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International Standard Bible Encyclopedia
kā´leb ( כּלב , kālēbh ; in the light of the cognate Syriac and Arabic words, the meaning is not "dog," which is כּלב , kelebh , in Hebrew, but "raging with canine madness"; Χαλέβ , Chaléb ): As a person, Caleb, the son of Jephunneh, occurs in the story of the spies (Nu 13ff). He represents the tribe of Judah as its prince (Numbers 13:6; compare Numbers 13:2 ). While the majority of the men sent out by Moses bring back evil report, Caleb and Hoshea, or Joshua, the son of Nun, are the only ones to counsel the invasion of the promised land (Numbers 13:30; Numbers 14:6 ). Accordingly, these two alone are permitted to survive (Numbers 14:38; Numbers 32:12 ). Upon the conquest and distribution of the land by Joshua, Caleb reminds the leader of the promise made by God through Moses, and so he receives Hebron as an inheritance for himself and his descendants (Joshua 14:6-15 ), after driving out from thence the Anakim who were in possession of the city (Joshua 15:14 ). In the parallel account in Judges 1:8 , the dispossession of the Canaanite inhabitants of Hebron is ascribed to Judah (Judges 1:10 ). Both accounts agree in mentioning Othniel, a younger brother of Caleb, as the conqueror of Kiriath-sepher or Debir; as his reward he receives the hand of Achsah, Caleb's daughter. Achsah is given by her father a portion of the Southland; but, upon request, she obtains a more fruitful locality with upper and nether springs (Joshua 15:15-19; Judges 1:12-15 ).
In 1 Samuel 30:14 Caleb is undoubtedly the name of a clan which is, moreover, differentiated from Judah. Modern scholars therefore assume that Caleb was originally an independent clan which in historical times merged with Judah. As Caleb is called the son f Kenaz ( Judges 1:13 ) or the Kenizzite (Numbers 32:12 ), it is further believed that the Calebites were originally associated with an Edomite clan named Kenaz (Genesis 36:11 ), and that they entered their future homes in the southern part of Palestine from the south. Their migration up north would then be reflected in the story of the spies.
In the genealogical tables (1 Ch 2), Caleb is made a descendant of Judah through his father Hezron. He is the brother of Jerahmeel, and the "father" of Hebron and of other towns in Judah. (Chelubai, 1 Chronicles 9:9 , is apparently identical with Caleb.)
Nabal, with whom David had an encounter, is called a Calebite, i.e. one belonging to the house of Caleb (1 Samuel 25:3 ).
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Orr, James, M.A., D.D. General Editor. Entry for 'Caleb'. International Standard Bible Encyclopedia. https://www.studylight.org/encyclopedias/eng/isb/c/caleb.html. 1915.