabrians keep their intoxicating and unintoxicating wines in separate apartments. The bottles were generally marked. From inquiries, I found that the unfermented wine was esteemed the most. It was drunk mixed with water. Great pains were taken in the vintage season to have a good stock of it laid by.”

We see no reason for supposing that the wine of the present occasion was of that kind upon which Scripture places its strongest interdict, (Proverbs 20:1; Proverbs 23:31; Isaiah 22:13,) rather than of that which is eulogized as a blessing. (Psalms 104:15; Isaiah 55:1.)

The priests were interdicted the use of wine during the period of their ministration in the Holy Place. (Leviticus 10:9; Ezekiel 44:21.) And as leaven is, like wine fermentation, a corruption, death, or decomposition, so it was prohibited at the Passover. It were absurd then to suppose that Jesus administered fermented wine at the Supper, which is his substitute for the Passover; or that he ever used it at all.

When they wanted wine—Rather, when their wine had failed. It is very probable that upon the unexpected arrival of our Lord and his five disciples there was (as Bishop Hall expresses it) “more company than wine.” As marriage feasts sometimes lasted seven days, (Judges 12:15; Tobit 11:19,) the stock of a family might very easily be exhausted.

Mother’ saith’ no wine—It seems that it was not unusual for the guests to supply a part of the entertainment. And as our Lord appears to have brought the surplus of company, his mother may have thought that he should supply the deficit of wine.

But it is plain that she expected from him an exhibition of miraculous power. Whoever doubted about the miraculous birth of Jesus, his mother certainly could not. No eye like hers would, in his growth, have understood his miraculous development. Nor is it natural to suppose, that at this moment she did not understand that he had left home to pass through the preparation for his full Messianic office. She must therefore have known that the time for his divine manifestation had arrived. In the perplexity of the present moment she turns to him, as to a divine aid, hopeful that he could afford relief, even if it required a supernatural power.

 

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Whedon, Daniel. "Commentary on John 2:3". "Whedon's Commentary on the Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/whe/john-2.html. 1874-1909.

Peter Pett's Commentary on the Bible

‘And when the wine failed, the mother of Jesus says to him, ‘They have no wine.’

We do not know at what point the wine failed, whether at the marriage feast or in the later festivities, but either way it was a shameful thing for the families concerned. They could have suffered reproach for many years to come. So, when the wine began to run out it would be seen as a catastrophe. It would signify that the poverty stricken families had been unable to live up to requirements. Thus when Jesus’ mother learned what had happened, she would realise immediately what it would mean for the families and her thoughts thus turned immediately to her eldest son Jesus, and she went to Him and indicated to Him that ‘they have no wine’.

The fact that the wine did run out would suggest that the family concerned were very poor and had not been able to fund the wedding fully (the ‘servants’ may well have been volunteers), but it would make their shame clear to all. If their means were very limited this could easily happen as the feasting during a wedding was not restricted to close relatives, and there would be many friends and acquaintances there, not to mention strangers taking advantage of what was on offer. Outwardly this is just Mary consulting Jesus about whether anything can be done. But to John, and possibly to Jesus at the time, the words are more poignant. John sees it as a picture of the world. The world indeed has religious ceremony galore, but it lacks that which floods the heart with joy, it lacks the wine that satisfies (Isaiah 55:1). The world too ‘has no wine’.

The lack of mention of Joseph, who would normally have attended such an affair, and the fact that Mary turned to Jesus as ‘the head of the family’, suggests that Joseph was dead.

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Pett, Peter. "Commentary on John 2:3". "Peter Pett's Commentary on the Bible ". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/pet/john-2.html. 2013.

Expository Notes of Dr. Thomas Constable

Weddings in the ancient East typically lasted several days and often a whole week. [Note: See Edwin Yamauchi, "Cultural Aspects of Marriage in the Ancient World," Bibliotheca Sacra135:539 (July-September1978):241-52.]

"To fail to provide adequately for the guests would involve social disgrace. In the closely knit communities of Jesus" day, such an error would never be forgotten and would haunt the newly married couple all their lives." [Note: Tenney, " John," p42.]

The loss would not only have been shame and social disgrace, however, but also financial since grooms had a legal responsibility in that culture to provide a suitable feast for their guests.

"Our bridegroom stood to lose financially-say, up to about half the value of the presents Jesus and his party ought to have brought." [Note: J. D. M. Derrett, Law in the New Testament, p238.]

Mary undoubtedly told Jesus about the situation because she knew that He would do whatever He could to solve the problem. As a compassionate person He would try to help the groom, who was responsible for the food and drink ( John 2:9), to avoid unnecessary embarrassment. Clearly Mary expected Jesus to do something ( John 2:5). Evidently Jesus had done no miracles before this incident ( John 2:11). Consequently it seems far-fetched to suppose that she expected Him to perform a miracle. Mary knew that Jesus was the Messiah, and she apparently wanted Him to do something that would show who He was to everyone present. The wine normally drunk in Palestine at this time was fermented grape juice diluted with water. [Note: See Robert Stein, "Wine-Drinking in New Testament Times," Christianity Today19:19 (June20, 1975):9-11; and Norman Geisler, "A Christian Perspective on Wine-Drinking," Bibliotheca Sacra139:553 (January-March1982):46-56.]

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Constable, Thomas. DD. "Commentary on John 2:3". "Expository Notes of Dr. Thomas Constable". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/dcc/john-2.html. 2012.

Schaff's Popular Commentary on the New Testament

John 2:3. And when wine was wanting. The failure (which must be understood as complete) may have been occasioned by the long continuance of the festivities, but more probably arose from the presence of several unexpected guests.

The mother of Jesus saith unto him, They have no wine. Nothing was more natural than that Mary should be the one to point out to her Son the perplexity of the family; but the whole tenor of the narrative compels attention to one thought alone. The absolute singleness with which Jesus listens to the voice of His heavenly Father is the point to be brought out. Had it been consistent with His mission to lend help at the summons of any human authority, no bidding would have been so powerful as that of His mother. Many conjectures as to Mary’s object in these words are at once set aside by the nature of His answer. There may have been in her mind no definite idea of the kind of help that might be afforded, but she felt that help was needed, and that what was needed could be given by her Son. The reply of Jesus, however, shows that, besides perplexity and faith, there was also presumption in Mary’s words: she spoke as one who still had the right to suggest and to influence His action.

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Schaff, Philip. "Commentary on John 2:3". "Schaff's Popular Commentary on the New Testament". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/scn/john-2.html. 1879-90.

The Expositor's Greek Testament

John 2:3. Through this unexpected addition to the number of guests the wine began to fail, . , from , signifies “to be late,” and hence “to come short of,” “to lack,” and also “to be awanting”. Cf.Matthew 19:20, ; and Mark 10:21, . Here the meaning is “the wine having failed,” or “given out”. Consequently , . Bengel supposes she wished him to leave “velim discedas, ut ceteri item discedant, antequam penuria patefiat”. Calvin suggests “fieri potest, ut [mater] tale remedium [miraculum] non expectans eum admonuerit, ut pia aliqua exhortatione convivis taedium eximeret, ac simul levaret pudorem sponsi”. Lampe says: “Obscurum est”. Lücke thinks Jesus had given proof of His miracle-working previously. The Greek commentators and Godet suppose that when she saw Him recognised as Messiah the time for extraordinary manifestation of power had arrived. The words show that she was on terms of intimacy with the family of the bridegroom, that she knew of the failure of the wine and wished to relieve the embarrassment. She naturally turns to her oldest son, who had always in past emergencies proved helpful in counsel and practical aid. But from the words of Jesus in reply, “Mine hour is not yet come,” it certainly would seem as if she had suggested that He should use Messianic powers for the relief of the wedding guests.

 

 

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Nicol, W. Robertson, M.A., L.L.D. "Commentary on John 2:3". The Expositor's Greek Testament. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/egt/john-2.html. 1897-1910.

George Haydock's Catholic Bible Commentary

They have no wine. The blessed virgin Mother was not ignorant of the divine power of her Son, and that the time was come when he designed to make himself known to the world. She could not make her request in more modest terms. (Witham)

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Haydock, George Leo. "Commentary on John 2:3". "George Haydock's Catholic Bible Commentary". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/hcc/john-2.html. 1859.

E.W. Bullinger's Companion Bible Notes

when, &c. = when wine failed. Quite a serious calamity.

wine. Greek. oinos. The only word for wine in the N.T. Septuagint for Hebrew. yayin. App-27. (Also for Tirash (App-27) in Genesis 27:28. Judges 9:13. Joel 1:10).

the mother of Jesus. Never called Mary in this Gospel. She became John"s "mother" (John 19:26, John 19:27),

unto. Greek. pros. App-104.

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Bullinger, Ethelbert William. "Commentary on John 2:3". "E.W. Bullinger's Companion bible Notes". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/bul/john-2.html. 1909-1922.

Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible - Unabridged

And when they wanted wine, the mother of Jesus saith unto him, They have no wine.

And when they wanted wine, [ hustereesantos (Greek #5302) oinou (Greek #3631)] - 'the wine having failed;' perhaps, as Bengel suggests, from more being present than had been arranged for,

The mother of Jesus saith unto him, They have no wine - evidently expecting some display of His glory, and hinting that now was His time. Not that she had witnessed any displays of His miraculous power before this at home, as Calvin thinks. The Evangelist, indeed, by calling this the "beginning of His miracles" (John 2:11), seems to say the reverse; nor can we suppose He would make such needless displays before the time. But she had gathered probably enough from Him regarding the miraculous credentials which He was to furnish of His divine commission, to infer that He would on this occasion make a beginning; and with a natural impatience for the revelation to others of what she knew Him to be, and a certain womanly eagerness-mixed possibly with feelings of a less commendable kind-she brings the state of matters before Him.

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Jamieson, Robert, D.D.; Fausset, A. R.; Brown, David. "Commentary on John 2:3". "Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible - Unabridged". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/jfu/john-2.html. 1871-8.

The Bible Study New Testament

3. They are out of wine. This would be a great disgrace in the East, at such a celebration. The fact that she says this shows both that she must have been related to the family [or at least a very close friend]; and that she expected Jesus to do something about it. [Wine = oinos.]

 

 

 

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Ice, Rhoderick D. "Commentary on John 2:3". "The Bible Study New Testament". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/ice/john-2.html. College Press, Joplin, MO. 1974.

Ellicott's Commentary for English Readers

(3) When they wanted wine.—Better, the wine having failed.

They have no wine.—The question “What was the import of this remark?” has been often asked, and very variously answered. And yet the answer does not seem far to seek. The next verses fix its meaning as the expectation of an outcome of supernatural power. This is quite in harmony with the mother’s hopes and musings, without any previous miracle on which to base them (John 2:11). For many long years she had kept in her heart the Son’s words and deeds (Luke 2:51). She must have heard of John the Baptist’s witness, of the events of the Baptism six weeks now past, and on that very day every hope must have started into new life, as she heard from those who came with Him how conviction had seized upon their own minds. To cause the. increase of meal, and prevent the failure of the cruse of oil (1 Kings 17:14), was within the power of the prophet whom they expected as herald of the Messiah. Here was an unexpected need, caused, it may be, by the presence of Himself and followers at that festival. Can He not, will He not, supply the need, and prove Himself indeed the Christ?

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Ellicott, Charles John. "Commentary on John 2:3". "Ellicott's Commentary for English Readers". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/ebc/john-2.html. 1905.

Treasury of Scripture Knowledge

And when they wanted wine, the mother of Jesus saith unto him, They have no wine.
they wanted
Psalms 104:15; Ecclesiastes 10:19; Isaiah 24:11; Matthew 26:28
They have
11:3; Philippians 4:6
Reciprocal: 1 Kings 2:20 - I desire;  Isaiah 55:1 - buy wine;  Matthew 12:48 - Who is;  Luke 4:23 - do;  John 2:7 - Fill

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Torrey, R. A. "Commentary on John 2:3". "The Treasury of Scripture Knowledge". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/tsk/john-2.html.

Ernst Hengstenberg on John, Revelation, Ecclesiastes, Ezekiel & Psalms

Ver. 3. "And when they wanted wine, the mother of Jesus saith unto Him, They have no wine."

That the meaning is, Jesus should procure wine, and this in a superhuman manner, and that therefore ideas like those of Bengel, according to which Mary requests Jesus to go away ("velim discedas, ut caeteri item discedant, antequam penuria patefiat"), and of Meyer, "She wished Jesus in general to apply some remedy, which might be done in the most natural way (by procuring more wine)," are to be unconditionally rejected, is shown by the answer of Jesus. If Mary had desired only what was usual, she would have made her request more plainly, and she would not have immediately understood the gentle hint of Christ in ver. 5. Only when her mind was already filled with thoughts of miraculous aid, could she have perceived, behind the apparent refusal, the hidden consent. Mary certainly could have had such thoughts only, if she had kept in her faithful heart what had been said to her by the angel, especially, "He shall be called the Son of God," Luke 1:35; further, the message of the shepherds, of which it is said in Luke 2:19, ἡ δὲ ΄αριὰμ πάντα συνετήρει τὰ ῥήματα ταῦτα συμβάλλουσα ἐν τῇ καρδίᾳ αὐτῆς, and the prophecy of Simeon, etc. According to Luke 2:51, she kept all these sayings in her heart. John, by giving an account of the proposal of Mary, confirms the history of the childhood of Jesus, which he passes over. because here his predecessors Matthew and Luke had left no material for supplementation. With reference to the later time, P. Anton says, "She had had Him about her thirty years. How many conversations must they have held, together with diligent investigation of the prophets in comparison with present circumstances!" It is, however, yet to be explained how it is that Mary comes forward just now with such a definite expectation. This is doubtless founded in the fact, that she had just received from the disciples of Jesus, whose very existence was an important symptom, intelligence of the things which had occurred at the Jordan, and especially of the sayings of Jesus to Nathanael, "Thou shalt see greater things than these;" and, "Verily, verily, I say unto you, etc." She wishes and hopes that these words, which do not to no purpose immediately precede the narrative of the marriage at Cana, may here be verified; she wishes and hopes this the more, since the whole appearance of Jesus doubtless makes on her the impression of a previous great change.

The words, "They have no wine," are very characteristic. The mother of Jesus has herself the feeling of the impropriety of her request. She does not dare to express it directly; she only gently hints it, by calling attention to the need. So great is her reverence for her son. Luther: "Here behold this in His mother: she feels and complains to Him of the want, desires help and counsel from Him, with humble and modest proposals. For she does not say," Dear Son, get us wine; but. They have no wine. By this she touches His goodness, that she has recourse entirely to Him. As if she would say. He is so good and gracious, that I may not ask Him; I will only show Him what is wanting." Lampe points out how these words are a monument of Mary's noblest virtues—her faith, her humility, and discretion. "But, together with these good qualities, there was yet something which displeased the Lord." The Berleb. Bibel: "Inward, however, is the need of wine, if all sanctity and strength that remained to the soul are quite lost, and all that remained to it of support is taken away."

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Bibliographical Information
Hengstenberg, Ernst. "Commentary on John 2:3". Ernst Hengstenberg on John, Revelation, Ecclesiastes, Ezekiel & Psalms. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/heg/john-2.html.

Calvin's Commentary on the Bible

3.The mother of Jesus saith to him. It may be doubted if she expected or asked any thing from her Son, since he had not yet performed any miracle; and it is possible that, without expecting any remedy of this sort, she advised him to give some pious exhortations which would have the effect of preventing the guests from feeling uneasiness, and at the same time of relieving the shame of the bridegroom. I consider her words to be expressive of ( συμπαθεία) earnest compassion; for the holy woman, perceiving that those who had been invited were likely to consider themselves as having been treated with disrespect, and to murmur against the bridegroom, and that the entertainment might in that way be disturbed, wished that some means of soothing them could be adopted. Chrysostom throws out a suspicion that she was moved by the feelings of a woman to seek I know not what favor for herself and her Son; but this conjecture is not supported by any argument.

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Bibliographical Information
Calvin, John. "Commentary on John 2:3". "Calvin's Commentary on the Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/cal/john-2.html. 1840-57.