Verse-by-Verse Bible Commentary

Joshua 16:10

But they did not drive out the Canaanites who lived in Gezer, so the Canaanites live in the midst of Ephraim to this day, and they became forced laborers.
New American Standard Version

Bible Study Resources

Concordances:
Nave's Topical Bible - Ephraim;   Gezer;   Tribute (Taxes);   Torrey's Topical Textbook - Ephraim, Tribe of;   Tribute;  
Dictionaries:
American Tract Society Bible Dictionary - Gezer;   Manasseh;   Bridgeway Bible Dictionary - Caleb;   Easton Bible Dictionary - Ephraim, the Tribe of;   Lord;   Fausset Bible Dictionary - Ephraim (1);   Joshua, the Book of;   Judges, the Book of;   Holman Bible Dictionary - Gezer;   Horam;   Joshua, the Book of;   Hastings' Dictionary of the Bible - Girzites;   Israel;   Slave, Slavery;   Morrish Bible Dictionary - Gezer, Gezrites ;   Smith Bible Dictionary - E'phra-Im,;  
Encyclopedias:
International Standard Bible Encyclopedia - Adoniram;   Ephraim (1);   Ephraimite;   Gezer;   Joshua, Book of;   Levitical Cities;   Perizzite;   Siege;   Taanath-Shiloh;   Tax;   The Jewish Encyclopedia - Gazara;   Gezer;   Joshua, Book of;  

Adam Clarke Commentary

The Canaanites that dwelt in Gezer - It appears that the Canaanites were not expelled from this city till the days of Solomon, when it was taken by the king of Egypt his father-in-law, who made it a present to his daughter, Solomon's queen. See 1 Kings 9:16. And see the note on Joshua 10:33. The Ephraimites, however, had so far succeeded in subjecting these people as to oblige them to pay tribute, though they could not, or at least did not, totally expel them.

Of the names and places in this chapter, we may say the same as of others already mentioned. See the note on Joshua 15:1. Many of those towns were small, and, we may rationally conclude, slightly built, and consequently have perished perhaps more than a thousand years ago. It would be therefore useless to look for such places now. Several of the towns in England, a land not exposed to such revolutions as that of Palestine has ever been, mentioned by Caesar and other ancient writers, are no longer discernible. Several have changed their names, and not a few their situation. Tradition states that the city of Norwich anciently stood some miles from its present situation; and we have the fullest proof that this was the case with the city of Salisbury. Such changes do not affect the truth of the ancient geography of our own country; nor can they impeach that of the sacred historian before us.

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Bibliographical Information
Clarke, Adam. "Commentary on Joshua 16:10". "The Adam Clarke Commentary". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/acc/joshua-16.html. 1832.

John Gill's Exposition of the Whole Bible

And they drove not out the Canaanites which dwelt in Gezer,.... Which was the border of their tribe length ways, and was near the sea, Joshua 16:3; in this they did not obey the command of God, and either they did not drive them out, because they could not, God not delivering them up into their hands, because of their sins; or through their slothfulness, or it may be through covetousness, being willing to make some advantage to themselves by them, being a trading people, which seems to be intended in the next clause:

but the Canaanites dwelt among the Ephraimites unto this day; which Joshua, the writer of this book, might truly say, and be no objection to it, since the same is observed after his death, Judges 1:29; and indeed they continued to dwell there until the times of Solomon, when it was taken by Pharaoh king of Egypt, and given as a present to his daughter, the wife of Solomon, 1 Kings 9:15; and though this clause does not furnish out an argument against the writing of this book by Joshua, yet, from the instance given, it appears it must have been written before the times of Solomon, and so not by Ezra, as some:

and serve under tribute; so that they were under their power, and therefore could have driven them out, or slain them, as by the command of God they should; but they spared them for the sake of the tribute they received from them, which seems to agree with the character of the Ephraimites, Hosea 12:8.

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The New John Gill's Exposition of the Entire Bible Modernised and adapted for the computer by Larry Pierce of Online Bible. All Rights Reserved, Larry Pierce, Winterbourne, Ontario.
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Bibliographical Information
Gill, John. "Commentary on Joshua 16:10". "The New John Gill Exposition of the Entire Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/geb/joshua-16.html. 1999.

Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible

but the Canaanites dwell among the Ephraimites unto this day, and serve under tribute — This is the first mention of the fatal policy of the Israelites, in neglecting the divine command (Deuteronomy 20:16) to exterminate the idolaters.

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These files are a derivative of an electronic edition prepared from text scanned by Woodside Bible Fellowship.
This expanded edition of the Jameison-Faussett-Brown Commentary is in the public domain and may be freely used and distributed.
Bibliographical Information
Jamieson, Robert, D.D.; Fausset, A. R.; Brown, David. "Commentary on Joshua 16:10". "Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/jfb/joshua-16.html. 1871-8.

Keil & Delitzsch Old Testament Commentary

From Gezer, however (see Joshua 16:3), they could not drive out the Canaanites, so that they still dwelt among the Ephraimites, but were reduced to a state of serfdom. This notice resembles the one in Joshua 15:63, and is to be interpreted in the same way.

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The Keil & Delitzsch Old Testament Commentary is a derivative of a public domain electronic edition.
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Keil, Carl Friedrich & Delitzsch, Franz. "Commentary on Joshua 16:10". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/kdo/joshua-16.html. 1854-1889.

Hawker's Poor Man's Commentary

Alas! how do God's people now suffer his enemies to remain. Dear Lord! when will all our enemies be subdued? 1 Corinthians 15:26.

REFLECTIONS

IT was the language of the dying Patriarch, concerning his son Joseph, that he was, and should be, a fruitful bough, even a fruitful bough by a well, whose branches run over the wall. And here we see how his children broke out in fruitfulness, on the right hand and on the left. But oh! my soul, in him, to whom the son of Jacob ministered but as a type, how fruitful are thy boughs, O Jesus, and how dost thou run over the wall of thine enemies. Here indeed I see the blessings of heaven from above, blessings of the deep that lieth under, and blessings of the breasts of the womb. All nations shall call thee blessed! Blessed Jesus! be thou my portion, and do thou, for thou - alone canst accomplish it, drive out all enemies from before thy face.

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Bibliographical Information
Hawker, Robert, D.D. "Commentary on Joshua 16:10". "Hawker's Poor Man's Commentary". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/pmc/joshua-16.html. 1828.

John Trapp Complete Commentary

Joshua 16:10 And they drave not out the Canaanites that dwelt in Gezer: but the Canaanites dwell among the Ephraimites unto this day, and serve under tribute.

Ver. 10. And they drave not out.] Which is nothing for their commendation; but discovereth either their cowardice or covetousness, or both.

But the Canaanites dwell, &c.] {See Trapp on "Joshua 16:3"} They would not yield: so that Pharaoh was forced to fire their town. [1 Kings 9:16]

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Trapp, John. "Commentary on Joshua 16:10". John Trapp Complete Commentary. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/jtc/joshua-16.html. 1865-1868.

Thomas Coke Commentary on the Holy Bible

Ver. 10. And they drave not out the Canaanites that dwelt in Gezer, &c.— Gezer was upon the sea-coast, in the district retained by the Philistines. Judges 1:29.

But the Canaanites—serve under tribute Grotius, in his commentary upon these words, thinks that the Gezerites, when become tributaries, were forced to receive the positive laws which God had given to Abraham and Noah, and which tended to exclude all idolatry. But in another part of his works, that great critic observes, that the Gezerites were spared, as, without doubt, they surrendered immediately on being summoned. He observes the same of the Gergesenes, who remained even in the time of Jesus Christ. Matthew 8:28. "This people," says he, "had surrendered from the first; for which reason no mention is made of them in the numbering of the enemy-nations. Deuteronomy 20:17 and ch. Joshua 11:1." See de B. & P. lib. 2: cap. 13 sect. 4 n. 2 and Barbeyrac's note on the place. For the rest, it is well known, that the city of Gezer and its inhabitants were destroyed by Solomon, after the conquest made of it by the king of Egypt, in order to give it as a portion to his daughter on her marriage with that prince. 1 Kings 9:16.

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Coke, Thomas. "Commentary on Joshua 16:10". Thomas Coke Commentary on the Holy Bible. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/tcc/joshua-16.html. 1801-1803.

Matthew Poole's English Annotations on the Holy Bible

The Canaanites were not driven out until Solomon’s time, 1 Kings 9:16.

Under tribute, as Joshua 17:13 1 Kings 9:16.

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Poole, Matthew, "Commentary on Joshua 16:10". Matthew Poole's English Annotations on the Holy Bible. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/mpc/joshua-16.html. 1685.

Peter Pett's Commentary on the Bible

And they did not drive out the Canaanites who dwelt in Gezer, but the Canaanites dwelt in the midst of Ephraim to this day and became servants to do taskwork.’

Compare Joshua 13:13; Joshua 15:63, (although in the latter case Judah ‘could not’ drive them out). The suggestion here is that at some stage Gezer was subdued, but that instead of driving them out they made them bondmen, and this was the situation at the time that this was written. This was in direct disobedience to the command of YHWH. This final phrase may, however, refer to a much later time, but the roots of sin began very early. They allowed the Canaanites to dwell among them. Thus the Israelites began to sample Canaanite life, and especially their sexually depraved religion. The Book of Judges will outline what an effect this later had on their faith and obedience.

Gezer was an important city on the road from Jerusalem to Joppa and on the most northern ridge of the Shephelah, overlooking the Aijalon valley, twelve kilometres from the main highway between Egypt and Mesopotamia. It was important for trading purposes. In fact, although the king of Gezer, and its army, were defeated by Joshua, Gezer was not taken. The ageing Pharaoh Merenptah claims to have recaptured it in late 13th century BC, but if so it was only temporary. Archaeology suggests that after 1200 BC the Philistines controlled the city, possibly with Egyptian approval. It definitely became an Israelite possession when the Pharaoh, having seized it, slew the Canaanites and gave it to his daughter on her marriage to Solomon (1 Kings 9:15-17). All this agrees with the fact that Ephraim did not ‘drive them out, allowing them to dwell in their midst’. Possibly like Jebusite Jerusalem for Judah (Joshua 15:63) it was at most times too strong for them. But there would also be other times when if they had exerted themselves they could have achieved it and driven them out. But the impetus was gone and obedience was lacking. They accepted the situation as it was. Once again Israel failed.

This is also a warning to us that we must not settle down in complacency but that by studying the Law of God we should always keep on the alert to do God’s will and to drive out all that offends Him.

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Pett, Peter. "Commentary on Joshua 16:10". "Peter Pett's Commentary on the Bible ". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/pet/joshua-16.html. 2013.

George Haydock's Catholic Bible Commentary

Gazer. It is not certain when the Ephraimites rendered this city tributary, or when it threw off the yoke. The king of Egypt afterwards conquered it, and gave it with his daughter to Solomon, chap. x. 33. (Calmet) See Judges i. 29. --- The negligence of Ephraim was contrary to God's order, Exodus xx. (Menochius) --- The Alexandrian Septuagint here inserts after day, "till Pharao, king of Egypt, went up and took the city, and burnt it with fire, and the Chanaanites and Pherezites, and the inhabitants of Gazer, he slew; and Pharao gave it as a dowry to his daughter." Grabe adds what seems deficient, "and they became tributary slaves." (Haydock)

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Haydock, George Leo. "Commentary on Joshua 16:10". "George Haydock's Catholic Bible Commentary". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/hcc/joshua-16.html. 1859.

E.W. Bullinger's Companion Bible Notes

drave not out . . . Gezer. Gross disobedience to the repeated command of Jehovah. Compare Exodus 23:31. Deuteronomy 7:2, Ac. See note on, Kings Joshua 9:16, Joshua 9:17.

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Bullinger, Ethelbert William. "Commentary on Joshua 16:10". "E.W. Bullinger's Companion bible Notes". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/bul/joshua-16.html. 1909-1922.

Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible - Unabridged

And they drave not out the Canaanites that dwelt in Gezer: but the Canaanites dwell among the Ephraimites unto this day, and serve under tribute.

Drave not out the Canaanites ... serve under tribute. This is the first mention of the fatal policy of the Israelites, in neglecting the divine command (Deuteronomy 20:16) to exterminate the idolaters.

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Bibliographical Information
Jamieson, Robert, D.D.; Fausset, A. R.; Brown, David. "Commentary on Joshua 16:10". "Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible - Unabridged". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/jfu/joshua-16.html. 1871-8.

Ellicott's Commentary for English Readers

(10) They drave not out.—The failure of Ephraim here is noticed, as was the failure of Judah above (Joshua 15:63).

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Ellicott, Charles John. "Commentary on Joshua 16:10". "Ellicott's Commentary for English Readers". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/ebc/joshua-16.html. 1905.

Treasury of Scripture Knowledge

And they drave not out the Canaanites that dwelt in Gezer: but the Canaanites dwell among the Ephraimites unto this day, and serve under tribute.
they drave
15:63; Judges 1:29; 1 Kings 9:16,21
the Canaanites dwell
Numbers 33:52-55; Deuteronomy 7:1,2 Reciprocal: Exodus 23:29 - in one year;  Deuteronomy 20:11 - tributaries;  Joshua 10:33 - Gezer;  Joshua 17:12 - GeneralJoshua 17:13 - put the;  Joshua 21:21 - Gezer;  1 Samuel 27:8 - the Amalekites;  2 Samuel 5:25 - Gazer;  1 Kings 9:15 - Gezer;  1 Chronicles 6:67 - Gezer;  1 Chronicles 14:16 - Gazer;  2 Chronicles 8:8 - to pay;  Nehemiah 5:4 - the king's tribute;  Psalm 106:34 - did not

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Bibliographical Information
Torrey, R. A. "Commentary on Joshua 16:10". "The Treasury of Scripture Knowledge". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/tsk/joshua-16.html.