Verse-by-Verse Bible Commentary

Joshua 10:3

Therefore Adoni-zedek king of Jerusalem sent word to Hoham king of Hebron and to Piram king of Jarmuth and to Japhia king of Lachish and to Debir king of Eglon, saying,
New American Standard Version

Bible Study Resources

Concordances:
Nave's Topical Bible - Adoni-Zedek;   Amorites;   Armies;   Confederacies;   Debir;   Hebron;   Hoham;   Japhia;   Jarmuth;   Jerusalem;   Piram;   War;   Torrey's Topical Textbook - Amorites, the;   Canaanites, the;   Gibeonites;  
Dictionaries:
American Tract Society Bible Dictionary - Adonizedek;   Beth-Horon;   Lachish;   Bridgeway Bible Dictionary - Gibeon;   Joshua the son of nun;   Lachish;   Charles Buck Theological Dictionary - Prayer;   Easton Bible Dictionary - Adoni-Zedec;   Debir;   Egypt;   Hoham;   Japhia;   Lachish;   Piram;   Fausset Bible Dictionary - Debir (2);   Hoham;   Japhia (1);   Jarmuth;   Lachish;   Piram;   Salem;   Holman Bible Dictionary - Amorites;   Debir;   Eglon;   Hoham;   Japhia;   Joshua, the Book of;   Lord;   Piram;   Hastings' Dictionary of the Bible - Adoni-Bezek;   Adoni-Zedek;   Debir;   Eglon;   Hoham;   Israel;   Japhia;   Jarmuth;   Jebus, Jebusites;   Joshua;   Lachish;   Melchizedek;   Piram;   Morrish Bible Dictionary - Adonizedec ;   Debir ;   Eglon ;   Egypt;   Gibeon ;   Hoham ;   Japhia ;   Jarmuth ;   Jebusites ;   Lachish ;   Piram ;   The Hawker's Poor Man's Concordance And Dictionary - Japhia;   Piram;   People's Dictionary of the Bible - Adonizedek;   Eglon;   Journeyings of israel from egypt to canaan;   Lachish;   Smith Bible Dictionary - Adonize'dek;   De'bir;   Ho'ham;   Japhi'a;   Jar'muth;   La'chish;   Pi'ram;   Watson's Biblical & Theological Dictionary - Gibeon;   Hebron;  
Encyclopedias:
Condensed Biblical Cyclopedia - Conquest of Canaan;   International Standard Bible Encyclopedia - Adoni-Zedek;   Debir (1);   Hebron (1);   Hoham;   Japhia (1);   Jarmuth;   Joshua (2);   Joshua, Book of;   Palestine;   Philistines;   Piram;   Kitto Biblical Cyclopedia - Adonizedek;   The Jewish Encyclopedia - Adoni-Zedek;   Amorites;   Debir;   Hoham;   Japhia;   Jebusites;   Lachish;  

Adam Clarke Commentary

Hoham king of Hebron - This city was situated in the mountains, southward of Jerusalem, from which it was about thirty miles distant. It fell to the tribe of Judah.

Piram king of Jarmuth - There were two cities of this name; one belonged to the tribe of Issachar, see Joshua 21:29; that mentioned here fell to the tribe of Judah, see Joshua 15:35; it is supposed to have been about eighteen miles distant from Jerusalem.

Japhia king of Lachish - This city is celebrated in Scripture; in that city Amaziah was slain by conspirators, 2 Kings 14:19. It was besieged by Sennacherib, 2 Kings 18:14, 2 Kings 18:17; and without effect by the king of Assyria, as we learn from Isaiah 37:8; : it was also besieged by the army of Nebuchadnezzar, see Jeremiah 34:7; it also fell to the lot of Judah, Joshua 15:39.

Debir king of Eglon - Where this city was situated is very uncertain; but we learn from Joshua 15:39, that it fell to the lot of the tribe of Judah.

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Clarke, Adam. "Commentary on Joshua 10:3". "The Adam Clarke Commentary". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/acc/joshua-10.html. 1832.

Albert Barnes' Notes on the Whole Bible

For Hebron, see Genesis 13:18. Jarmuth, afterward one of the cities of Judah Joshua 15:35, is probably identified with the modern Yarmuk. Lachish was also a city of Judah Joshua 15:39, and, like Jarmuth, occupied by Jews after the captivity, 2 Chronicles 11:9, and seems to have been regarded as one of the safest places of refuge 2 Kings 14:19. Through Lachish the idolatry of Israel was imported into Judah Micah 1:13, and of this sin the capture of the city by Sennacherib was the punishment 2 Kings 18:14-17; 2 Kings 19:8. Lachish is by most authorities identified with Um Lakis, lying some twenty miles west of Eleutheropolis, on the road to Gaza (and by Conder with El Hesy).

Eglon is the modern Ajlan.

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Barnes, Albert. "Commentary on Joshua 10:3". "Barnes' Notes on the Whole Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/bnb/joshua-10.html. 1870.

John Gill's Exposition of the Whole Bible

Wherefore Adonizedek king of Jerusalem sent to Hoham king of Hebron,.... Which, according to JeromF4De loc. Heb. fol. 87. E. was twenty two miles from Jerusalem; it was an ancient city built seven years before Zoan in Egypt; See Gill on Genesis 13:18 and See Gill on Numbers 13:22,

and unto Piram king of Jarmuth; a city which fell to the lot of Judah, as did Hebron, Joshua 15:35; according to JeromF5lb. fol. 92. H. , it was four miles distant from Eleutheropolis; according to ProcopiusF6Apud Reland. Palestin. Illustrat. l. 2. p. 505. fourteen, about the village Eshtaol, near to which Samson was buried, Judges 16:31; but JeromF7Ut supra, (De loc. Heb. fol. 92.) I. speaks of a city called Jermus, in the tribe of Judah, which seems to be the same with this; and which he says in his day was a village, that went by the name of Jermucha, ten miles from Eleutheropolis, as you go to Aelia or Jerusalem; and as Eleutheropolis lay twenty miles from Jerusalem, this place must be ten miles from it, lying between them both:

and unto Japhia king of Lachish; which the above writer saysF8Ib. M. was a city in the tribe of Judah, and in his time a village, seven miles from Eleutheropolis, as you go to Daroma, or the south; and, according to BuntingF9Travels, p. 99. , it lay between Eleutheropolis and Hebron, and was twenty miles from Jerusalem towards the southwest:

and unto Debir king of Eglon; which the Septuagint version calls Odollam or Adullam; and Jerom, following this version, makes Eglon the same with Adullam, when it is certain they were different places, and had distinct kings over them, Joshua 12:12; and which he saysF11De loc. Heb. fol. 91. A. in his time was a very large village, twelve miles from Eleutheropolis to the east; and, according to BuntingF12Travels, p. 92. it was twelve miles from Jerusalem southward. To these four kings the king of Jerusalem sent:

saying; as follows.

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The New John Gill's Exposition of the Entire Bible Modernised and adapted for the computer by Larry Pierce of Online Bible. All Rights Reserved, Larry Pierce, Winterbourne, Ontario.
A printed copy of this work can be ordered from: The Baptist Standard Bearer, 1 Iron Oaks Dr, Paris, AR, 72855
Bibliographical Information
Gill, John. "Commentary on Joshua 10:3". "The New John Gill Exposition of the Entire Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/geb/joshua-10.html. 1999.

Geneva Study Bible

Wherefore a Adonizedek king of Jerusalem sent unto Hoham king of Hebron, and unto Piram king of Jarmuth, and unto Japhia king of Lachish, and unto Debir king of Eglon, saying,

(a) That is, "Lord of justice", so tyrants take for themselves glorious names, when indeed they are the very enemies of God and all justice.
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Beza, Theodore. "Commentary on Joshua 10:3". "The 1599 Geneva Study Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/gsb/joshua-10.html. 1599-1645.

Wesley's Explanatory Notes

Wherefore Adonizedek king of Jerusalem sent unto Hoham king of Hebron, and unto Piram king of Jarmuth, and unto Japhia king of Lachish, and unto Debir king of Eglon, saying,

Adoni-zedek sent — Either because he was superior to them, or because he was nearest the danger, and most forward in the work.

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These files are public domain and are a derivative of an electronic edition that is available on the Christian Classics Ethereal Library Website.
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Wesley, John. "Commentary on Joshua 10:3". "John Wesley's Explanatory Notes on the Whole Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/wen/joshua-10.html. 1765.

John Trapp Complete Commentary

Joshua 10:3 Wherefore Adonizedek king of Jerusalem sent unto Hoham king of Hebron, and unto Piram king of Jarmuth, and unto Japhia king of Lachish, and unto Debir king of Eglon, saying,

Ver. 3. Sent unto Hoham king of Hebron.] "Sic squamae Satan ita cohaerent ut earum opere textili densato quasi loricatus incedat Satan et cataphractus: quod de Faedere Concordiae qua malignantes ecclesiae membra se complexa muniebant et circumvallabant," - elegantissime Lutherus, et vere. Persecutors conspire and complot against God’s people, who may boldly say unto them, as Isaiah 8:9-10, "Associate yourselves, O ye people, and ye shall be broken in pieces; gird yourselves, and ye shall be broken in pieces: take counsel together, and it shall come to nought; for God is with us: … the enemy is come into the breadth of thy land, O Immanuel." These words Basil bade the persecuted Christians use to the heathen princes, Animo praesenti et intrepido, with an undaunted spirit and well-knit resolution.

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Trapp, John. "Commentary on Joshua 10:3". John Trapp Complete Commentary. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/jtc/joshua-10.html. 1865-1868.

Thomas Coke Commentary on the Holy Bible

Ver. 3. Adoni-zedec—sent unto Hoham, &c.— Hebron, Jarmuth, Lachish, and Eglon, were four cities situated south of Jerusalem, and, together with that city, given to the tribe of Judah, as we shall see hereafter.

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Coke, Thomas. "Commentary on Joshua 10:3". Thomas Coke Commentary on the Holy Bible. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/tcc/joshua-10.html. 1801-1803.

Matthew Poole's English Annotations on the Holy Bible

He sent, either because he was superior to them in power or dignity, or because he was nearest the danger, and most forward in the work.

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Poole, Matthew, "Commentary on Joshua 10:3". Matthew Poole's English Annotations on the Holy Bible. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/mpc/joshua-10.html. 1685.

Peter Pett's Commentary on the Bible

For that reason Adonizedek, king of Jerusalem, sent to Hoham king of Hebron, and to Piram king of Jarmuth, and to Japhia king of Lachish, and to Debir king of Eglon, saying.’

In view of the disturbing situation and the capitulation of Gibeon, the king of Jerusalem connected possible allies in the southern hill country and the Shephelah (the lowlands or lower slopes). We know from the Amarna letters that Jerusalem headed a small confederacy, and with Shechem was one of the two most powerful forces in the hill country. In the time of Abraham its king had been an influential figure to whom Abraham had paid tribute (Genesis 14), because he was allowed to graze his lands.

Hebron (el-Halil) was about thirty two kilometres (twenty miles) south of Jerusalem, Yarmuth (Khirbet Yarmuk) twenty five kilometres (sixteen miles) west south west, Lachish about forty kilometres (twenty five miles) south west and Eglon (el-Hesi) thirteen kilometres (eight miles) beyond Lachish. Hebron and Lachish were major cities. Lachish is a thirty one acre tell but was unfortified at this time, although the houses on the edge possibly formed a defensive ring.

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Pett, Peter. "Commentary on Joshua 10:3". "Peter Pett's Commentary on the Bible ". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/pet/joshua-10.html. 2013.

Whedon's Commentary on the Bible

3.Hebron — This city, one of the most ancient in the world, is situated among the mountains of Judah, twenty miles south of Jerusalem. It is two thousand eight hundred feet above the Mediterranean, and is the highest town in Palestine, being six hundred feet above Jerusalem. Hence the appropriateness of the expression in Joshua 20:7: “Hebron in the mountain of Judah.” It was well known when Abraham sojourned there, nearly four thousand years ago. Its original name was Kirjath-Arba, the city of Arba, and it was sometimes called Mamre. Ritter argues that the original name was Hebron, and that this name was restored after the expulsion of the Anakim. Joshua 15:14. It is now called by the Mohammedans El-Khulil, “the Friend,” that is, of God — the designation of Abraham, whose tomb, the cave of Machpelah, is still here, one of the historic remains in the Holy Land of which travellers have no doubts. It is enclosed within a mosque. The present population is about ten thousand. Jarmuth was a town in the low country of Judah, but not so far west as the plain. It was southwest from Jerusalem about eighteen miles. Robinson found here a hamlet called Yarmuk, which doubtless represents the ancient capital of Piram, and contains among the hewn stones of its ruins some traces of its ancient greatness. Lachish, probably the modern Um-Lakis, is about fifteen miles west of Hebron, on the lower range of hills, so far below the summit of Hebron that it is called “the plain.” It was rebuilt after Joshua destroyed it, and in the reign of Hezekiah was taken by Sennacherib. The siege is mentioned in 2 Chronicles 32:9, and a plan of the city and its capture is portrayed on slabs found by Layard at Nineveh. See notes and cuts at 2 Kings 18:14; 2 Kings 19:8. Eglon was about eight miles west by north from Lachish on the plain. Its name is supposed to survive in Ajlan, a shapeless mass of ruins covering a round hillock. In translating this verse the Septuagint has erroneously called this place Adullam.

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Whedon, Daniel. "Commentary on Joshua 10:3". "Whedon's Commentary on the Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/whe/joshua-10.html. 1874-1909.

George Haydock's Catholic Bible Commentary

Hebron was about 24 miles south of Jerusalem, and Jerimoth 16. Lachis was a very famous city, (4 Kings xiv., and xviii. 14,) about nine miles south of Eleutheropolis, which was itself situated about 20,000 paces towards the south of Jerusalem; (Itin. Anton.) though some assert it was 22 or 32 miles distant. Eusebius and St. Jerome generally fix the situation of places by this city. Eglon was twelve miles to the eastward of it. The Septuagint read Odollam, (Calmet) which was either the same city, (Eusebius) or one probably near it, chap. xii. 12, 5(15)., and ver. 35, 9(39).

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Haydock, George Leo. "Commentary on Joshua 10:3". "George Haydock's Catholic Bible Commentary". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/hcc/joshua-10.html. 1859.

Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible - Unabridged

Wherefore Adonizedek king of Jerusalem sent unto Hoham king of Hebron, and unto Piram king of Jarmuth, and unto Japhia king of Lachish, and unto Debir king of Eglon, saying,

Wherefore Adoni-zedek ... sent... saying, Come up unto me, and help me. He saw that there must be a desperate struggle, not only for independence, but for life. A combined attack, therefore, was meditated on Gibeon, with a view not only to punish its people for their desertion of the native cause, but by its overthrow to interpose a barrier to the further inroads of the Israelites. This confederacy among the mountaineers of Southern Palestine was formed and headed by the king of Jerusalem, because his territory was most exposed to danger, Gibeon being only six miles distant, and because he evidently possessed some degree of pre-eminence over his royal neighbours.

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Jamieson, Robert, D.D.; Fausset, A. R.; Brown, David. "Commentary on Joshua 10:3". "Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible - Unabridged". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/jfu/joshua-10.html. 1871-8.

Ellicott's Commentary for English Readers

(3) Hebron, Jarmuth, Lachish, and Eglon.—Hebron, i.e., el-Khalil,

Jarmuth is identified as el-Yarmûk.

Lachish is still uncertain; but see Note on Terse 32.

Eglon is identified as Aglân in Philistia.

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Ellicott, Charles John. "Commentary on Joshua 10:3". "Ellicott's Commentary for English Readers". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/ebc/joshua-10.html. 1905.

Treasury of Scripture Knowledge

Wherefore Adonizedek king of Jerusalem sent unto Hoham king of Hebron, and unto Piram king of Jarmuth, and unto Japhia king of Lachish, and unto Debir king of Eglon, saying,
king of Jerusalem
1,5; 12:10-13; 15:35-39,54,63; 18:28
Hebron
Hebron was situated on an eminence, 20 miles south of Jerusalem, and the same distance north of Beersheba. It is now called El Khalil, "the well-beloved," the usual epithet which the Turks and Arabs apply to Abraham, whose sepulchral cave they still shew; over which St. Helena built a magnificent church. Its original site was on an eminence, at the southern foot of which the present village is pleasantly situated, on which are the remains of an ancient castle, its sole defence.
14:15; Genesis 23:2; 37:14; Numbers 13:22; 2 Samuel 2:11
Lachish
2 Kings 18:14,17; 2 Chronicles 11:9; Micah 1:13
Reciprocal: Joshua 10:23 - GeneralJoshua 10:31 - Lachish;  Joshua 10:34 - Eglon;  Joshua 10:36 - Hebron;  Joshua 11:1 - he sent;  Joshua 12:11 - Jarmuth;  Joshua 12:12 - Eglon;  Joshua 12:13 - Debir;  Joshua 15:15 - GeneralJoshua 15:39 - Lachish;  Joshua 21:29 - Jarmuth;  2 Samuel 5:6 - Jerusalem;  1 Chronicles 6:58 - Debir;  Nehemiah 11:30 - Lachish;  Psalm 83:5 - they are;  Jeremiah 34:7 - Lachish

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Bibliographical Information
Torrey, R. A. "Commentary on Joshua 10:3". "The Treasury of Scripture Knowledge". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/tsk/joshua-10.html.