Verse-by-Verse Bible Commentary

Joshua 14:6

Then the sons of Judah drew near to Joshua in Gilgal, and Caleb the son of Jephunneh the Kenizzite said to him, "You know the word which the Lord spoke to Moses the man of God concerning you and me in Kadesh-barnea.
New American Standard Version

Bible Study Resources

Concordances:
Nave's Topical Bible - Caleb;   Gilgal;   Hebron;   Obedience;   Thompson Chain Reference - Kadesh-Barnea;   Torrey's Topical Textbook - Anakim, the;   Holy Land;  
Dictionaries:
American Tract Society Bible Dictionary - Kenizzites;   Bridgeway Bible Dictionary - Anak;   Caleb;   Gilgal;   Easton Bible Dictionary - Caleb;   Debir;   Judah, Tribe of;   Moses;   Holman Bible Dictionary - Gilgal;   Joshua, the Book of;   Kenizzite;   Hastings' Dictionary of the Bible - Genealogy;   Gilgal;   Joshua;   Judah;   Kenizzites;   Morrish Bible Dictionary - Caleb;   Gilgal;   Kenezite ;   The Hawker's Poor Man's Concordance And Dictionary - Kirjath-sepher;   People's Dictionary of the Bible - Caleb;   Smith Bible Dictionary - Ken'ezite,;   Watson's Biblical & Theological Dictionary - Caleb;  
Encyclopedias:
Condensed Biblical Cyclopedia - Conquest of Canaan;   International Standard Bible Encyclopedia - Caleb;   Gilgal;   Jephunneh;   Joshua (2);   Joshua, Book of;   Judah, Territory of;   Kenezite;   The Jewish Encyclopedia - Caleb;   Elohist;   Hebron;   Judah, Tribe of;   Kenaz;   Wilderness, Wanderings in the;  

Adam Clarke Commentary

Caleb the son of Jephunneh the Kenezite - In the note on the parallel place, Numbers 32:12, it is said Kenaz was probably the father of Jephunneh, and that Jephunneh not Caleb, was the Kenezite; but still, allowing this to be perfectly correct, Caleb might also be called the Kenezite, as it appears to have been a family name, for Othniel, his nephew and son-in-law, is called the son of Kenaz, Joshua 15:17; Judges 1:13, and 1 Chronicles 4:13; and a grandson of Caleb is also called the son of Kenaz, 1 Chronicles 4:15. In 1 Chronicles 2:18, Caleb is called the son of Hezron, but this is only to be understood of his having Hezron for one of his ancestors; and son here may be considered the same as descendant; for Hezron, of the tribe of Judah, having come into Egypt one hundred and seventy-six years before the birth of Caleb, it is not at all likely that he could be called his father in the proper sense of the term. Besides, the supposition above makes a very good sense, and is consistent with the use of the terms father, son, and brother, in different parts of the sacred writings.

Thou knowest the thing that the Lord said - In the place to which Caleb seems to refer, viz., Numbers 14:24, there is not a word concerning a promise of Hebron to him and his posterity; nor in the place ( Deuteronomy 1:36;) where Moses repeats what had been done at Kadesh-barnea: but it may be included in what is there spoken. God promises, because he had another spirit within him, and had followed God fully, therefore he should enter into the land whereinto he came, and his seed should possess it. Probably this relates to Hebron, and was so understood by all parties at that time. This seems tolerably evident from the pointed reference made by Caleb to this transaction.

Copyright Statement
These files are public domain.
Bibliographical Information
Clarke, Adam. "Commentary on Joshua 14:6". "The Adam Clarke Commentary". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/acc/joshua-14.html. 1832.

Albert Barnes' Notes on the Whole Bible

The children of Judah - No doubt, in particular, the kinsmen of Caleb, and perhaps other leading men of the tribe. These came before Joshua, with Caleb, in order to make it manifest that they supported his claim, to be secured in the possessions promised him by Moses before the general allotment should be made to the tribes (compare the marginal references).

Copyright Statement
These files are public domain.
Bibliographical Information
Barnes, Albert. "Commentary on Joshua 14:6". "Barnes' Notes on the Whole Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/bnb/joshua-14.html. 1870.

Coffman Commentaries on the Bible

"Then the children of Judah drew nigh unto Joshua in Gilgal: and Caleb the son of Jephunneh the Kenizzite said unto him, Thou knowest the thing that Jehovah spoke unto Moses the man of God concerning me and concerning thee in Kadesh-barnea. Forty years old was I when Moses the servant of Jehovah sent me from Kadesh-barnea to spy out the land: and I brought him word again as it was in my heart. Nevertheless my brethren that went up with me made the heart of the people melt; but I wholly followed Jehovah my God. And Moses sware on that day, saying, Surely the land whereon thy foot hath trodden shall be an inheritance to thee and to thy children forever, because thou hast wholly followed Jehovah my God."

The appearance of the tribe of Judah in the person of its official representative Caleb, along with other Judahites who were witnesses, was actually the first order of business on the agenda for casting the lots and distributing the land. Judah naturally came first, due to the "rulership" that pertained to the primogeniture forfeited by Reuben and conveyed upon Judah by their father Jacob. But the so-called Caleb pericope had priority over the casting of lots due to an oath taken by Moses and witnessed by both Caleb and Joshua. What Caleb said here, was, in effect, "We cannot divide the land until this prior question of my right to Hebron is determined." This was nothing but the simple truth. If the lots had been cast, and Hebron had fallen to one of the tribes other than Judah, it would have cost Caleb his rightful reward, as promised by God through Moses. How foolish it is, therefore, to blame some "redactor" or "editor" for the appearance of this episode right where it is. Here is exactly the place this issue was forced to be decided. It is unimaginable that it could have occurred anywhere else!

The masterful manner in which Caleb presented his appeal, the vivid recall of events which at that time were forty-five years in the past, the appeal to Joshua as a witness of Moses' sworn word, according to Woudstra, "reflect an eye-witness account."[13] We are here dealing with events which, of all the people on earth, only Joshua and Caleb had firsthand knowledge and recall of the things mentioned, and the only fair deduction is that in those two men alone we are compelled to find the source of this material. The ancient tradition of Joshua's authorship of this book that bears his name is strongly supported by this and other similar incidents recorded.

"Caleb, the Kenizzite ..." (Joshua 14:6). "Kenaz was evidently a descendant of Edom, but was assimilated into the tribe of Judah."[14] Caleb rose to the chief of the tribe of Judah (Numbers 13-14). He was born in Egypt, survived the wilderness experience of Israel, and figured prominently in his advanced age in the subjugation of Canaan. His racial extraction does not cast a cloud upon his legitimacy as a Jew, his status being exactly the same as that of the descendants of Ruth the Moabitess (which included King David), and of Rahab the harlot. The descendants of Ruth and Rahab enjoyed their Jewish privileges through marriage, and the same is true of Caleb. "Before the Exodus, Caleb's father, a non-Israelite, had married a daughter of Hur of the clan of Chelubai (Caleb) in the tribe of Judah (1 Chronicles 2:9,18,19)."[15] From this it is perfectly clear that Caleb was not already in Canaan before the Exodus, nor had the Calebites the ownership of Hebron before Joshua.

A full account of the events that led to the pledge of Hebron to Caleb is found in Numbers 14:21-24 and Deuteronomy 1:35,36. For further comment on these important happenings, see our comments under those passages in these commentaries..

It appears to us that God Himself might have over-ruled events at this juncture in order to bring this instance of Caleb's faithfulness under great dangers into focus for the benefit of all the children of Israel. "The account of Caleb's courageous stand would serve to remind God's people of how the promised land had to be won."[16]

It is a gross error to attribute Caleb's actions here to greed or avarice on his part. "He later willingly yielded his city to the Levites and lived in the suburbs (Joshua 21:12)."[17]

Copyright Statement
Coffman Commentaries reproduced by permission of Abilene Christian University Press, Abilene, Texas, USA. All other rights reserved.
Bibliographical Information
Coffman, James Burton. "Commentary on Joshua 14:6". "Coffman Commentaries on the Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/bcc/joshua-14.html. Abilene Christian University Press, Abilene, Texas, USA. 1983-1999.

John Gill's Exposition of the Whole Bible

Then the children of Judah came unto Joshua in Gilgal,.... Whither he was returned after the conquest of the kings and their kingdoms; these were not the whole tribe of Judah, but some of the chief men of it who accompanied Caleb, for the honour of him, as Ben Gersom observes, he being their prince; and to second his petition, and to show their consent unto, and an approbation of such an assignment to him as he desired:

and Caleb, the son of Jephunneh the Kenezite, said unto him; whether Caleb or Jephunneh called the Kenezite, and what the reason of the name, are not very material; and of which See Gill on Numbers 32:12; and as Caleb was personally and singly concerned in the following affair, he alone dressed Joshua, attended with some principal men of his tribe:

thou knowest the thing the Lord said unto Moses the man of God,

concerning thee and me, in Kadeshbarnea; the place from whence the spies were sent, and whither they returned to Moses there, of whom Caleb speaks with great respect and veneration, which he knew would be very pleasing and endearing to Joshua, who could not but remember what had been said by him concerning himself and Caleb, though it was now forty five years ago; it being so very striking and memorable, that only two of that generation then present should enter into the land of Canaan; the fulfilment of which, in all its circumstances, they had lived to see.

Copyright Statement
The New John Gill's Exposition of the Entire Bible Modernised and adapted for the computer by Larry Pierce of Online Bible. All Rights Reserved, Larry Pierce, Winterbourne, Ontario.
A printed copy of this work can be ordered from: The Baptist Standard Bearer, 1 Iron Oaks Dr, Paris, AR, 72855
Bibliographical Information
Gill, John. "Commentary on Joshua 14:6". "The New John Gill Exposition of the Entire Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/geb/joshua-14.html. 1999.

Geneva Study Bible

Then the children of Judah came unto Joshua in Gilgal: and Caleb the son of Jephunneh the Kenezite said unto him, Thou knowest the thing that the LORD said unto Moses the man of God concerning me and c thee in Kadeshbarnea.

(c) Which was that only those two should enter into the land, (Numbers 14:24).
Copyright Statement
These files are public domain.
Text Courtesy of BibleSupport.com. Used by Permission.
Bibliographical Information
Beza, Theodore. "Commentary on Joshua 14:6". "The 1599 Geneva Study Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/gsb/joshua-14.html. 1599-1645.

Wesley's Explanatory Notes

Then the children of Judah came unto Joshua in Gilgal: and Caleb the son of Jephunneh the Kenezite said unto him, Thou knowest the thing that the LORD said unto Moses the man of God concerning me and thee in Kadeshbarnea.

Then — When Joshua and the rest were consulting about the division of the land, though they did not yet actually divide it. The heads of that tribe who were willing thus to shew respect to him; and to testify their consent, that he should be provided for by himself, and that they would not take it as any reflection on the rest of the tribe.

In Gilgal — Where the division of the land was designed and begun, though it was executed and finished at Shiloh.

The Kenezite — Of the posterity of Kenaz.

The Lord said — In general, the promise he made us of possessing this land; and for my part, that which is expressed here, verse9.

Copyright Statement
These files are public domain and are a derivative of an electronic edition that is available on the Christian Classics Ethereal Library Website.
Bibliographical Information
Wesley, John. "Commentary on Joshua 14:6". "John Wesley's Explanatory Notes on the Whole Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/wen/joshua-14.html. 1765.

John Trapp Complete Commentary

Joshua 14:6 Then the children of Judah came unto Joshua in Gilgal: and Caleb the son of Jephunneh the Kenezite said unto him, Thou knowest the thing that the LORD said unto Moses the man of God concerning me and thee in Kadeshbarnea.

Ver. 6. Then the children of Judah,] i.e., The chief of them came, as advocates for Caleb, who was a man of great eminency in their tribe.

And Caleb the son of Jephunneh.] To distinguish him from Caleb the son of Hezron. [1 Chronicles 2:18]

Thou knowest the thing.] What prerogative the Lord promised us for a reward of our constancy. God is a liberal paymaster, and sendeth no man away with cause to complain of a hard bargain.

Copyright Statement
These files are public domain.
Text Courtesy of BibleSupport.com. Used by Permission.
Bibliographical Information
Trapp, John. "Commentary on Joshua 14:6". John Trapp Complete Commentary. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/jtc/joshua-14.html. 1865-1868.

Thomas Coke Commentary on the Holy Bible

Ver. 6. Then the children of Judah came unto Joshua in Gilgal Or, Now the children of Judah had come, &c.

And Caleb the son of Jephunneh the Kenezite See Numbers 32:12.

Copyright Statement
These files are public domain.
Text Courtesy of BibleSupport.com. Used by Permission.
Bibliographical Information
Coke, Thomas. "Commentary on Joshua 14:6". Thomas Coke Commentary on the Holy Bible. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/tcc/joshua-14.html. 1801-1803.

Matthew Poole's English Annotations on the Holy Bible

Then the children of Judah; either,

1. At that time when Joshua and the rest were consulting about the division of the land, though they did not yet actually and fully divide it. Or,

2. When Joshua, and himself, and the Israelites were proceeding in their conquests, and were going against Hebron, Joshua 10:36, which expedition, there mentioned in a general manner, may be particularly described in this chapter, and Joshua 15:13,14. But the former seems more probable, because this was done when Joshua was in Gilgal, and not when he was pursuing his enemies. Came, not so much to intercede for Caleb, which was not needful with Joshua, especially in a thing already promised by God, but only to justify and countenance him in his desire.

Gilgal; where the division of the land was designed and begun, though it was executed and finished at Shiloh, Joshua 18:1.

Son of Jephunneh; so he is called here, and 1 Chronicles 4:15, to difference him from Caleb the son of Hezron, 1 Chronicles 2:18.

The Kenezite; of the posterity of Kenaz, of whom see Jude 1:13 1 Chronicles 4:13,15. The thing that the Lord said unto Moses; in general, the gracious and comfortable promise he made us of possessing this land; and in particular, for my part, that which is expressed here, Joshua 14:9.

The man of God; whose words therefore thou art obliged to make good.

Copyright Statement
These files are public domain.
Text Courtesy of BibleSupport.com. Used by Permission.
Bibliographical Information
Poole, Matthew, "Commentary on Joshua 14:6". Matthew Poole's English Annotations on the Holy Bible. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/mpc/joshua-14.html. 1685.

Whedon's Commentary on the Bible

CALEB’S INHERITANCE, Joshua 14:6-15.

6.Children of Judah came — Caleb was of the tribe of Judah, and probably by his request the elders of his own tribe accompany him to Gilgal, lest they might suspect that he was using his office of commissioner to carve out a splendid portion for himself. They may have seconded his petition as having an important bearing on the question of their own portion, which would naturally contain the tract of Caleb, their tribesman, so that the granting of his request would virtually establish southern Canaan as their lot. Caleb was one of the two spies so famous for their faith in Jehovah, and for their courage and independence in making a very unpopular minority report, for which they narrowly escaped stoning at the hands of the infuriated people. Numbers 14:6-10. They were spared in the ensuing plague which swept off the faithless ten, and were also excepted when Moses declared that none who were above twenty years old when they came out of Egypt should enter Canaan. Numbers 14:29-30.

Kenezite — That is, a son of Kenaz. He was a pure Hebrew, not an Edomite.

Kadesh-barnea Joshua 10:41, note.

7. Forty years old was I — When, in the plains of Moab near the banks of the Jordan, Moses numbered Israel, not a man was left of those who had heard the law thundered from Sinai, save these two veterans who now stand face to face, Caleb and Joshua. Numbers 26:63. The desert of the sojourn had been the nation’s tomb. Joshua had succeeded Moses as leader of the tribes; Caleb now comes forward to claim the patrimony that had been promised by Jehovah to him.

In mine heart — Heart means here not the affections solely, but the understanding. See note on Romans 10:10. He made his report a perfect transcript of things as he saw them, uncoloured by cowardice, or faithlessness to Jehovah, or compliance with the people.

Copyright Statement
These files are public domain.
Text Courtesy of BibleSupport.com. Used by Permission.
Bibliographical Information
Whedon, Daniel. "Commentary on Joshua 14:6". "Whedon's Commentary on the Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/whe/joshua-14.html. 1874-1909.

Joseph Benson's Commentary of the Old and New Testaments

Joshua 14:6. Then the children of Judah came — When Joshua, Eleazar, and the rest were consulting about the division of the land, and before they had begun to cast lots, some of the children of Judah interposed in behalf of Caleb, coming along with him to show him respect, to testify their consent that he should be provided for by himself, and to be witnesses of the truth of what he alleged. In Gilgal — Where the division of the land was designed, and begun, though it was executed and finished in Shiloh. The Kenezite — Of the posterity of Kenaz. Thou knowest the thing the Lord said — In general, the promise he made us of possessing this land, and what he said concerning me in particular, Joshua 14:9.

Copyright Statement
These files are public domain.
Text Courtesy of BibleSupport.com. Used by Permission.
Bibliographical Information
Benson, Joseph. "Commentary on Joshua 14:6". Joseph Benson's Commentary. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/rbc/joshua-14.html. 1857.

George Haydock's Catholic Bible Commentary

Jephone was the father of Caleb. Esron and Cenez probably some of his ancestors, 1 Paralipomenon ii. 18., and Numbers xxxiii. 12. What Caleb here asserts, must have been delivered by word of mouth, in the hearing of the people, Deuteronomy i. 36. Moses declared not that Caleb was to have the whole country but that he should enter into it, and possess the environs of Hebron. (Calmet)

Copyright Statement
These files are public domain.
Text Courtesy of BibleSupport.com. Used by Permission.
Bibliographical Information
Haydock, George Leo. "Commentary on Joshua 14:6". "George Haydock's Catholic Bible Commentary". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/hcc/joshua-14.html. 1859.

E.W. Bullinger's Companion Bible Notes

God. Hebrew. Elohim. App-4.

and thee. Supply the Figure of speech Ellipsis (App-6) thus: "and [concerning] thee"

Copyright Statement
These files are public domain.
Text Courtesy of BibleSupport.com. Used by Permission.
Bibliographical Information
Bullinger, Ethelbert William. "Commentary on Joshua 14:6". "E.W. Bullinger's Companion bible Notes". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/bul/joshua-14.html. 1909-1922.

Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible - Unabridged

Then the children of Judah came unto Joshua in Gilgal: and Caleb the son of Jephunneh the Kenezite said unto him, Thou knowest the thing that the LORD said unto Moses the man of God concerning me and thee in Kadesh-barnea.

Then the children of Judah came unto Joshua in Gilgal: and Caleb the son of Jephunneh the Kenezite said. The genealogical descent of Caleb is traced in 1 Chronicles 4:13; 1 Chronicles 4:15. 'He was not strictly an Israelite at all, and the designation, "the Kenezite," imports as much. His father, Jephunneh, and his grandfather or ancestor, Kenaz, belonged to some tribe, probably Idumea, friendly to the Israelites, and may be compared to Jethro and to the Kenites' (see the note at Joshua 15:13, and 1 Chronicles 11:8) (Lord A. Hervey, 'Genealogy,' p. 30).

Copyright Statement
These files are public domain.
Text Courtesy of BibleSupport.com. Used by Permission.
Bibliographical Information
Jamieson, Robert, D.D.; Fausset, A. R.; Brown, David. "Commentary on Joshua 14:6". "Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible - Unabridged". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/jfu/joshua-14.html. 1871-8.

Ellicott's Commentary for English Readers

INHERITANCE OF JUDAH (Joshua 14:6 to Joshua 15:63).

(6) Caleb the son of Jephunneh—Caleb was the commissioner appointed from the tribe of Judah to divide the land (Numbers 34:19). His coming forward on this occasion to ask for his own inheritance first of all might appear to savour of self-interest, if the post of honour for which he applied had not been also the most dangerous and difficult position in the inheritance of his tribe. He applied for the territory of the gigantic sons of Anak, whom he undertook to drive out in the strength of Jehovah. Therefore “Joshua blessed him” and gave him Hebron for his inheritance. It is noticeable that of the two faithful spies whom Moses sent, Caleb received his inheritance first, and Joshua last of all Israel. (See Joshua 19:49.) The characters of the two men are well seen in this contrast—the one foremost in a service of danger; the other last to seek the things that were his own. Thus, “even Christ pleased not Himself” (comp. Joshua); but “the reproaches of them that reproached thee fell on me,” as the conquest of the sons of Anak fell to the lot of Caleb. Observe how the slayer of Goliath is said to take away the reproach from Israel, 1 Samuel 17:26. “Who can stand before the children of Anak?”

Copyright Statement
These files are public domain.
Text Courtesy of BibleSupport.com. Used by Permission.
Bibliographical Information
Ellicott, Charles John. "Commentary on Joshua 14:6". "Ellicott's Commentary for English Readers". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/ebc/joshua-14.html. 1905.

Treasury of Scripture Knowledge

Then the children of Judah came unto Joshua in Gilgal: and Caleb the son of Jephunneh the Kenezite said unto him, Thou knowest the thing that the LORD said unto Moses the man of God concerning me and thee in Kadeshbarnea.
Gilgal
4:19; 10:43
Caleb
Numbers 13:6; 14:6
Kenezite
14; 15:17; Numbers 32:12
Thou knowest
Numbers 14:24,30; Deuteronomy 1:36-38
the man
Numbers 12:7,8; Deuteronomy 33:1; 34:5,10; Judges 13:6-8; 1 Kings 13:1,14; 2 Kings 4:9,16,42; 8:7,11; Psalms 90:1; *title; 1 Timothy 6:11; 2 Timothy 3:17
Kadesh-barnea
Numbers 13:26
Reciprocal: Numbers 13:30 - GeneralNumbers 14:38 - GeneralNumbers 32:8 - GeneralDeuteronomy 1:2 - unto;  Joshua 10:41 - Kadeshbarnea;  Joshua 15:13 - Caleb;  1 Chronicles 4:15 - Caleb;  1 Chronicles 5:1 - reckoned;  1 Chronicles 5:2 - Judah;  Nehemiah 12:24 - the man;  Jeremiah 35:4 - a man;  2 Peter 1:21 - in old time

Copyright Statement
These files are public domain.
Text Courtesy of BibleSupport.com. Used by Permission.
Bibliographical Information
Torrey, R. A. "Commentary on Joshua 14:6". "The Treasury of Scripture Knowledge". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/tsk/joshua-14.html.

Calvin's Commentary on the Bible

6.Then the children of Judah came, etc Here the account which had been begun as to the partition of the land is broken off to make way for the insertion of a narrative, namely, that Caleb requested Mount Hebron to be given to him as he had been promised by Moses. This happened a long time before the people had ceased from making war, and it became necessary to cast lots. It is stated to be the fifth year since their entrance into the land, and he does not ask for a locality to be given up to him which was already subdued and cleared of the enemy, but in the midst of the noise and heat of warfare, he asks to be permitted to acquire it by routing and slaying its giants. He only seeks to provide, that when his valor has subdued the giants, he is not to be defrauded of the reward of his labor. The method of so providing, is to prevent its being included in the common lot of a tribe. Accordingly, he does not put forth the claim by himself alone, but the members of his tribe, the sons of Judah also concur with him, because the effect of conferring this extraordinary benefit on one family was so far to make an addition to all. Hence though Caleb alone speaks, all the tribe whose interest it was that his request should be granted were present.

I am not clear why the surname of Kenite was given to Caleb. He is so called also in Numbers 32:0. I am not unaware of the conjecture of some expositors, that he was so surnamed from Kenas, because either he himself or some one of his ancestors dwelt among the Kenites. But I see no solid foundation for this. What if he gained this title by some illustrious deed, just as victors sometimes assume a surname from the nations they have subdued? As the promise had not been inserted into any public record, and Joshua was the only witness now surviving, he makes his application to him. And it is probable that when the ten spies made mention of the names of the Anakim, with the view of terrifying the people, Caleb, to refute their dishonesty, answered with truth, that when he beheld them on Mount Hebron, they were so far from being terrible, that he would attack them at his own hand, provided that on their expulsion he should succeed to their lands; and that on these conditions Moses ceded to him a habitation in that locality which he should have acquired by his own prowess.

Copyright Statement
These files are public domain.
Bibliographical Information
Calvin, John. "Commentary on Joshua 14:6". "Calvin's Commentary on the Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/cal/joshua-14.html. 1840-57.