Verse-by-Verse Bible Commentary

Luke 15:22

But the father said to his slaves, ‘Quickly bring out the best robe and put it on him, and put a ring on his hand and sandals on his feet;
New American Standard Version

Bible Study Resources

Concordances:
Nave's Topical Bible - Afflictions and Adversities;   God Continued...;   Jesus, the Christ;   Jesus Continued;   Joy;   Penitent;   Prodigal Son;   Readings, Select;   Salvation;   Young Men;   Thompson Chain Reference - Adorning;   Bible Stories for Children;   Children;   Church;   Clothing;   Home;   Ornaments;   Pleasant Sunday Afternoons;   Prodigal Son;   Religion;   Righteousness;   Rings;   Robe of Righteousness;   Son;   Stories for Children;   The Topic Concordance - Losing and Things Lost;   Salvation;   Seeking;   Torrey's Topical Textbook - Parables;   Pardon;   Rings;   Shoes;  
Dictionaries:
American Tract Society Bible Dictionary - Parable;   Rings;   Seal, Sealing;   Bridgeway Bible Dictionary - Dress;   Grace;   Joy;   Ornaments;   Baker Evangelical Dictionary of Biblical Theology - Christ, Christology;   Gospel;   Slave, Slavery;   CARM Theological Dictionary - Parable;   Easton Bible Dictionary - Ring;   Fausset Bible Dictionary - Dress;   Jehoiachin;   Jeshua;   Ring;   Zechariah, the Book of;   Holman Bible Dictionary - Banquet;   Cloth, Clothing;   Harmony of the Gospels;   Imagery;   Jesus, Life and Ministry of;   Luke, Gospel of;   Parables;   Prodigal Son;   Repentance;   Hastings' Dictionary of the Bible - Love, Lover, Lovely, Beloved;   Ornaments;   Parable;   Hastings' Dictionary of the New Testament - Brotherhood (2);   Children of God;   Complacency;   Dress (2);   Father, Fatherhood;   Gain;   Gospel (2);   Hand ;   Justice (2);   Love (2);   Luke, Gospel According to;   Man (2);   Parable;   Religious Experience;   Repentance (2);   Righteous, Righteousness;   Ring;   Ring (2);   Seal;   Son, Sonship;   People's Dictionary of the Bible - Chief parables and miracles in the bible;   Garments;   Marriage;   Smith Bible Dictionary - Dress;   Wilson's Dictionary of Bible Types - Ring;   Robe;   Watson's Biblical & Theological Dictionary - Rings;  
Encyclopedias:
Condensed Biblical Cyclopedia - Jesus of Nazareth;   International Standard Bible Encyclopedia - Best;   Cloak;   Dress;   Joy;   Ring;   Shoe;  
Devotionals:
Chip Shots from the Ruff of Life - Devotion for November 6;   Daily Light on the Daily Path - Devotion for July 9;  

Albert Barnes' Notes on the Whole Bible

The best robe - The son was probably in rags. The joy of the father is expressed by clothing him in the best raiment, that he might appear well. The “robe” here mentioned is probably the outer garment; and the father told them to put on him the best one that was in the house - one reserved for festival occasions. See Genesis 27:15.

A ring on his hand - To wear a ring on the hand was one mark of wealth and dignity. The rich and those in office commonly wore them. Compare James 2:2. To “give” a ring was a mark of favor, or of affection, or of conferring office. Compare Genesis 41:42; Esther 8:2. Here it was expressive of the “favor” and affection of the father.

Shoes on his feet - Servants, probably, did not usually wear shoes. The son returned, doubtless, without shoes a condition very unlike that in which he was when he left home. When, therefore, the father commanded them to put shoes on him, it expressed his wish that he should not be treated “as a servant,” but “as a son.” The word “shoes” here, however, means no more than “sandals,” such as were commonly worn. And the meaning of all these images is the same - “that God will treat those who return to him with kindness and affection.” These images should not be attempted to be “spiritualized.” They are beautifully thrown in to fill up the narrative, and to express with more force the “general” truth that “God” will treat returning penitents with mercy and with love. To dress up the son in this manner was a proof of the father‘s affection. So God will bestow on sinners the marks of his confidence and regard.

sa40

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Bibliographical Information
Barnes, Albert. "Commentary on Luke 15:22". "Barnes' Notes on the Whole Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/bnb/luke-15.html. 1870.

Coffman Commentaries on the Bible

But the father said to his servants, Bring forth quickly the best robe, and put it on him; and put a ring on his hand, and shoes on his feet: and bring the fatted calf, and kill it, and let us eat, and make merry: for this my son was dead, and is alive again; and he was lost, and is found. And they began to be merry.

It will be noted that the prodigal never came out with the intended request to be made as one of his father's hired servants. It would appear that the father interrupted him before that part of his speech to the father could be made.

The ring, the robe, the shoes ... All these were the signs of the sonship which the father restored to him, the signet ring, in particular, indicating that the father undertook to pay all of his debts. The new clothing and the status at the father's table are fitting emblems of the salvation which God bestows upon his returning children,

And they began to be merry ... signifies the joy in God's house over the salvation of the lost.

TRAGEDY IN THE FAR COUNTRY: A SERMON

Introduction: Most of those standing by when this prodigal took passage for the far country would probably have admired him. He was not only young and rich, but he was what many would have called "progressive"! Contrasted with this scene of his leaving home is the dark picture of the tragedy that befell him in the far country. Before moving to view that squalid scene in the swine pen, we should remember that the prodigals are still with us, still enraptured with that mysterious allure that the fire has for the moth. This tragedy is reenacted somewhere on earth every day.

I. The extent of this tragedy.

The whole episode was tragic. The rebellious son, the father's grief, the waste of his inheritance, the type of companions he chose, the famine that fell upon that country, and the harsh bargain he made with the citizen - all these were tragic, but to behold the full extent of this tragedy, only one place supplies the proper vantage point, that of the swine pen. Note the following elements of the tragedy:

A. The prodigal is alone. Far from being the popular way which Satan always promises travelers who accept his suggestions, the route the prodigal traveled proved to be one of utter loneliness; and many a derelict whose body has been drawn from the river, or discovered under a bridge, has also tasted the loneliness of evil ways.

B. The prodigal had a shameful job. Citizens of Satan's kingdom have swine to feed, and many a hapless prodigal has ended in a disgraceful, humiliating task of tending earth's swine pens, its brothels, its low places of entertainment, and its saloons. This contrasts with what the prodigal doubtless imagined he would be doing in the far country.

Illustration: A man and his wife were in a Western city and stopped for a cup of coffee across the street from a noted gambling center. The place was crowded, and a young man came over from "The Golden Nugget" and sat at the same table. It turned out that he was a Christian; his father was an elder in a Tennessee church; and he was ashamed of his work; but he insisted he could not change it, saying, "I'm in too deep to change now!" He was only another prodigal sent into a task he despised.

C. He was hungry. Oddly, there was plenty for swine but nothing for the son of the loving father. For all who contemplate an excursion into the far country, it would be well for them to take into account the inevitable hunger of the soul engaged in employment under Satan. "Our souls, O Christ, were made for thee; and never shall they rest till they rest in thee!"[5]

D. He was tortured by burning memories. Memory is not a thing which may be turned off and on like electricity. "How many hired servants of my father have bread enough and to spare." The swine pen itself was no refuge from the memories of that lost relationship. Many a soul today hardly dares to think of those memories of the days of faith and worship which graced their youth. Hell itself is no refuge from memory (Luke 16:27,28).

II. What was the cause of this tragedy?

The cause of every accident is investigated with a view to finding its cause and preventing a recurrence.

A. One root cause of this tragedy was the "give me" attitude of the prodigal. That soul which makes getting the goal of life is headed for disaster. Note the contrast between his attitude at first and that of the penitent prodigal who said, "Father, make me" instead of "Father, give me"!

B. The prodigal's unwillingness to submit to the benign government of the father's house was a second cause. Many who wish to lead the good life seem to be unaware that restraints are involved. The plane bound for London must go in that direction. Fellowship with God is possible only for the obedient. His attitude was "Don't fence me in!" and apparently he did not realize that Esau's life is the classical example of a life with no fence around it (Hebrews 12:16).

C. Then, there was the influence of the prodigal's companions upon his life. The elder brother alleged that these included "harlots," and there is nothing in the parable to deny it. Without any doubt, one's companions have a great deal to do with the life he leads.

D. Lack of vision was also a fundamental cause of this tragedy. The prodigal might have taken the privilege of the Psalmist who said, "I thought on my ways and turned unto thy testimonies" (Psalms 119:59); but thinking upon one's way is difficult for the profligate. Swine pens are nothing new in this world, and a little serious forethought might have spared the hero of this story the tragedy that befell him; but, like many in all generations, he proved to be unaware of the swine pen until he could hear the grunting in both ears!

III. The cure of the tragedy.

A. The cure began when the prodigal told himself the truth. The unique utility of the Bible is that it reveals what men say to themselves (see more on this under Luke 16:3). Instead of lying to himself about how he would surely make a good recovery, or how something would surely "turn up," he simply faced up to the shame and disgrace of his life, and to the fact that he was "perishing." Countless thousands today should face up to the soul's bankruptcy.

B. The second phase of the cure was a good resolution. He said, "I will arise and go to my father." But it should be noted that a good resolution did nothing except point the way home. He doubtless felt a lot better after such a noble resolve, but he was still in the swine pen.

C. He arose and came to his father. Men must come "unto" the Father in order to be saved. This is done by learning the truth (John 6:44), by believing in Jesus Christ (Romans 10:10), by repenting of their sins (Acts 11:18), and by confessing Christ (Romans 10:10). But this prodigal was still separated from the father until he came all the way home. Just so, the sinner is still in his sins even after coming "unto" the father by his learning, believing in Christ, repenting of his sins, and confessing the Lord. There was one more thing the prodigal had to do before he was restored; and there is yet another thing the sinner must do to receive the robes of forgiveness and the ring of sonship.

D. He came to the father and submitted to the father's government which he had once spurned, he accepted the robe, the shoes, and the ring, and took his place once more at the father's table. All of this corresponds to a sinner's being baptized into Christ, whereupon he receives the robe of forgiveness, accepts his place at the father's table by a faithful observance of the Lord's supper. People who might fancy that the plan of salvation is not in the parables should look again.

THE CASE OF THE ELDER BROTHER

This, of course, is the climax of the parable.

ENDNOTE:

[5] Augustine, from the tomb of William Rockefeller, Tarrytown Cemetery, New York.

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Coffman Commentaries reproduced by permission of Abilene Christian University Press, Abilene, Texas, USA. All other rights reserved.
Bibliographical Information
Coffman, James Burton. "Commentary on Luke 15:22". "Coffman Commentaries on the Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/bcc/luke-15.html. Abilene Christian University Press, Abilene, Texas, USA. 1983-1999.

John Gill's Exposition of the Whole Bible

But the father said to his servants,.... The word "but", with which those words begin, is expressive of much grace, as it often is; see 1 Corinthians 6:11 and signifies, that though the son had behaved so badly, and was now so sensible of it himself, as that he desired to be a hired servant, being unworthy to be called a son; but the "father", against whom he had sinned, would hear nothing of it: but

said to his servants; not the angels, but the ministers of the Gospel; who are the servants of the most high God; and whose business it is to set forth, in the ministry of the word, the righteousness of Christ, and the everlasting love of God; and to direct souls to a life and conversation becoming the Gospel of Christ; and to set before them the rich provisions of the Gospel for their nourishment, joy, and comfort. These servants, the father of the son ordered, not to take him away from his presence, as one whose person he could not endure in his sight; nor to terrify and affright him with the curse and condemnation of the law, and fill his mind with wroth and terror; nor even to chastise and correct him for his former course of living, and to upbraid him with it; but to confer upon him all the honour, and high favours, and blessings that could be expressed in the following language:

bring forth the best robe; out of the wardrobe, that it is in. The Vulgate Latin version adds "quickly"; which increases the father's regard to him and shows that he was in haste to have his son appear in a better condition: the Arabic version adds it in the next clause, "and put it on him quickly"; which expresses the same thing: and the Ethiopic version renders it, "hasten ye, bring", &c. By the "best robe" is meant, not water baptism; nor an holy life and conversation; nor any particular grace, as faith, or hope, or charity; or the whole of sanctification; nor Adam's robe of innocence; but the righteousness of Christ which is often compared to a robe, or garment, Isaiah 61:10 because it is not any thing in believers, but what is unto them, and upon them, and is put there by an act of God's grace in imputation; and is what covers their naked souls, and hides their sins from the avenging eye of divine justice; protects them from all injuries, and saves them from wrath to come; as well as beautifies and adorns them, and renders them acceptable in the sight of God; and keeps them warm and alive; and gives them a right and title to eternal life. This is as in the Greek text "the first robe"; and so it is rendered by the Vulgate Latin, and Arabic versions; because it was first in God's designation and counsel, and in Christ the head of his people, in whom they are blessed with all spiritual blessings before the foundation of the world, and so with this blessing; and it was also provided and secured in the everlasting covenant of grace, long before Adam's robe of innocence and righteousness was made and wore by him: the reference is not to the first that should be come at in the wardrobe; or to that which the son wore before he went into the far country; but to the טלית, "Talith", which was the first and uppermost garment wore by the Jews, and answers to the Greek word στολη, "the stole", here used: so the Babylonish garment is called, איצטלא דמילתא,F4T. Bab. Sanhedrin, fol. 44. 1. Vid. Targum in Jos. vii. 21. which the gloss interprets a "Talith", made of pure wool. The Ethiopic version renders the phrase, "fragrant garments"; and such are Christ's garments of salvation, and robe of righteousness; see Psalm 45:8 the Persic version renders it, "the splendid robe"; and the Syriac, as ours, the "chief", or "best robe"; and such is Christ's righteousness: it is a better righteousness, not only than that of a self-righteous Pharisee; but better than the outward conversation garment of a real good man, which, at best, is imperfect; or than the inward sanctification of the Spirit of God, which, though pure, is not yet perfect: it is better than the robe of innocence wore by Adam in his sinless state; for that was but a natural righteousness, and the righteousness of a creature, and was loseable, as the event has shown; and had he kept it, would not have given him a title to eternal life: yea, it is better than the righteousness of the angels heaven; for what is said of Adam's, may be said of theirs, that it is natural, the righteousness of a creature; and had it not been for confirming grace, a loseable one: but Christ's righteousness is pure and perfect; the righteousness of God, and an everlasting one: and when the servants of God, the ministers of the Gospel, are ordered to bring it out,

and put it on him: this is done, not by the imputation of it to men, for that is the Father's act; nor by application of it to them, that is the Spirit's work; but by a declaration of it, setting it forth in a ministerial way before them; declaring it to be a justifying one, and encouraging their faith to lay hold upon it as such:

and put a ring on his hand; on one of the fingers of his hand: by which is intended not the grace of faith; that is, rather the hand on which the ring is put; and though this grace is both precious and ornamental, as will be allowed, yet it does not unite to Christ, this must be denied; it being a grace which flows from union, as all grace does; and by which souls have communion with Christ: nor are good works designed; such indeed who are called by grace, are to be set to work from a right principle, to a right end; and true grace does show itself by works; and good works are the seal and token of grace to the world; but then, as before, these are rather meant by the hand; since that is the instrument of action: nor is the seal and earnest of the Spirit meant by the ring. The Spirit of God is certainly the seal of grace, and the earnest of glory; and to have this is a high favour, and a precious benefit indeed, and what will never be taken away; but as faith, so not the Spirit is the bond of union between God and his people, but the fruit of it: by the "ring" is meant the everlasting love of God; and which, as a ring, is round, and has neither beginning nor end; it does not begin with the obedience of his people, nor with their love to him; nor with their conversion; nor with the mission, sufferings, and death of Christ; but was from all eternity; nor will it have any end, nor can there be any separation from it: this is the bond of union, that can never be dissolved; and this being manifested to the soul, is a token of freedom; it sets a man free from the bondage of corruption, and from the slavery of Satan, and introduces into the liberty of the children of God: it is a mark of great honour, a sign of riches, both of grace and glory; it is a declaration of sonship, and heirship; and is a seal and pledge of everlasting happiness: now the putting on of this ring does not design the shedding abroad of this love in the heart by the Spirit of God; but the declaration of it by his servants in a ministerial way; setting it forth in its nature and effects, to the great joy and comfort of souls; when believers receive it by the hand of faith, and which constrains them, and makes them active, and puts them upon doing good works to the glory of God.

And shoes on his feet: by feet are meant the outward walk and conversation; which in persons called by grace should be different from what it was before, and from that of others: it should not be loose and naked, as those that walk barefoot, but should be upright, straight, and regular; not carnal and earthly, but spiritual and heavenly; and should be with prudence, care, and circumspection, and worthy of their calling, and as becomes the Gospel of Christ: and by "the shoes" may be meant, the preparation of the Gospel of peace, Ephesians 6:15. The Gospel is as shoes to the feet; it beautifies and adorns, Song of Solomon 7:1 it keeps the feet tight and straight, the conversation regular and upright; preserves from slipping and failing; strengthens and makes more fit for walking; directs, guides, and influences in walking, and protects from the stones, thorns, and scorpions of the world's reproaches; and the doctrines of it are shoes that will never wear out: and to walk according to the Gospel of Christ, is what Gospel ministers direct and exhort unto, and may be meant by their putting on those shoes; they pressing a good life and conversation from, and by the doctrines of grace. A person with all these things on him was reckoned, among the Jews, as one thoroughly dressed: a canon of theirs, relating to the defilement of leprosy, runs thusF5Maimon Hilch. Tumaot Tzaraath, c. 16. sect. 6. T. Bab. Cholin, fol 71. 2. ;

"a man of Israel that goes into a house infected with the plague of leprosy, לבוש בבגדיו וסנדליו ברגליו וטבעותיו בידיו, "clothed with garments, and his sandals on his feet, and his rings on his hands", lo, that man is immediately defiled.'

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The New John Gill's Exposition of the Entire Bible Modernised and adapted for the computer by Larry Pierce of Online Bible. All Rights Reserved, Larry Pierce, Winterbourne, Ontario.
A printed copy of this work can be ordered from: The Baptist Standard Bearer, 1 Iron Oaks Dr, Paris, AR, 72855
Bibliographical Information
Gill, John. "Commentary on Luke 15:22". "The New John Gill Exposition of the Entire Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/geb/luke-15.html. 1999.

Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible

But the Father said, etc. — The son has not said all he purposed, not so much, because the father‘s demonstrations had rekindled the filial, and swallowed up all servile feeling [Trench] (on the word “Father,” see on Luke 15:18), but because the father‘s heart is made to appear too full to listen, at that moment, to more in this strain.

the best robe — Compare Zechariah 3:4, Zechariah 3:5, “Take away the filthy garments from him; behold I have clothed thee with change of raiment; and they clothed him with garments” (Isaiah 61:10; Revelation 3:18).

a ring — (Compare Genesis 41:42; James 2:2).

shoes — Slaves went barefoot. Thus, we have here a threefold symbol of freedom and honor, restored, as the fruit of perfect reconciliation.

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These files are a derivative of an electronic edition prepared from text scanned by Woodside Bible Fellowship.
This expanded edition of the Jameison-Faussett-Brown Commentary is in the public domain and may be freely used and distributed.
Bibliographical Information
Jamieson, Robert, D.D.; Fausset, A. R.; Brown, David. "Commentary on Luke 15:22". "Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/jfb/luke-15.html. 1871-8.

Robertson's Word Pictures in the New Testament

The best robe (στολην την πρωτηνstolēn tēn prōtēn). ΣτοληStolē is an old word for a fine stately garment that comes down to the feet (from στελλοstello to prepare, equip), the kind worn by kings (Mark 16:5; Luke 22:46). Literally, “a robe the first.” But not the first that you find, but the first in rank and value, the finest in the house. This in contrast with his shabby clothes.

A ring (δακτυλιονdaktulion). Common in classical writers and the lxx, but here only in the N.T. From δακτυλοςdaktulos finger. See χρυσοδακτυλιοςchrusodaktulios in James 2:2.

Shoes (υποδηματαhupodēmata). Sandals, “bound under.” Both sandals and ring are marks of the freeman as slaves were barefooted.

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The Robertson's Word Pictures of the New Testament. Copyright Broadman Press 1932,33, Renewal 1960. All rights reserved. Used by permission of Broadman Press (Southern Baptist Sunday School Board)
Bibliographical Information
Robertson, A.T. "Commentary on Luke 15:22". "Robertson's Word Pictures of the New Testament". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/rwp/luke-15.html. Broadman Press 1932,33. Renewal 1960.

Vincent's Word Studies

To his servants

Bond-servants. There is a fine touch in throwing in the bond-servants immediately after thy son (Luke 15:21).

Bring forth

Some texts add quickly ( ταχὺ ). So Rev.

The best robe ( στολὴν τὴν πρώτην )

Lit., a robe, the first. Properly of a long, flowing robe, a festive garment. See Mark 16:5; Luke 20:4:6.

Ring

See on James 2:2. Compare Genesis 41:42.

Shoes

Both the ring and the shoes are marks of a free man. Slaves went barefoot.

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The text of this work is public domain.
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Vincent, Marvin R. DD. "Commentary on Luke 15:22". "Vincent's Word Studies in the New Testament". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/vnt/luke-15.html. Charles Schribner's Sons. New York, USA. 1887.

Wesley's Explanatory Notes

But the father said to his servants, Bring forth the best robe, and put it on him; and put a ring on his hand, and shoes on his feet:

But the father said — Interrupting him before he had finished what he intended to say. So does God frequently cut an earnest confession short by a display of his pardoning love.

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These files are public domain and are a derivative of an electronic edition that is available on the Christian Classics Ethereal Library Website.
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Wesley, John. "Commentary on Luke 15:22". "John Wesley's Explanatory Notes on the Whole Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/wen/luke-15.html. 1765.

The Fourfold Gospel

But the father said to his servants1, Bring forth quickly the best robe, and put it on him; and put a ring on his hand2, and shoes on his feet3:

  1. But the father said to his servants. Interrupting the son in his confession.

  2. Bring forth quickly the best robe, and put it on him; and put a ring on his hand. The robe, ring, and shoes are merely part of the parabolic drapery, and are so many sweet assurances of full restoration and forgiveness, and are not to be pressed beyond this.

  3. And shoes on his feet. None but servants went barefooted.

    (

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These files are public domain and are a derivative of an electronic edition that is available on the Christian Classics Ethereal Library Website. These files were made available by Mr. Ernie Stefanik. First published online in 1996 at The Restoration Movement Pages.
Bibliographical Information
J. W. McGarvey and Philip Y. Pendleton. "Commentary on Luke 15:22". "The Fourfold Gospel". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/tfg/luke-15.html. Standard Publishing Company, Cincinnati, Ohio. 1914.

John Trapp Complete Commentary

22 But the father said to his servants, Bring forth the best robe, and put it on him; and put a ring on his hand, and shoes on his feet:

Ver. 22. The best robe] That white raiment of Christ’s righteousness, Revelation 3:18; that rich and royal array, Psalms 45:14, the righteousness ( δικαιωματα) of the saints, Revelation 19:8.

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Trapp, John. "Commentary on Luke 15:22". John Trapp Complete Commentary. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/jtc/luke-15.html. 1865-1868.

Thomas Coke Commentary on the Holy Bible

Luke 15:22. Bring forth the best robe, It is observed by Ferrarius, that the στολη, or long robe, was a garment which servants never wore; so that his father's ordering any such garment, and especially the best, to be brought, was declaring in the most moving manner that can be imagined, how far hewas from intending to treat him like a servant. His mentioning the shoes and the ring (which were worn not only as signs of freedom, but of dignity and honour) speaks the same language. See Genesis 41:42. James 2:2.

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Coke, Thomas. "Commentary on Luke 15:22". Thomas Coke Commentary on the Holy Bible. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/tcc/luke-15.html. 1801-1803.

Greek Testament Critical Exegetical Commentary

22.] All these gifts belong to his reception, not as a servant, but as a son: the first (best) robe, for him who came in rags,—Isaiah 61:10; Revelation 3:18 :—not—the robe which he used to wearhis former robe—this would not be consistent with the former part of the parable, in which he was not turned out with any disgrace, but left as a son and of his own accord: but a robe, (yea) the first and goodliest. The ring,—a token of a distinguished and free person, see James 2:2; Genesis 41:42.

The shoes, also the mark of a free man (for slaves went barefoot), see Zechariah 10:12; Ephesians 6:15. These are the gifts of grace and holiness with which the returned penitent is clothed by his gracious Father, see Zechariah 3:4-5.

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Alford, Henry. "Commentary on Luke 15:22". Greek Testament Critical Exegetical Commentary. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/hac/luke-15.html. 1863-1878.

Johann Albrecht Bengel's Gnomon of the New Testament

Luke 15:22. εἶπε, said) The son does not speak out all that he had determined to say; either because that, owing to the gracious reception given him by his Father, who came forth to meet him, his filial confidence being enkindled, absorbed all slavish feelings: or else because the gracious kindness of the Father broke off the words of the son [before the latter had spoken all he had intended to say].— πρὸς τοὺς δούλους, to the servants) He answers the son in very act [not in mere words].— ἐξενέγκατε, Bring forth) in public. If this son had performed the greatest and best achievements, he could not have looked for a greater honour.— τὴν) that which is.— πρώτην) the first, the principal and best one. On the other hand, it is the second chariot [that is given by Pharaoh to Joseph], Genesis 41:43.

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Bengel, Johann Albrecht. "Commentary on Luke 15:22". Johann Albrecht Bengel's Gnomon of the New Testament. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/jab/luke-15.html. 1897.

Matthew Poole's English Annotations on the Holy Bible

Ver. 22-24. We must remember that we are in a parable where a sinner is represented to us under the notion of a prodigal son; God, under the notion of an indulgent father; a repenting sinner, under the notion of a prodigal returning to his father, confessing his error, petitioning his father for mercy, acknowledging he deserveth none, but casting himself upon his father’s goodness and mercy. It is observed by an eminent author, that amongst all the parables this is one of the most famous, and wherein is the most full and perfect representation of the thing intended to be represented, and an applicableness of every part of the similitude to that which it is brought to represent. This part of it represents the grace of God to truly repenting sinners. We before heard his readiness and willingness to receive them, this part lets us see the manner how he will treat them. As in case of apostasy, the seeming righteousness and profession of men shall not be remembered, Ezekiel 3:20 33:13; so in case of a true and hearty repentance, the sins of a soul shall not be remembered, Isaiah 43:25.

The father taketh no notice of the prodigal’s leaving his house, or wasting his estate riotously, but saith,

Bring forth the best robe, thn stolhn thn prwthn; and put a ring on his hand, and shoes on his feet: and bring hither the fatted calf, ton moscon ton siteuton. I find some interpreters who by the fatted calf are willing enough to understand Christ; yet interpreting the best robe, innocency, or inherent righteousness. Nor is it an ill interpretation, if we consider, that God, at the same time when he imputeth the merits of Christ to the soul for justification, doth also put his Spirit of holiness into the soul, by which being renewed in the inward man, this man brings forth the fruits of holiness unto righteousness, Ezekiel 36:26,27. But why we should not understand both the phrases of the application of Christ’s merits, and the imputation of his righteousness to the soul, I cannot tell, considering, that the church of Laodicea is counselled to buy of him white raiment, that she might be clothed, Revelation 3:18; and that those clothed with white robes, Revelation 7:14, are said to have washed their robes, and made them white in the blood of the Lamb; and that though the habits of grace are sometimes in holy writ compared to clothing, Be ye clothed with humility, ( saith the apostle), yet these are not v stolv v prwtv. I should therefore rather choose to interpret the killing of the fatted calf for the prodigal son, as representing that application of the blood of Christ, which is made to every sinner that truly repenteth, and maketh its application to God for mercy; and the best robe, as the righteousness of Christ, in that moment reckoned unto the soul (thus believing) for righteousness. Further yet, (to consider it only in the parable), the word yusate, sacrifice the fatted calf, seems to signify what a great cause of thanksgiving to God, as well as joy amongst men, the conversion of a sinner is. We that are earthly parents, or ministers of the gospel, should not receive the news, or see the visible probability of a soul’s being converted, and returning unto God, without offering a sacrifice of thanksgiving unto God for doing such things for men, and without a true and hearty rejoicing in ourselves. But to return again to the meaning of the parable.

Let us eat, and be merry: consider these words as the words of a heavenly Father, they signify unto us, that the eternal God, from the day that a repenting soul hath the blood of Christ applied to it, and is clothed with his righteousness, is at peace with the soul, hath a communion with it, and that it from that time hath a true right to spiritual mirth and rejoicing; for light is sown for the righteous, and joy for the upright in heart: though possibly the soul at present, through temptations, cannot apprehend it, and be not actually possessed of that joy and peace which followeth believing, yet it hath a right to it, and indeed none but that soul hath any thing to do with peace.

It followeth, For this my son was dead, and is alive again; he was lost, and is found. A sinful soul is a dead soul, as the woman that liveth in pleasure is said to be dead while she liveth, by the apostle. The conversion of a sinner is as a resurrection from the dead. Nor is any soul capable of any true mirth, till it be reconciled to God through the blood of Christ.

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Poole, Matthew, "Commentary on Luke 15:22". Matthew Poole's English Annotations on the Holy Bible. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/mpc/luke-15.html. 1685.

Alexander MacLaren's Expositions of Holy Scripture

отец сказал Без единого слова упрека за прошлое отец изливает свою любовь на сына и выражает свою радость: что было потеряно – нашлось. Каждый из даров отца говорил что-то особенное о принятии им сына.

одежду Сберегавшуюся для почетного гостя.

перстень Символ власти.

обувь Обычно рабы не носили ее, поэтому это выражало полное восстановление его прав сыновства.

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MacLaren, Alexander. "Commentary on Luke 15:22". Alexander MacLaren's Expositions of Holy Scripture. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/mac/luke-15.html.

Justin Edwards' Family Bible New Testament

When in humility and penitence men return to God, trusting in Jesus Christ for what they need he rejoices to receive them with exceeding great joy; and notwithstanding all their transgressions, he pardons them freely, and bestows upon them the blessings of his salvation.

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Edwards, Justin. "Commentary on Luke 15:22". "Family Bible New Testament". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/fam/luke-15.html. American Tract Society. 1851.

Whedon's Commentary on the Bible

22.The best robe—Literally, the first robe; that is, the first in quality of the whole.

Robe’ ring’ shoes—These investments betoken the bestowing of the endowments and prerogatives of the child of God.

 

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Whedon, Daniel. "Commentary on Luke 15:22". "Whedon's Commentary on the Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/whe/luke-15.html. 1874-1909.

Schaff's Popular Commentary on the New Testament

Luke 15:22. But the Father. The father’s acts respond; but not according to the worthiness of the son.

Bring forth quickly. ‘Quickly,’ omitted in the E. V., is suggestive.

The best robe. The upper garment of the higher classes among the Jews. (Mark 12:38.) A comparison with Isaiah 61:10, Revelation 3:18 suggests as probable an allusion to the robe of righteousness provided for us by Christ.

A ring, ‘seal ring,’ worn only by freemen, as also shoes, since slaves went barefoot. Some explain: the ring, the seal of the Spirit, the shoes, ‘the preparation of the gospel of peace.’ The sense of the whole verse is: God will restore the penitent, and give him, out of love, all that is necessary to mark him as a son.

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Schaff, Philip. "Commentary on Luke 15:22". "Schaff's Popular Commentary on the New Testament". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/scn/luke-15.html. 1879-90.

The Expositor's Greek Testament

Luke 15:22. : their presence conceivable, the father’s running and the meeting noticed and reported by some one, so soon drawing a crowd to the spot, or to meet the two on the way to the house. To them the father gives directions which are his response to the son’s proposed self-degradation. He shall not be their fellow, they shall serve him by acts symbolic of reinstatement in sonship.— , quick! a most probable reading ([130] [131] [132]), and a most natural exclamation; obliterate the traces of a wretched past as soon as possible; off with these rags! fetch robes worthy of my son, dressed in his best as on a gala day.— , bring from the house— . , the first robe, not in time, formerly worn (Theophy.), but in quality; cf. the second chariot, Genesis 41:43 (currus secundus, Bengel).— (here only in N.T.): no epithet attached, golden, e.g. (Wolff, golden ring for sons, iron ring for slaves); that it would be a ring of distinction goes without saying.— , shoes; needed—he is barefoot and footsore; and worn by sons, not by slaves. Robe, ring, shoes: all symbols of filial state.

[130] Codex Sinaiticus (sæc. iv.), now at St. Petersburg, published in facsimile type by its discoverer, Tischendorf, in 1862.

[131] Codex Vaticanus (sæc. iv.), published in photographic facsimile in 1889 under the care of the Abbate Cozza-Luzi.

[132] Codex Regius--eighth century, represents an ancient text, and is often in agreement with and B.

 

 

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Nicol, W. Robertson, M.A., L.L.D. "Commentary on Luke 15:22". The Expositor's Greek Testament. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/egt/luke-15.html. 1897-1910.

George Haydock's Catholic Bible Commentary

The first; i.e. the best robe: by it, is meant the habit of grace. (Witham)

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Haydock, George Leo. "Commentary on Luke 15:22". "George Haydock's Catholic Bible Commentary". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/hcc/luke-15.html. 1859.

E.W. Bullinger's Companion Bible Notes

servants = bond-servants.

Bring forth. L [Tr. ] A WH R add "quickly".

best = first. Either the first that comes to hand, or the former robe the son used to wear. See on Genesis 27:15.

and. Note the Figure of speech Polysyndeton (App-6), emphasizing each particular.

put it on him = clothe him with it.

ring = a signet-ring. Occurs only here. See James 2:2, and compare Genesis 41:42.

on = for (Greek. eis. App-104.)

shoes = sandals. The ring and the sandals mark a free man. Servants went barefoot.

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Bullinger, Ethelbert William. "Commentary on Luke 15:22". "E.W. Bullinger's Companion bible Notes". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/bul/luke-15.html. 1909-1922.

Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible - Unabridged

But the father said to his servants, Bring forth the best robe, and put it on him; and put a ring on his hand, and shoes on his feet:

But the father said. The son has not said all he purposed, but the explanation of this given Trench, etc., appears to us to miss the mark-that the father's demonstrations had rekindled the filial, and swallowed up all servile feeling. It is, in our judgment, rather because the father's heart is made to appear too full to listen at such a moment to more in this strain.

To his servants. We know who these represent, in all the three parables spoken on this occasion: they are "the angels of God" (Luke 15:7-10).

Bring forth the best robe, and put it on him. Compare Zechariah 3:4-5, "And He answered and spake unto those that stood by, saying, Take away the filthy garments from him. And unto him he said, Behold, I have caused thine iniquity to pass from thee, and I will clothe thee with change of raiment ... And they clothed him with garments. And the angel of the Lord stood by." See also Isaiah 61:10; Revelation 3:18.

And put a ring on his hand. Compare Genesis 41:42.

And shoes on his feet. Slaves went barefoot. Thus have we here a threefold symbol both of freedom and of honour as the fruit of perfect reconciliation.

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Jamieson, Robert, D.D.; Fausset, A. R.; Brown, David. "Commentary on Luke 15:22". "Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible - Unabridged". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/jfu/luke-15.html. 1871-8.

Ellicott's Commentary for English Readers

(22) Bring forth the best robe.—It is hardly necessary, perhaps, in such a parable, to press the symbolic interpretation of each minute detail; but in this instance the symbolism lies so near the surface that it is at least well to ask ourselves what meaning either earlier or later associations would lead the disciples to attach to them. The “best robe” cannot well be other than the “garment of praise” (Isaiah 61:3), the vesture of righteousness, the new life and immortality with which it is the desire of the penitent to be clothed upon; the ring, as the signet upon the right hand (Jeremiah 22:24), must be the token of the special favour of the Giver, the seal of his “calling and election;” the shoes must answer to that “preparation” or “readiness” which comes from the gospel of peace (Ephesians 6:15), and which makes him eager to do his work as a messenger who proclaims that gospel to others, and which he need not lay aside (comp. Exodus 3:5) even when he treads on the “holy ground” where man holds communion with God, the forgiven and restored son with the Eternal Father.

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Ellicott, Charles John. "Commentary on Luke 15:22". "Ellicott's Commentary for English Readers". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/ebc/luke-15.html. 1905.

Treasury of Scripture Knowledge

But the father said to his servants, Bring forth the best robe, and put it on him; and put a ring on his hand, and shoes on his feet:
the best
Psalms 45:13; 132:9,16; Isaiah 61:10; Ezekiel 16:9-13; Zechariah 3:3-5; Matthew 22:11,12; Romans 3:22; 13:14; Galatians 3:27; Ephesians 4:22-24; Revelation 3:4,5,18; 6:11; 7:9,13,14; Revelation 19:8
a ring
Genesis 41:42; Esther 3:10; 8:2; Romans 8:15; Galatians 4:5,6; Ephesians 1:13,14; Revelation 2:17
and shoes
Deuteronomy 33:25; Psalms 18:33; Song of Solomon 7:1; Ezekiel 16:10; Ephesians 6:15
Reciprocal: Genesis 27:15 - goodly raiment;  Genesis 38:18 - Thy signet;  Exodus 12:11 - shoes;  Joshua 9:5 - old shoes;  1 Samuel 18:4 - stripped himself;  1 Kings 2:42 - and thou saidst;  2 Kings 25:29 - changed;  Esther 6:8 - Let the royal;  Psalm 30:11 - girded;  Psalm 68:13 - the wings;  Psalm 103:13 - Like;  Psalm 104:31 - rejoice;  Song of Solomon 1:5 - comely;  Isaiah 3:21 - rings;  Isaiah 61:3 - the garment;  Jeremiah 2:25 - Withhold;  Ezekiel 18:23 - not that;  Zechariah 1:3 - and;  Zechariah 3:4 - and I will;  Luke 15:30 - devoured;  Acts 16:34 - and rejoiced;  Galatians 6:1 - restore;  James 2:2 - gold

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Torrey, R. A. "Commentary on Luke 15:22". "The Treasury of Scripture Knowledge". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/tsk/luke-15.html.

Calvin's Commentary on the Bible

22.Bring out the best robe. Although in parables (as we have frequently observed) it would be idle to follow out every minute circumstance, yet it will be no violence to the literal meaning, if we say, that our heavenly Father not only pardons our sins in such a manner as to bury the remembrance of them, but even restores those gifts of which we had been deprived; as, on the other hand, by taking them from us, he chastises our ingratitude in order to make us feel ashamed at the reproach and disgrace of our nakedness.

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Calvin, John. "Commentary on Luke 15:22". "Calvin's Commentary on the Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/cal/luke-15.html. 1840-57.