corner graphic   Hi,    
ver. 2.0.19.11.21
Finding the new version too difficult to understand? Go to classic.studylight.org/

Verse-by-Verse Bible Commentary

Psalms 110:1

The LORD says to my Lord: "Sit at My right hand Until I make Your enemies a footstool for Your feet."

Adam Clarke Commentary

The Lord said unto my Lord - Jehovah said unto my Adoni. That David's Lord is the Messiah, is confirmed by our Lord himself and by the apostles Peter and Paul, as we have already seen.

Sit thou at my right hand - This implies the possession of the utmost confidence, power, and preeminence.

Until I make thine enemies - Jesus shall reign till all his enemies are subdued under him. Jesus Christ, as God, ever dwelt in the fullness of the Godhead; but it was as God-man that, after his resurrection, he was raised to the right hand of the Majesty on high, ever to appear in the presence of God for us.


Copyright Statement
These files are public domain.

Bibliography
Clarke, Adam. "Commentary on Psalms 110:1". "The Adam Clarke Commentary". https:https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/acc/psalms-110.html. 1832.

Albert Barnes' Notes on the Whole Bible

The Lord said unto my Lord - In the Hebrew, “Spake Jehovah to my Lord.” The word יהוה Yahweh is the incommunicable name of God. It is never given to a created being. The other word translated “Lord - אדני 'Adonāy - means one who has rule or authority; one of high rank; one who has dominion; one who is the owner or possessor, etc. This word is applied frequently to a creature. It is applied to kings, princes, rulers, masters. The phrase “my Lord” refers to someone who was superior in rank to the author of the psalm; one whom he could address as his superior. The psalm, therefore, cannot refer to David himself, as if Yahweh had said to him, “Sit thou at my right hand.” Nor was there anyone on earth in the time of David to whom it could be applicable; anyone whom he would call his “Lord” or superior. If, therefore, the psalm was written by David, it must have reference to the Messiah - to one whom he owned as his superior - his Lord - his Sovereign. It cannot refer to God as if he were to have this rule over David, since God himself is referred to as “speaking” to him whom David called his Lord: “Jehovah said unto my Lord.” The reasoning of the Saviour, therefore, in Matthew 22:43-45, was founded on a fair and just interpretation of the psalm, and was so plain and conclusive that the Pharisees did not attempt to reply to it. Matthew 22:46. See the notes at that passage. No other interpretation “can” be given to it, consistently with the proper rules of expounding language, unless it be shown that the psalm was not composed by David, and might, therefore, be applied to someone whom the author would acknowledge as his “Lord.” But there is no evidence of this, and there is no one in the Old Testament history to whom the psalm would be applicable.

Sit thou at my right hand - The position of honor and of rank. Compare the notes at Psalm 16:8. See also Psalm 45:9; Mark 14:62; Luke 22:69; Acts 7:55; Hebrews 1:3; Hebrews 8:1. The phrase is properly applicable to the Messiah as exalted to the highest place in the universe - the right hand of God.

Until I make thine enemies thy footstool - Until they are entirely subdued under time. See the notes at Matthew 22:44. The enemies here referred to are the enemies of the Messiah considered as King (see Psalm 2:1-12); and the promise here is, that “he must reign until he shall have put all enemies under his feet.” See the notes at 1 Corinthians 15:25.


Copyright Statement
These files are public domain.

Bibliography
Barnes, Albert. "Commentary on Psalms 110:1". "Barnes' Notes on the Whole Bible". https:https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/bnb/psalms-110.html. 1870.

Coffman's Commentaries on the Bible

PSALM 110

THE MESSIAH TO BE BOTH KING AND PRIEST

According to the superscription this is "A Psalm of David," and there is absolutely no doubt whatever of the truth of this. This writer is a worshipper of Jesus Christ, the head of our holy religion, in whom are "hidden all the treasures of wisdom and knowledge," and therefore we accept His words regarding this psalm as true.

Regarding the first two lines of this psalm, Our Lord said that, "David in the Spirit here addresses the Messiah (Son of David) as Lord; and if David called him `Lord,' how is he his son?" (Matthew 22:42-45). Thus Jesus Christ not only affirms the Davidic authorship here, but adds the fact that the psalm is inspired by the Holy Spirit.

We have pointed this out as the prelude to saying that, "In the self-styled `advanced' criticism of the mid-century type of Bible enemies, there is nothing that exposes their evil atheism any better than their treatment of this psalm." Not only do such persons reject what Christ said here, but they even delete the whole reference in Genesis 14 to Melchizedek from the Bible, there being no solid evidence whatever for such high-handed mutilation of the Holy Scriptures. We shall not burden the reader with any further attention to such worthless criticisms by unbelievers. For those who are willing to accept the word of the followers of Satan instead of the word of Christ, they should be reminded that when our mother Eve did the same thing, all of the tragic sorrows of humanity became the swift and certain consequence.

Psalms 110:1

"Jehovah said unto my Lord,

Sit thou at my right hand,

Until I make thine enemies thy footstool."

In my commentary on Matthew (Vol. 1 of the New Testament series), pp. 357,358, we commented on the first verse of this psalm. The implication of the Messiah being both the son and the Lord of David is clear enough. Christ is both God and man; as man, Christ descended through the earthly posterity of David, as indicated in the Genealogy give in Luke 3. Thus, in that sense, Christ was the "Son of David"; but, as God incarnate, he was also David's Lord, and the Lord of all people.

The Savior's mention of this passage followed the Pharisee's answer to Jesus' question, "What think ye of Christ; whose son is he?" They replied, "The Son of David." Jesus' question was, therefore, "How can your answer be true? David referred to the Christ as `Lord' in this passage; how then can he be David's son?" See my comment in Matthew.

"Sit thou on my right hand" (Psalms 110:1). These are the words of God Himself addressed to David's `Lord.' Now just who is it, in the history of mankind that these words could possibly indicate, other than Jesus Christ who indeed has, "Sat down on the Right Hand of the Majesty on High?"

"Until I make thine enemies thy footstool" (Psalms 110:1). Paul in his letter to the Corinthians picked this up, writing, "He must reign till he hath put all enemies under his feet" (1 Corinthians 15:25). Thus, Paul refers this passage unequivocally to Christ.


Copyright Statement
James Burton Coffman Commentaries reproduced by permission of Abilene Christian University Press, Abilene, Texas, USA. All other rights reserved.

Bibliography
Coffman, James Burton. "Commentary on Psalms 110:1". "Coffman Commentaries on the Old and New Testament". https:https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/bcc/psalms-110.html. Abilene Christian University Press, Abilene, Texas, USA. 1983-1999.

John Gill's Exposition of the Whole Bible

The Lord said unto my Lord,.... The Targum is,

"the Lord said in his Word.'

GalatinusF17De Cathol. Arean. Ver. l. 3. c. 5. & l. 8. c. 24. says the true Targum of Jonathan has it,

"the Lord said to his Word;'

and produces an authority for it. These are the words of Jehovah the Father to his Son the Messiah; the "Adon", or Lord, spoken of in Isaiah 6:1, the one Lord Jesus, and only Potentate; the Lord of all, the Lord of David, and of every believer; not by right of creation only, as of all mankind; but by redemption, having bought them; and by right of marriage, having espoused them; and by their own consent, they owning him to be their Lord. The words said to him by Jehovah, as follow, were said in his mind, in his eternal purpose and decree; which he, lying in his bosom, was privy, when he foreordained him to be the Redeemer; and in the council and covenant of peace, when he promised him this glory as the reward of his sufferings; and in the prophecies of the Old Testament, which speak as of the sufferings of Christ, so of the glory that should follow; and when the fact was done, when, after his death, resurrection, ascension, and entrance into heaven, he was placed, as follows:

Sit thou at my right hand; of power and majesty; expressive of the honour done to Christ, and the glory put on him in the human nature, such as angels nor any creature ever had, Hebrews 1:13, it being always accounted honourable to sit at the right hand of great personages, 1 Kings 2:19, and also of rule, and power, and authority; being upon the same throne with his Father, exercising the same government over angels and men; "sitting" is explained by "reigning" in 1 Corinthians 15:25. It also denotes having done his work, and to satisfaction; and therefore is set down, being entered into his rest, and having ceased from his work and labour, enjoying the presence of his divine Father; in which is fulness of joy, and at whose right hand are pleasures for evermore: and it also signifies the continuance of regal honour and power; he sits and continues a King as well as a Priest for ever.

Until I make thine enemies thy footstool; Christ has his enemies; all the enemies of his people are his; some are overcome already by him, as sin, Satan, and the world; and the Jews, his enemies, who would not have him to reign over them, have been destroyed: but as yet all things are not put under his feet, which will be; as antichrist, and the kings of the earth that are with him, who will be overcome by him; the beast and false prophet will be taken and cast into the lake of fire; where also the old serpent, the devil, after he has been bound and loosed, wall be cast likewise; and when the last enemy, death, shall be destroyed; till that time comes, Christ reigns and will reign, and afterwards too, even to all eternity. The allusion is to the custom of conquerors treading upon the necks of the conquered; see Joshua 10:24.


Copyright Statement
The New John Gill's Exposition of the Entire Bible Modernised and adapted for the computer by Larry Pierce of Online Bible. All Rightes Reserved, Larry Pierce, Winterbourne, Ontario.
A printed copy of this work can be ordered from: The Baptist Standard Bearer, 1 Iron Oaks Dr, Paris, AR, 72855

Bibliography
Gill, John. "Commentary on Psalms 110:1". "The New John Gill Exposition of the Entire Bible". https:https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/geb/psalms-110.html. 1999.

Geneva Study Bible

"A Psalm of David." The a LORD said unto my Lord, Sit thou at my right hand, until I make thine enemies thy footstool.

(a) Jesus Christ in (Matthew 22:44) gives the interpretation of this, and shows that this cannot properly be applied to David but to himself.

Copyright Statement
These files are public domain.
Text Courtesy of BibleSupport.com. Used by Permission.

Bibliography
Beza, Theodore. "Commentary on Psalms 110:1". "The 1599 Geneva Study Bible". https:https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/gsb/psalms-110.html. 1599-1645.

Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible

Psalm 110:1-7. The explicit application of this Psalm to our Savior, by Him (Matthew 22:42-45) and by the apostles (Acts 2:34; 1 Corinthians 15:25; Hebrews 1:13), and their frequent reference to its language and purport (Ephesians 1:20-22; Philemon 2:9-11; Hebrews 10:12, Hebrews 10:13), leave no doubt of its purely prophetic character. Not only was there nothing in the position or character, personal or official, of David or any other descendant, to justify a reference to either, but utter severance from the royal office of all priestly functions (so clearly assigned the subject of this Psalm) positively forbids such a reference. The Psalm celebrates the exaltation of Christ to the throne of an eternal and increasing kingdom, and a perpetual priesthood (Zechariah 6:13), involving the subjugation of His enemies and the multiplication of His subjects, and rendered infallibly certain by the word and oath of Almighty God.

The Lord said — literally, “A saying of the Lord,” (compare Psalm 36:1), a formula, used in prophetic or other solemn or express declarations.

my Lord — That the Jews understood this term to denote the Messiah their traditions show, and Christ‘s mode of arguing on such an assumption (Matthew 22:44) also proves.

Sit … at my right hand — not only a mark of honor (1 Kings 2:19), but also implied participation of power (Psalm 45:9; Mark 16:19; Ephesians 1:20).

Sit — as a king (Psalm 29:10), though the position rather than posture is intimated (compare Acts 7:55, Acts 7:56).

until I make, etc. — The dominion of Christ over His enemies, as commissioned by God, and entrusted with all power (Matthew 28:18) for their subjugation, will assuredly be established (1 Corinthians 15:24-28). This is neither His government as God, nor that which, as the incarnate Savior, He exercises over His people, of whom He will ever be Head.

thine enemies thy footstool — an expression taken from the custom of Eastern conquerors (compare Joshua 10:24; Judges 1:7) to signify a complete subjection.


Copyright Statement
These files are a derivative of an electronic edition prepared from text scanned by Woodside Bible Fellowship.
This expanded edition of the Jameison-Faussett-Brown Commentary is in the public domain and may be freely used and distributed.

Bibliography
Jamieson, Robert, D.D.; Fausset, A. R.; Brown, David. "Commentary on Psalms 110:1". "Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible". https:https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/jfb/psalms-110.html. 1871-8.

Wesley's Explanatory Notes

The LORD said unto my Lord, Sit thou at my right hand, until I make thine enemies thy footstool.

The Lord — God the father.

Said — Decreed it from eternity, and in due time published this decree, and actually executed it; which he did when he raised up Christ from the dead, and brought him into his heavenly mansion.

Unto — Unto his son the Messiah, whom David designedly calls his Lord, to admonish the whole church, that although he was his son according to his human nature, yet he had an higher nature, and was also his Lord, as being God blessed for ever, and consequently Lord of all things. The Hebrew word Adon is one of God's titles, signifying his power and authority over all things, and therefore is most fitly given to the Messiah, to whom God hath delegated all his power Matthew 28:18.

Sit — Now take thy rest and the possession of that sovereign kingdom and glory, which by right belongeth to thee; do thou rule with me with equal power and majesty, as thou art God; and with an authority and honour far above all creatures, as thou art man.

Make — By my almighty power communicated to thee as God by eternal generation, and vouchsafed to thee as mediator.

Enemies — All ungodly men, sin and death, and the devil.

Footstool — Thy slaves and vassals.


Copyright Statement
These files are public domain and are a derivative of an electronic edition that is available on the Christian Classics Ethereal Library Website.

Bibliography
Wesley, John. "Commentary on Psalms 110:1". "John Wesley's Explanatory Notes on the Whole Bible". https:https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/wen/psalms-110.html. 1765.

Calvin's Commentary on the Bible

1Jehovah said to my Lord (320) What is here stated might to some extent be applied to the person of David, inasmuch as he neither ascended the royal throne illegally, nor did he find his way to it by nefarious artifices, nor was he raised to it by the fickle suffrages of the people, but it was by the direct authority of God that he reigned over Israel. It may be justly affirmed of all the kings of the earth, that they have been placed upon their thrones by the hand of God, for the kingdoms of this world are appointed by the decree of heaven, and “there is no power but of God,” (Romans 13:1) Besides, as this kingdom was altogether peculiar, it was the design of David to make a distinction between it and all other kingdoms. God indeed invests kings with authority, but they are not consecrated as David was, that like him, in consequence of the holy anointing oil, they might be elevated to the rank of Christ’s vicegerents. In the eighty-second psalm they are called gods, because by the will of God they hold their position, and in some respects are his representatives, (all power being lodged in him;) but they are not clothed with that sacred majesty by which David was honored to be a type of God’s only begotten Son. Moreover, he justly observes that the kingdom was conferred upon him in a totally different manner from other earthly kings, who, while they acknowledge that it is by the grace of God they reign, yet, at the same time, do not consider that they are sustained by his power, but, on the contrary, imagine that they reign either by their own policy, by hereditary right, or by the kindness of fortune; and, therefore, in so far as it respects themselves, it must be affirmed, that they have no legitimate title to reign. And since they do not recognize the hand of God in what they derive from him, his command cannot be properly addressed to them. David, who was well aware that he was anointed by God to be king over Israel, and who maintained an obscure and retired position until summoned to assume the reins of government, shows good cause why he is not to be classed with the ordinary kings of the earth; meaning that he reigned by a Divine right. That the whole of what is stated in this verse cannot be entirely and exclusively applied to David, is very obvious from Christ’s reply to the Pharisees, (Matthew 22:44) They having said that Christ was to be the son of David, he saith unto them, “How then doth David himself call him Lord?”

The objection started by the Jews, that Christ’s reply was captious, is entirely frivolous, because David does not speak in his own name, but in that of the people. This objection is easily repelled. For even granting that this psalm was penned in name of the whole Church, yet as David himself constituted one of the number of the godly, and was a member of the body under the same head, he could not separate himself from that class, or be dissevered from this head; what is more, he could not compose this psalm for others without, at the same time, taking part with them in it. There is besides another thing deserving of notice, the assumption of the principle or maxim then generally admitted, that David spake by the spirit of prophecy, and consequently prophesied of the future reign of Christ. This principle of interpretation being admitted, it is plainly to be inferred that he had a reference to Christ’s future manifestation in the flesh, because he is the sole and supreme Head of the Church. From which it also follows, that there is something in Christ more excellent than his humanity, on account of which he is called the Lord of David his father. This view is strengthened by what is stated in the second clause of the verse. Earthly kings may indeed be said to sit at God’s right hand, inasmuch as they reign by his authority; here, however, something more lofty is expressed, in that one king is chosen in a peculiar manner, and elevated to the rank of power and dignity next to God, of which dignity the twilight only appeared in David, while in Christ it shone forth in meridian splendor. And as God’s right hand is elevated far above all angels, it follows that he who is seated there is exalted above all creatures. We will not maintain that angels were brought down from their high estate to be put in subjection to David. What, then, is the result, but that by the spirit of prophecy Christ’s throne is exalted far above all principalities in heavenly places? The simile is borrowed from what is customary among earthly kings, that the person who is seated at his right hand is said to be next to him, and hence the Son, by whom the Father governs the world, is by this session represented as metaphorically invested with supreme dominion.

Until I make thine enemies thy footstool (321) By these words the prophet affirms that Christ would subdue all the opposition which his enemies in their tumultuous rage might employ for the subversion of his kingdom. At the same time, he intimates that the kingdom of Christ would never enjoy tranquillity until he had conquered his numerous and formidable enemies. And even should the whole world direct their machinations to the overthrow of Christ’s royal throne, David here declares that it would remain unmoved and unmoveable, while all they who rise up against it shall be ruined. From this let us learn that, however numerous those enemies may be who conspire against the Son of God, and attempt the subversion of his kingdom, all will be unavailing, for they shall never prevail against God’s immutable purpose, but, on the contrary, they shall, by the greatness of his power, be laid prostrate at Christ’s feet. And as this prediction will not be accomplished before the last day, it must be that the kingdom of Christ will be assailed by many enemies from time to time until the end of the world; and thus by-and-bye it is said, rule thou in the midst of thine enemies The particle until does not refer to that which may happen after the complete carnage of the enemies of Christ. (322) Paul certainly declares that he will then deliver up the kingdom to God, even the Father, which he received from him, (1 Corinthians 15:24;) but we are not to take these words as denoting that he shall cease to reign, and become, as it were, a private individual; we are to regard them as describing the manner of his reign, that is, that his Divine majesty will be more conspicuous. Moreover, in this passage he is speaking solely of the reprobate who fall under Christ’s feet to their own ruin and destruction. All mankind are naturally opposed to Christ, and hence it is, that ere they be brought to yield a willing obedience to him, they must be subdued and humbled. This he does with regard to some of them whom he afterwards makes partakers with him in his glory; while he casts off others, so that they may remain for ever in their lost state.


Copyright Statement
These files are public domain.

Bibliography
Calvin, John. "Commentary on Psalms 110:1". "Calvin's Commentary on the Bible". https:https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/cal/psalms-110.html. 1840-57.

Scofield's Reference Notes

The Lord said unto my Lord

The importance of Psalms 110 is attested by the remarkable prominence given to it in the New Testament.

(1) It affirms the deity of Jesus, thus answering those who deny the full divine meaning of his N.T. title of "Lord." Matthew 22:41-45; Mark 12:35-37; Luke 20:41-44; Acts 2:34; Acts 2:35; Hebrews 1:13; Hebrews 10:12; Hebrews 10:13.

(2) This Psalm announces the eternal priesthood of Messiah--one of the most important statements of Scripture (Psalms 110:4).

(See Scofield "Genesis 14:18") See Scofield "Hebrews 5:6".; Hebrews 7:1-28; 1 Timothy 2:5; 1 Timothy 2:6; John 14:6.

(3) Historically, the Psalm begins with the ascension of Christ Psalms 110:1,; John 20:17; Acts 7:56; Revelation 3:21.

(4) Prophetically, the Psalm looks on

(a) to the time when Christ will appear as the Rod of Jehovah's strength, the Deliverer out of Zion. Romans 11:25-27 and the conversion of Israel; Psalms 110:3; Joel 2:27; Zechariah 13:9; Deuteronomy 30:1-9 (See Scofield "Deuteronomy 30:3"), and

(b) to the judgment upon the Gentile powers which precedes the setting up of the kingdom (Psalms 110:5; Psalms 110:6); Joel 3:9-17; Zechariah 14:1-4; Revelation 19:11-21.

See "Armageddon" Revelation 16:14 (See Scofield "Revelation 19:17"). "Israel" Genesis 12:2; Genesis 12:3. See Scofield "Romans 11:26". "Kingdom" See Scofield "Zechariah 12:8". See Scofield "1 Corinthians 15:24". See Scofield "Psalms 2:6". See Scofield "Psalms 118:22.

See Psalms 118, last in order of the Messianic Psalms.


Copyright Statement
These files are considered public domain and are a derivative of an electronic edition that is available in the Online Bible Software Library.

Bibliography
Scofield, C. I. "Scofield Reference Notes on Psalms 110:1". "Scofield Reference Notes (1917 Edition)". https:https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/srn/psalms-110.html. 1917.

John Trapp Complete Commentary

Psalms 110:1 « A Psalm of David. » The LORD said unto my Lord, Sit thou at my right hand, until I make thine enemies thy footstool.

A Psalm of David] Concerning Christ, saith R. Obadiah, and so say Christ himself, Matthew 22:44, and his apostles, 1 Corinthians 15:25, Hebrews 1:13; Hebrews 10:12-13, though some Rabbis maliciously say otherwise, as R. Joseph, caecus qui hic caecutit, to say the best of him, and other Jewish doctors, who stagger here in their expositions, as drunkards, ως οι μεθυοντες (Chrysostom).

Ver. 1. The Lord said unto my Lord] In this one verse we have a description of Christ’s person, his wars and his victory; so that we may say of it (and so indeed of the whole psalm, which is an epitome of the gospel), as Cicero did of Brutus’s laconical epistle, Quam multa, quam paucisi How much in a little. {See Trapp on "Matthew 22:44"}

Sit thou at my right hand] Sit thou with me in my throne, having power over all things in heaven and earth, Matthew 28:18 Christ, as man, received what, as God, he had before.

Until I make thine enemies thy footstool] Foes Christ hath ever had, and shall have to the world’s end; but then they shall be all in a place fittest for them, viz. under Christ’s feet; even those who now set up their crests, face the heavens, and say unto the King, Apostata, stouting it out with him.


Copyright Statement
These files are public domain.
Text Courtesy of BibleSupport.com. Used by Permission.

Bibliography
Trapp, John. "Commentary on Psalms 110:1". John Trapp Complete Commentary. https:https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/jtc/psalms-110.html. 1865-1868.

Thomas Coke Commentary on the Holy Bible

Psalms 110.

The kingdom, the priesthood, the conquest, and the passion of Christ.

A Psalm of David.

Title. מזמור לדוד ledavid mizmor. It is universally agreed, that this psalm was composed by David: and it seems to be almost as universally agreed, that he speaks not of himself at all in it, but directly of the Messiah.

This is the more remarkable, because in most, if not all the other psalms, where he prophesies of our Saviour, there is an obvious meaning, if not throughout the psalm, yet in several parts of it, which relate to some particular occasion, some passage or other in David's history; and those psalms are to be understood of Christ in a secondary sense, though not less evident, and sometimes more so than the first. But this psalm is wholly to be understood of Christ alone. Bishop Hare says, that because he had observed that most things in the psalms which were fulfilled in Christ, were spoken in their first, and, as it is called, literal sense of David, who was an illustrious type of Christ, he tried more than once whether he could not apply this psalm to David; but could not in any way which was satisfactory. DeMuis had laboured before him on the same subject, and with the same success. Indeed the ancient Jews themselves understood it thus; and that this was the known and received sense of it in our Saviour's time, appears from what passed between him and the Pharisees, Matthew 22:42; Matthew 22:46. To the same sense St. Peter applies it, Acts 2:34-35 and the inspired writer to the Hebrews, Hebrews 1:13 and this is further clear from the 4th verse of it; for the priesthood was confined to the line of Aaron; and none of David's posterity, the Messiah only excepted, was ever entitled to that honour. Nor indeed could any of Aaron's descendants presume to style themselves priests for ever, as our High-priest most literally is. We may therefore say with Bishop Patrick, that this psalm is a very plain prediction of our Saviour's divinity, his royal dignity, his priesthood, his victories, and triumph.

Psalms 110:1. The Lord said, &c.— That is, "God the Father said to God the Son, whom I honour as my Lord, and adore as my God, Sit thou (namely, after thy sufferings upon earth) at my right hand;"—an expression denoting the highest dignity and honour; and alluding to earthly monarchs, who placed those on their right hand to whom they would shew the greatest honour, or whom they designed to advance to the greatest power and authority. See 1 Kings 2:19. It here signifies the dominion which Jesus Christ, after his death, received from God the Father, as the Messiah. Thus he says of himself, Revelation 3:21. I overcame, and am set down with my father in his throne. It is added, until I make, &c. Jesus Christ subdues his enemies by the power which is essential to him, as he is one with the Father, God blessed for ever; and he does it also by the power which he has received from the Father, in quality of Mediator. See Matthew 28:18. 1 Corinthians 15:25. Thine enemies, mean, thy crucifiers; converting some, and destroying others; the idolatrous heathen; subjecting them to thy gospel; the power of sin and Satan in men's hearts, and at last death itself. The expression, thy footstool, which denotes an entire subdual of enemies, alludes to the custom of Eastern nations, to tread upon the necks of the kings whom they had conquered, and so make them, as it were, their footstool. See Joshua 10:24. 2 Samuel 22:41. Mr. Martin, in his Explication des Textes difficiles, has shewn that this expression of sitting at the right hand of God, not only implies the elevation of the Messiah to the throne, but his equality with the Father; and he observes, that the Divinity of Jesus Christ could never have been opposed, if these words had been properly understood: he remarks further, that the word footstool declares the same thing. To have a footstool, says he, was formerly a mark of distinction, reserved only for those who were appointed to a dignity. There is no mention of footstool in Scripture, but where God and kings are concerned. The ark of the covenant is often called the Lord's footstool; 1 Chronicles 28:2; 1 Chronicles 28:21 and it is said, 2 Chronicles 9:18 that the footstool of Solomon's throne was of gold. In short, Homer gives footstools only to heroes and persons of the first rank. These remarks shew, that the mention of footstool in this place, is only to exalt the power of the Son of God, and to establish it upon the most solid and glorious foundations. It will sufficiently distinguish this footstool, that it shall be composed only of the heads of his enemies; of the impenitent Jews, of the persecutors of the church, of Antichrist, of sinners, of death, of hell, and of the devil. These are his enemies: these are they whom he shall bruise; whom he shall rule with a rod of iron, and break in pieces as a vessel of clay; and who shall serve for his everlasting triumph; see Psalms 2:9 which psalm the reader will observe bears a great affinity to the present.


Copyright Statement
These files are public domain.
Text Courtesy of BibleSupport.com. Used by Permission.

Bibliography
Coke, Thomas. "Commentary on Psalms 110:1". Thomas Coke Commentary on the Holy Bible. https:https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/tcc/psalms-110.html. 1801-1803.

Hawker's Poor Man's Commentary

CONTENTS

In this glorious Psalm, and in the Spirit of prophecy, the sacred writer celebrates the person, kingdom, priesthood, prophetical office, and character of the Lord Jesus. The whole of this portion of scripture refers to Christ, and to his people in him.

A Psalm of David.

Psalms 110:1

In the opening of this gospel psalm, I pray the Reader to seek grace, with me, from God the Holy Ghost, that the eyes of our understanding may be enlightened, to see Jesus in and through every part of it; and that as we read it, we may be enabled to act faith upon Him of whom it treats, until our whole souls go forth in the most lively emotions of love and praise to the great Author of our salvation. We shall have a better and more clear conception of this conference between the Persons of the Godhead, if we take into our view some corresponding scriptures. For this purpose consult Isaiah 42:1-4, where Jehovah the Father is speaking to the church concerning Christ. Then from the Isaiah 42:5-9, where he is speaking to Christ. Read also Isa 49 where, in the form of a dialogue, the sacred Persons are conferring on the same subject of redemption. Christ begins the chapter with telling the Gentile church of his call as Messiah. Then from the 6th verse God the Father speaks to Christ on the same account. Both these scriptures serve to illustrate and explain each other, as well as to throw a light on the first verse of this Psalm: Jehovah said unto my Adonai. Read also as a farther confirmation, Matthew 22:42-45. Peter's comment, Acts 2:34-35. Paul's also, 1 Corinthians 15:25. Then pause and contemplate God our Father thus addressing God the Son as the Messiah, the glorious head and surety of his people, when, having finished redemption-work he returned to glory, and sat down on the right hand of the Majesty on high. Hail, almighty Conqueror! thou art worthy to receive all glory and honour; and we behold thee now on thy throne, having obtained eternal redemption for us by thy blood!


Copyright Statement
These files are public domain.
Text Courtesy of BibleSupport.com. Used by Permission.

Bibliography
Hawker, Robert, D.D. "Commentary on Psalms 110:1". "Hawker's Poor Man's Commentary". https:https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/pmc/psalms-110.html. 1828.

Matthew Poole's English Annotations on the Holy Bible

PSALM 110

THE ARGUMENT

That the penman of this Psalm was not Eliezer, Abraham’s servant, who writ it upon the occasion of Abraham’s victory over those kings, Ge 14, (as some of the later Jews have devised, out of opposition to Christianity,) nor any other person but David, is manifest from the title of the Psalm, which is a part of the sacred text. That this Psalm belongs to the Messiah is abundantly evident, both from the express testimony of the New Testament, Acts 2:34 1 Corinthians 15:25 Hebrews 1:13 10:13, and from the consent of the ancient Hebrew doctors, manifested implicitly in Matthew 22:44, and expressly from their own mouths. Of which see my Latin Synopsis upon this place; and from the matter of the Psalm, which can by no means or arts be made to agree to David, who was not David’s lord nor a priest, much less a priest forever, or after the order of Melchisedek, the priesthood of Aaron being in David’s time in use and force, and in the hands of another person and family. And whereas divers other Psalms, though principally directed to and to be understood of the Messiah, yet in some sort may be understood concerning David also, or at least took their rise and occasion from David, or from something relating to him, this Psalm is directly, and immediately, and solely to be understood concerning the Messiah; the Spirit of God wisely so ordering this matter, that it might be a most express and convincing testimony against the unbelieving Jews concerning the true Messiah, and concerning the nature and quality of his kingdom.

Written by David, as is manifest both from this title, which being given to this, as well as to many other Psalms, whereof David is confessed to be the author, either proves this to be David’s, or proves none of them to be so; and from Matthew 22:43,44 Mr 12:36, where also David is said to have spoken this Psalm in or by the Spirit of God, or by Divine inspiration.

An account of the calling the kingdom of Christ, Psalms 110:1-3; of his everlasting priesthood, Psalms 110:4; of his mighty conquest over his enemies, Psalms 110:5,6; and of his sufferings and triumph, Psalms 110:7.

The Lord; God the Father, the first person in the Trinity, to whom accordingly the original of all things, and especially of the work of man’s redemption by Christ, is ascribed.

Said; decreed or appointed it from eternity, and in due time published this decree, as is noted, Psalms 2:7, and actually executed it; which he did when he raised up Christ from the dead, and brought him into his heavenly mansion.

Unto my Lord; unto his Son the Messias, whom David designedly calls his Lord, to admonish the Jews and the whole church, that although he was his son according to the flesh, or his human nature, Acts 2:34 Romans 1:3, yet he had a higher nature and original, and was also his Lord, as being by nature God blessed for ever, and consequently Lord of all things, as he is called, Acts 10:36; and by office, as he was God-man, the Lord and King of the whole church, and of all the world for the church’s sake. And this was a necessary provision, to prevent that scandal which the Holy Ghost foresaw the Jews and others would be apt to take at the meanness of Christ’s appearance in the flesh. The Hebrew word Adon is one of God’s titles, signifying his power and authority or lordship over all things, and therefore is most fitly given to the Messias, to whom God hath delegated all his power in the world, Matthew 28:18.

Sit thou at my right hand: thou who hast for many years been veiled with infirm and mortal flesh, despised, and rejected, and trampled upon by men, and persecuted unto the death, do thou now take to thyself thy great and just power; thou hast done thy work upon earth, now take thy rest, and the possession of that sovereign kingdom and glory which by right belongeth to thee: do thou rule with me with equal power and majesty, as thou art God; and with an authority and honour far above all creatures, such as is next to mine, as thou art man; as this phrase is expounded in other places. See Mark 16:19 Luke 22:69 1 Corinthians 15:25 Hebrews 1:3,13 8:1 10:12,13 Eph 1:20, &c. It is a metaphor from the custom of earthly princes, who place those persons whom they honour most at their right hand; of which see 1 Kings 2:19 Psalms 45:9 Matthew 20:21. Sitting is put for reigning, 1 Kings 3:6, compared with 2 Chronicles 1:8, and withal notes the continuance of the reign, 1 Corinthians 15:25.

Until doth not necessarily note the end or expiration of his kingdom at that time; for in other places it notes only the continuance of things till such time, without excluding the time following, as is evident from Genesis 28:15 Psalms 112:8 Matthew 1:25. So here it may signify that his kingdom should continue so long, even in the midst of his enemies, and in spite of all their power and malice, which was the only thing which was liable to any doubt; for that he should continue to reign after the conquest and utter ruin of all his enemies was out of all question. And yet this is a word of limitation, in regard of the mediatorial kingdom of Christ, in respect of which Christ rules with a delegated power, as his Father’s viceroy, and with the use of outward means, and instruments, and ordinances, &c., for that manner of administration shall cease; which also seems to be intimated by this word, as it is expounded 1 Corinthians 15:25.

I make, by my almighty power communicated to thee as God by eternal generation, and vouchsafed to thee as Mediator, to enable thee to the full discharge of thine office.

Thine enemies; which also are the enemies of thy church; all persecutors and ungodly men, who will not have Christ to rule over them, Luke 19:14; sin, and death, and the devil, 1 Corinthians 15:26.

Thy footstool; thy slaves and vassals to be put to the meanest and basest services, as this phrase implies, 1 Kings 5:3 Psalms 18:39 91:13; being taken from the manner of Eastern princes, who used to tread upon the necks of their conquered enemies, as we read, Joshua 10:24 Jude 1:7. And long after those times Sapores the Persian emperor trod upon Valerian emperor of the Romans, and Tamerlane used to tread upon Bajazet the Turkish emperor, whom he kept in an iron cage for that purpose.


Copyright Statement
These files are public domain.
Text Courtesy of BibleSupport.com. Used by Permission.

Bibliography
Poole, Matthew, "Commentary on Psalms 110:1". Matthew Poole's English Annotations on the Holy Bible. https:https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/mpc/psalms-110.html. 1685.

Whedon's Commentary on the Bible

1. The Lord said unto my LordJehovah said to Adonee, or, the oracle of Jehovah to Adonee. This is the usual formula for announcing an oracle, “Jehovah said,” or, “thus saith the Lord.” Jehovah speaks to Adon, whom David calls Lord, the Lord, or my Lord, that is, Christ. This is clear from Jewish and Christian commentators, but above all by the frequent and important quotations of the New Testament. “In later Jewish writings nearly every verse of the psalm is quoted as referring to the Messiah. In the Talmud it is said: ‘God placed King Messiah at his right hand, according to Psalms 110:2,’ etc. In the Midrash Tehillim, on the same passage it is said, ‘God spake thus to Messiah.’ In the same Midrash, on Psalms 18:36, we read, ‘R. Judah, in the name of R. Channa, the son of Chanina, says: In the age to come [that is, the Messianic dispensation,] will the Holy One (blessed be He) set the Messiah at his right hand, as it is written in Psalms 110, and Abraham on his left.’ In the book Zohar it is said, ‘The higher degree spake unto the lower, Sit thou on my right hand.’ And again, ‘The righteous (Jacob) spake to the Messiah, the son of Joseph, Sit thou at my right hand.’ According to the same authority, R. Simeon explains the words ‘Jehovah said unto my Lord,’ of the union of the Jews and the heathen in one kingdom by the Messiah. R. Saadis Gaon, commenting on Daniel 7:13, writes: ‘This is the Messiah our Righteousness, as it is written in Psalms 110, Jehovah said unto my Lord,’” etc., etc.Perowne. That the Jews of our Saviour’s time, admitted the application of this passage to Christ is proved from his quotation of it, (Matthew 22:41-45,) where the whole weight of the argument depended on their admitting and believing the legitimacy of such application, the only question being whether Jesus was the Christ. In using the suffix form, Adonee, my Lord, (which is the form in which the Septuagint and our Saviour, τω κυριω μου, use the passage,) David clearly distinguishes himself from Messiah, whom he causes to stand forth in his person and Lordship in clear objective vision, which is in advance of the phraseology of Psalms 2:7, “Jehovah hath said to me,” etc. The same view is strongly carried out in Mark 12:35-37; Acts 2:34-35.

Sit thou at my right hand—The place of honour and power, next in rank to the king, and sharing the government as viceroy. See 1 Kings 2:19; Matthew 20:21, and compare Ephesians 1:20; Colossians 3:1.

Thine enemies thy footstool—Quoted and applied to Christ, 1 Corinthians 15:25; Hebrews 1:13; Hebrews 10:13. The phrase occurs in various forms, and always denotes absolute and abject submission. See Joshua 10:24; 1 Kings 5:3; Psalms 18:40; Psalms 47:3. It must be remembered, that making his foes his “footstool” is not a phrase that denotes conversion and reconciliation. The language applies only to incorrigible enemies. The particle until points not only to their ultimate forced submission, or subjugation, but to a turning point, an era of consummation in the mediatorial government, as in Acts 2:35; Acts 3:21; 1 Corinthians 15:24-26, where see notes.


Copyright Statement
These files are public domain.
Text Courtesy of BibleSupport.com. Used by Permission.

Bibliography
Whedon, Daniel. "Commentary on Psalms 110:1". "Whedon's Commentary on the Bible". https:https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/whe/psalms-110.html. 1874-1909.

Joseph Benson's Commentary of the Old and New Testaments

Psalms 110:1. The Lord said unto my Lord — נאם יהוה לאדני, neum Jehovah ladoni, the saying, or decree, that is, I record the saying or decree of Jehohovah to my Lord, that is, to his Son the Messiah, whom I acknowledge as my Lord and God. This decree, made in eternity, was in due time published, and was actually executed when God raised up Christ from the dead, and brought him into his heavenly mansion. David designedly calls the Messiah his Lord, to admonish the whole church, that although he was his son according to the human nature, yet he had a higher nature, and was also his Lord, as being by nature God blessed for ever, and consequently Lord of all things, as he is called Acts 10:36 ; and by office, as he was God man, the Lord and King of the whole church, and of all the world, for the church’s sake. And this was said to prevent that offence which the Holy Ghost foresaw the Jews and others would be ready to take at the meanness of Christ’s appearance in the flesh. The Hebrew word אדון, adon, is one of God’s titles, signifying his power and authority over all things, and therefore is most fitly given to the Messiah, to whom God had delegated all his power in the universe, Matthew 28:18 . Sit thou at my right hand — Thou who hast for so many years been veiled with infirm and mortal flesh, despised, rejected, and trampled upon by men, and persecuted unto death; do thou now take to thyself thy great and just power. Thou hast done thy work upon earth, now take thy rest, and the possession of that sovereign kingdom and glory, which by right belongs to thee; do thou rule with me, with an authority and honour far above all creatures, in earth or heaven. So this phrase is expounded in other places: see Luke 22:69; 1 Corinthians 15:25; Hebrews 1:3; Hebrews 8:1; Hebrews 10:12-13; Ephesians 1:20, &c. It is a figurative expression, taken from the custom of earthly monarchs, who placed those persons on their right hands to whom they would show the greatest honour, or whom they designed to advance to the greatest power and authority: see 1 Kings 2:19. It here signifies the dominion which Jesus Christ, after his death, received from the Father, as the Messiah. Thus he says of himself, Revelation 3:21, I overcame, and am set down with my Father on his throne. Until I make thine enemies — Until, by my almighty power, communicated to thee, as Mediator, I make those that crucified thee, (converting some and destroying others,) and the idolatrous heathen, subjecting them to thy gospel, as also the power of sin and Satan in men’s hearts, and, at last, death itself, thy footstool — Thy slaves and vassals. This expression, thy footstool, which denotes an entire subdual of enemies, alludes to the custom of eastern nations, to tread upon the necks of the kings whom they had conquered, and so make them, as it were, their footstool.


Copyright Statement
These files are public domain.
Text Courtesy of BibleSupport.com. Used by Permission.

Bibliography
Benson, Joseph. "Commentary on Psalms 110:1". Joseph Benson's Commentary. https:https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/rbc/psalms-110.html. 1857.

George Haydock's Catholic Bible Commentary

Alleluia. This psalm consists of praise, and is alphabetical, (Berthier) the sixteen first letters being found at the head of each hemistic, to ver. 8; and in the 9th and 10th, we find the six last Hebrew letters, which is also the case in the following psalm. (Haydock) --- In some Latin copies, we also find the same title in both, as they may relate to the captives. (Calmet) --- The Church thanks God for the institution of the Eucharist, &c. (St. Augustine) (Eusebius) --- Praise. Literally, "confess to." (Haydock) --- Congregation. Where there are few or many together, (Calmet) in private for my own sake, and in public for edification. (Worthington)


Copyright Statement
These files are public domain.
Text Courtesy of BibleSupport.com. Used by Permission.

Bibliography
Haydock, George Leo. "Commentary on Psalms 110:1". "George Haydock's Catholic Bible Commentary". https:https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/hcc/psalms-110.html. 1859.

E.W. Bullinger's Companion Bible Notes

Title. A Psalm. Hebrew. mizmor. App-65.

of David. Relating to the true David, and interpreted of Him and by Him. See note below.

The LORD. Hebrew. Jehovah. App-4. Quoted in Matthew 22:41-46. Acts 2:34, Acts 2:35. Hebrews 1:13.

said. Hebrew. ne"um Jehovah = "the Greekcle (or oracular utterance) of Jehovah". It is almost always used of the immediate direct utterance of Jehovah Himself; seldom of that of the prophet; (Numbers 24:3, Numbers 24:15); David (2 Samuel 23:1).

my Lord = Adonai, App-4. : i.e. David"s Lord: i.e. the Messiah. Compare Matthew 22:41-46.

Sit Thou, &c. Figure of speech Anthropopatheia. App-6.

Until I make, &c. Quoted or referred to seven times in N.T. (Matthew 22:44. Mark 12:36. Luke 20:42. Acts 2:34. Hebrews 1:13; Hebrews 10:13. 1 Corinthians 15:25).

make Thine enemies Thy footstool = set Thine enemies [as] a footstool for Thy feet. In the New Testament, Greek = tithemi (2 aor. subj.) = "shall have placed". 1 Corinthians 15:25 is the exception, where it is not "set as a footstool", but put "under", because Christ"s session on His own throne (Matthew 25:31. Revelation 3:21) is there referred to, instead of His session on His Father"s throne, as in all the other quotations.


Copyright Statement
These files are public domain.
Text Courtesy of BibleSupport.com. Used by Permission.

Bibliography
Bullinger, Ethelbert William. "Commentary on Psalms 110:1". "E.W. Bullinger's Companion bible Notes". https:https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/bul/psalms-110.html. 1909-1922.

Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible - Unabridged

Though His reign on earth shall then openly begin, He shall, as God, no less than now, continue to sit on His heavenly throne, which he mounted at His ascension. Acts 2:31-35 goes upon the supposition that His sitting on His invisible throne now is for the purpose of making His foes His footstool. Other passages show that the consummation of their overthrow shall begin just before the millennial visible reign, and be completed at its close, (Revelation 19:1-21; Revelation 20:1-15; Revelation 21:1-27.) The Hebrew, until, often marks a process continued up to a certain point (Genesis 3:19). Messiah does not even now sit inactive, but reigns (Psalms 29:10); though the fullness of His power is to be manifested at the millennium.


Copyright Statement
These files are public domain.
Text Courtesy of BibleSupport.com. Used by Permission.

Bibliography
Jamieson, Robert, D.D.; Fausset, A. R.; Brown, David. "Commentary on Psalms 110:1". "Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible - Unabridged". https:https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/jfu/psalms-110.html. 1871-8.

Ellicott's Commentary for English Readers

(1) The Messiah; and, if so, with a prophetic consciousness of His Divinity, or, at least, His superiority as a Prince over all other princes. (2) David himself: this is, of course, inconsistent with the Davidic authorship of the psalm. (3) Solomon. (4) Hezekiah. (5) Joshua son of Josedech. (6) One of the priest-kings of the Asmonean dynasty.

We now come to the words of the oracle: “Sit thou at my right hand, till I make thine enemies thy footstool.”

Commentators have sought in the customs of Arabia, and even in the mythology of the Greek poets, for proof that this expression denotes viceroyalty or copartnership in the throne. If this meaning could be established from Hebrew literature, these parallels would be confirmatory as well as illustrative; but the nearest approach to be found in the Old Testament only makes the seat at the king’s right hand a mark of extreme honour. (See the case of Bath-sheba, 1 Kings 2:19; of the queen consort of Psalms 45:9; of Jonathan, 1 Maccabees 10:63.)

Nothing more can be assumed, therefore, from the words themselves than an invitation to sit at Jehovah’s right hand to watch the progress of the victorious struggle in which wide and sure dominion is to be won for this Prince. But even this is obscured by the concluding part of the psalm (see Psalms 110:5), where Jehovah is said to be at the right hand of the person addressed, and is beyond question represented ac[??] going out with him to battle. Hence, we are led to the conclusion, that the exact position (“at the right hand”) i not to be pressed in either case, and that no more is intended than that, with Jehovah’s help, the monarch who is the hero of the poem will acquire and administer a vast and glorious realm.

Footstool.—The imagery of the footstool (literally a stool for thy feet) is no doubt taken from the custom mentioned in Joshua 10:24.


Copyright Statement
These files are public domain.
Text Courtesy of BibleSupport.com. Used by Permission.

Bibliography
Ellicott, Charles John. "Commentary on Psalms 110:1". "Ellicott's Commentary for English Readers". https:https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/ebc/psalms-110.html. 1905.

Treasury of Scripture Knowledge

The LORD said unto my Lord, Sit thou at my right hand, until I make thine enemies thy footstool.
A. M. 2962. B.C. 1042. (Title.) This Psalm was probably composed by David after Nathan's prophetic address; and, from the grandeur of the subject and the sublimity of the expressions, it is evident that it can only refer, as the ancient Jews fully acknowledged, to the royal dignity, priesthood, victories, and triumphs of the MESSIAH
The Lord
8:1; Matthew 22:42-46; Mark 12:35-37; Luke 22:41
Sit
Mark 16:19; Acts 2:34; Ephesians 1:20-22; Hebrews 12:2; 1 Peter 3:22
until
2:6-9; 45:6,7; 1 Corinthians 15:25; Hebrews 1:3,13; 10:12,13

Copyright Statement
These files are public domain.
Text Courtesy of BibleSupport.com. Used by Permission.

Bibliography
Torrey, R. A. "Commentary on Psalms 110:1". "The Treasury of Scripture Knowledge". https:https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/tsk/psalms-110.html.

Ver. 1. The נאם, a speech of God, a Revelation, is always used of an infallible divine revelation, and shows that we have not to do with a poetic dream; in 2 Samuel 23:2, it follows: "the Spirit of the Lord speaks by me, and his word is in my tongue." It occurs in the mouth of David, besides Psalms 36:1, where the יהוה נאם is parodied, in 2 Samuel 23:1. In that passage the expression is dependent upon Numbers 24:3 (comp. the Treatise on Balaam, p. 133); and that the passage before us possesses a similar dependance is evident from the circumstance that here the discourse opens the piece—a form which, besides the passage before us and 2 Samuel 23 , occurs only in Proverbs 30:1; comp. on Balaam. We have already remarked that in reality the expression, "The Lord says to my Lord," is equivalent to "The Lord says to me of my Lord." That David obtains this revelation in name of the church is evident from the fact that in Psalms 108 also he speaks in the name of the Lord.

Daniel 7:13-14, forms the most ancient commentary upon "Sit thou at my right hand." There the Son of Man comes on the clouds of heaven to the Ancient of Days, to the heavenly throne of God, "and there is given to him dominion, and glory, and majesty, and all peoples, and nations, and tongues shall serve him, his dominion is an everlasting dominion, which does not pass away, and his kingdom shall not be destroyed,"—a passage which our Lord, in Matthew 26:24, connects with the one before us, the real import of which he explains in Matthew 28:18, "From henceforth ye shall see the Son of Man sitting at the right hand of Omnipotence, and coming in the clouds of heaven." Even there the Son of Man rules from heaven over the earth. It is constantly taken for granted in the New Testament that the throne of God, at whose right hand the king sits, is only the heavenly throne; comp. Acts 2:34, Ephesians 1:20-22, Hebrews 1:13-14. In reference to the right hand, as the seat and symbol of power and might, comp., for example, Exodus 15:6, "Thy right hand, O Lord, is glorious in power; thy right hand destroys the enemy." Knapp, in his treatise "On Christ sitting at the right hand of God," maintains, without any good reason, that the place at the right hand of kings as he sat upon the throne was given not only to those whom they announced as sharers in their power, but also to those to whom they wished to exhibit their glory and friendship. The example of Bathsheba cannot prove this. She obtained the place at the right hand of Solomon, according to 1 Kings 2:19, as "the mother of the king;" as such she shared, in a certain sense, fully in his dominion. Even at table, those who sat at the right hand of Saul were the individuals who shared in his dominion, generally his son Jonathan, who held under him the place which he would willingly have held also under David (according to 1 Samuel 23:17, "And he said to David, Fear not, for the hand of Saul my father shall not find thee, and thou shalt rule over Israel, and I shall be thy vicegerent, למשנה), and in his absence, Abner; comp. 1 Samuel 20:25, and Thenius on the passage:—it was a totally different thing, however, to sit on the throne. That in Psalms 45:9, the standing of the consort at the right hand denotes such participation in dominion as a woman can enjoy, is evident from Psalms 45:12, "So shall the daughters of Tyre make supplication to thee with gifts," humbly solicit thy favour. Among the ancient Arabians the vicegerents of the king sat at the king's right hand, at assembly; comp. Eichorn, monum. p. 220: assidet [Note: Arabic not reproduced

ED.] i.e. qui post sequitur, qui secundus a rege est, a dextera ejus, et si in expeditionem egressus fuerit rex, sedet in loco ejus et vices ejus gerit. In the passage before us the expression cannot refer to a mere place of honour. For the conquering power with which the seed of David overthrows all his enemies appears in the following verses as the consequence of the sitting at the right hand of God.

That the main emphasis does not lie on the sitting appears from Acts 7:55-56, where Stephen sees Jesus standing at the right hand of God, and from Romans 8:34, "who is at the right hand of God." Still the sitting is by no means insignificant; it is the position of one ruling; sit at my right hand, that is, rejoice in thy kingdom, in sharing in my omnipotence and government of the world; comp. on sitting as the proper posture of a reigning sovereign at Psalms 29:10. We are led to this import of the sitting by the footstool, as the opposite of the royal throne, and also by Psalms 110:4, which takes for granted that in the preceding verses the language used had referred to the royal rank of the seed of David: thou art not only a king but also a priest for ever after the order of Melchisedec, who, to the kingly office from which he had his name, added also the office of priest. Even in representatives of earthly sovereigns, the sitting at the right hand of the king announced their rank as that of vicegerents of royalty.

The explanation of Grotius, "be sure of my assistance," has been of late renewed by Bleek on the Epistle to the Hebrews. According to him, the sitting at the right hand "denotes nothing more than the immediate shelter and defence which shall be imparted to the king by God." But this translation proceeds entirely from the desire to adapt to the assumed subject words which generally are not suitable: sitting at the right hand is never used in this sense. This is rather the sense which belongs to the entirely different expression standing, or being at the right hand of any one; comp. Psalms 16:8, Psalms 119:31, and Psalms 110:5 here.

We have already observed that the עד is to be taken exclusively. It is used by Paul in this sense in 1 Corinthians 15:24, ss. We cannot translate: till I lay thine enemies, but only: till I make thine enemies. Jo. Arnd "As this our king has a glorious throne, so has he also a wonderful footstool; and as his royal throne imparts to us comfort in the highest degree, so his footstool also imparts to us joy. How joyful shall his poor subjects be when they hear that their prince and king has slain their enemies and delivered them out of their hands! How did their poor subjects go forward to meet Saul and Jonathan when these kings had slain the Philistines! . . . In like manner our king has his enemies under his feet; thus shall he also bring all our enemies under his feet, for the victory is ours, God be thanked, who has given us the victory through Christ our Lord."


Copyright Statement
These files are public domain.
Text Courtesy of BibleSupport.com. Used by Permission.

Bibliography
Hengstenberg, Ernst. "Commentary on Psalms 110:1". Ernst Hengstenberg on John, Revelation, Ecclesiastes, Ezekiel & Psalms. https:https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/heg/psalms-110.html.

Lectionary Calendar
Thursday, November 21st, 2019
the Week of Proper 28 / Ordinary 33
ADVERTISEMENT
ADVERTISEMENT
To report dead links, typos, or html errors or suggestions about making these resources more useful use our convenient contact form
Powered by Lightspeed Technology