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Verse-by-Verse Bible Commentary

Psalms 45:1

My heart overflows with a good theme; I address my verses to the King; My tongue is the pen of a ready writer.

Adam Clarke Commentary

My heart is inditing a good matter - רחש rachash, boileth or bubbleth up, as in the margin. It is a metaphor taken from a fountain that sends up its waters from the earth in this way. The Vulgate has eructavit, which is most literally translated by the old Psalter: Mi hert ryfted gude word. My heart belcheth - Anglo-Saxon.

I speak of the things which I have made touching the king - למלך מעשי אני אמר , literally, "I dedicate my work unto the king." Or, as the Psalter, I say my werkes til the kyng. This was the general custom of the Asiatic poets. They repeated their works before princes and honorable men; and especially those parts in which there was either a direct or constructive compliment to the great man. Virgil is reported to have a part of his Aeneid before Augustus, who was so pleased with it that he ordered ten sestertia to be given him for every line. And the famous Persian poet Ferdusi read a part of his Shah Nameh before Sultan Mahmoud, who promised him thirty thousand denars for the poem.

My tongue is the pen of a ready writer - I shall compose and speak as fluently the Divine matter which is now in my heart, as the most expert scribe can write from my recitation. My tung of maister swiftly wrytand. "That es, my tung is pen of the Haly Gast; and nout but als his instrument, wham he ledis als he wil. For I speke noght bot that he settis on my tung; als the pen dos noght withouten the writer. Swyftly wrytand, for the vertu of goddes inspiracioun is noght for to thynk with mons study, that he schewes til other of the purete of heven; that es some for to com that he wrytes." - Old Psalter.


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Bibliography
Clarke, Adam. "Commentary on Psalms 45:1". "The Adam Clarke Commentary". https:https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/acc/psalms-45.html. 1832.

Albert Barnes' Notes on the Whole Bible

My heart is inditing - That is, I am engaged in inditing a good matter; though implying at the same time that it was a work of the heart - a work in which the heart was engaged. It was not a mere production of the intellect; not a mere work of skill; not a mere display of the beauty of song, but a work in which the affections particularly were engaged, and which would express the feelings of the heart: the result or effusion of sincere love. The word rendered is “inditing” - רחשׁ râchash - is rendered in the margin, boileth or bubbleth up. It means properly to boil up or over, as a fountain; and the idea here is that his heart boiled over with emotions of love; it was full and overflowing; it found expression in the words of this song. The Hebrew word does not occur elsewhere in the Bible.

A good matter - literally, a good word; that is, it was something which he was about to say which was good; something interesting, pure, important; not only a subject on which his heart was engaged, but also which was worthy of attention.

I speak of the things which I have made - literally, “I say my works to the king.” That is, My work - that which I meditate and am about to compose - pertains to the king.

Touching the king - He is to be the main subject of my song. Compare the notes at Isaiah 5:1. If the remarks made in the introduction to the psalm are correct, then the “king” here referred to was the future Messiah - the great personage to whom all the writers of the Old Testament looked forward, and whose glory they were so anxious to see and to describe. Compare the notes at 1 Peter 1:10-12.

My tongue is the pen of a ready writer - Let my tongue in speaking of him be as the pen of a rapid writer. That is, let my tongue rapidly and freely express my thoughts and feelings. The word rendered “pen” - עט ‛êṭ - means a stylus, usually made of iron, used for the purpose of inscribing letters on lead or wax. See the notes at Job 19:24. The idea is that the psalmist‘s mind was full of his subject, and that he desired to express his thoughts in warm, free, gushing language - the language of overflowing emotion.


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Bibliography
Barnes, Albert. "Commentary on Psalms 45:1". "Barnes' Notes on the New Testament". https:https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/bnb/psalms-45.html. 1870.

Coffman's Commentaries on the Bible

PSALM 45

THE PROPHETIC PROTHALAMION FOR CHRIST AND HIS BRIDE

THE NEW JERUSALEM IS THE WIFE OF THE LAMB (Revelation 21:9)

THE HOLY CHURCH IS THE NEW JERUSALEM (Revelation 19:9)

This psalm is called, "A Royal Wedding Song,"[1] "The Celebration of the Marriage of a King,"[2] "A Nuptial Song of a King,"[3] "An Ode for a Royal Marriage,"[4] "The Epithalamium of Jesus Christ and the Christian Church,"[5] "A Wedding Benediction,"[6] etc.

There are two radically different views among modern scholars regarding the nature of this psalm. The critical community agree that, "We deal here with an actual king, not with an ideal future Messiah; who this king was we cannot say."[7]

On the other hand, "There is a tradition of long standing, both in the synagogue and in the church of Christ that this psalm deals with King Messiah and his bride the Church."[8] Of course, that is the correct view; and it has been accepted by both Jewish and Christian scholars for more than a thousand years.

There is still another interpretation that represents a very naive and feeble attempt to harmonize the two views already stated. This method of viewing the psalm applies it to some literal king of Israel, but allows that some of the language might later have been applied to Christ. Such an interpretation is indefensible, illogical and impossible of acceptance. Why? There never was in the history of Israel or of any other nation a King to whom the language of this psalm may be intelligently applied.

Concerning this third `interpretation,' Spurgeon had this to say: "Some see Solomon and Pharaoh's daughter here - they are short-sighted; others see both Solomon and Christ here - they are cross-eyed."[9] We might also ask, `What about those who find Ahab and Jezebel here'? to which we must say - they are blind!

Even the critics admit the Jewish interpretation of this psalm as absolutely Messianic; and Addis gave that Jewish interpretation as the reason why the psalm is in the Canon.[10] Furthermore, we cannot believe that Israel, who was the divinely appointed custodian of the Old Testament, would ever have admitted to the sacred canon of the holy scriptures a psalm that merely celebrated an earthly marriage.

We are not in the least disturbed by the critical assaults upon this psalm. We should have expected it. There is not a prophecy in the Old Testament which they have not attacked; and despite the fact that some commentators have been deceived by such attacks, the simple truth is that "there is no intelligent alternative" to the traditional view which is capable of commending itself to any honest investigator. As Leupold put it, "There are too many fatal weaknesses that mark every other approach."[11]

Many of the authors whose works we have read regarding this psalm are loaded with long pages trying to determine "which king" of Israel was marrying "what princess" in this psalm. All of this type of writing is worthless, because, "Many of the statements here are wholly inapplicable to any human sovereign."[12] "The language used here is of such a transcendental character that it could only be strictly true of the Messiah, the ideal King; and we find it quoted with a Messianic meaning in Hebrews 1:8-9." [13]

The organization of the psalm is: (1) the introduction (Psalms 45:1); (2) address to the King (Psalms 45:2-9); (3) address to the Bride (Psalms 45:10-14), and (4) the conclusion (Psalms 45:16.17).

INTRODUCTION

Psalms 45:1

"My heart overfloweth with a goodly matter;

I speak the things which I have made touching the king:

My tongue is the pen of a ready writer."

"My tongue is the pen of a ready writer" (Psalms 45:1). According to Mowinckel, as quoted by Leupold, "This is a claim of inspiration on the part of the psalmist."[14] It is clear enough indeed that the psalmist here attributes his words, not to himself, but to another.


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James Burton Coffman Commentaries reproduced by permission of Abilene Christian University Press, Abilene, Texas, USA. All other rights reserved.

Bibliography
Coffman, James Burton. "Commentary on Psalms 45:1". "Coffman Commentaries on the Old and New Testament". https:https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/bcc/psalms-45.html. Abilene Christian University Press, Abilene, Texas, USA. 1983-1999.

John Gill's Exposition of the Whole Bible

My heart is inditing a good matter,.... What is valuable and excellent, concerning the excellency of Christ's person, of his kingdom, of his love to the church, and of the church itself; what is pleasant and delightful, comfortable, useful, and profitable: this his heart was inditing; which shows that it was under the sanctifying influences of the Holy Spirit, and denotes the fervour of it; it "boiling up", as the wordF24רחש "ebullit", Junius & Tremellius, Piscator; so Ainsworth. signifies; being heated by the fire of the divine Spirit, whereby it was hot within him, and caused him to speak with his tongue; and also the abundance that was in it, it "bubbling up"F25"Eructavit", V. L. Pagninus, Montanus, Musculus, Munster. , as some choose to render it: from whence this good matter flowed like water out of a fountain;

I speak of the things which I have made touching the King; the King Messiah; the King of the whole world, and of the kings of it, and of the saints in it; over whom he reigns in a spiritual manner, and in righteousness; concerning whom this psalm or poem was composed by David under divine inspiration, and which he here delivers:

my tongue is the pen of a ready writer; or asF26So the Targum, Tigurine version, Gejerus, & Michaelis. one; such an one as Ezra was, Ezra 7:6, that writes swiftly and compendiously; suggesting, that as he was; full of matter, he freely communicated it, being moved by the Holy Spirit, who spake by him, and whose word was in his tongue; which made him so ready and expert in this work. The allusion is to scribes and notaries, and such like persons, that are extremely ready and swift in the use of the pen. The word for "pen" is derived either from עוט, which signifies "to fly"F1Vid. Kimchi Sepher Shorash. rad. עט. , and from whence is a word used for a "flying fowl"; yet we are not to imagine that here it signifies a pen made of a bird's quill, as now in common use with us: for this did not obtain until many hundred years after David's time. It seems that Isidore of Seville, who lived in the seventh century, is the first person that makes mention of "penna", a "pen", as made of the quill of a birdF2Origin. l. 6. c. 13. , but rather the pen has its name in Hebrew, if from the above root, from the velocity of it, as in the hand of a ready writer; or rather it may be derived from עטה, "to sharpen", in which sense it seems to be used, Ezekiel 21:15; and so a pen has its name from the sharp point of it: for when the ancients wrote, or rather engraved, on stone, brass, lead, and wood, they used a style or pen of iron; see Job 19:24; so when they wrote on tables of wood covered with wax, they used a kind of bodkin made of iron, brass, or bone; See Gill on Habakkuk 2:2; and when upon the rind and leaves of trees, and on papyrus and parchment, they made use of reeds, particularly the Egyptian calamus or reed; and the word here is translated calamus or reed by the Targum, Septuagint, and all the Oriental versions. Now as the Jews had occasion frequently to copy out the book of the law, and other writings of theirs, their scribes, at least some of them, were very expert and dexterous at it; but whether the art of "shorthand" was to any degree in use among them is not certain, as it was in later times among the Romans, when they used marks, signs, and abbreviations, which seems to have laid the foundation of the above art, and had its rise, as is said, from Cicero himself, though some ascribe it to MecaenasF3Vid. Kipping. Antiqu. Roman. l. 2. c. 4. p. 554. : and in Martial's time it was brought to such perfection, that, according to him, the hand could write swifter than a man could speakF4"Currant verba licet, manus est velociter illis; nondum lingua suum, dextra peregit opus", Martial. Epigr. l. 14. ep. 189. of the origin of shorthand with the Romans, and among us, with other curious things concerning writing, and the matter and instruments of it, see a learned treatise of Mr. Massey's, called, "The Origin and Progress of Letters", p. 144. printed 1763. .


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The New John Gill's Exposition of the Entire Bible Modernised and adapted for the computer by Larry Pierce of Online Bible. All Rightes Reserved, Larry Pierce, Winterbourne, Ontario.
A printed copy of this work can be ordered from: The Baptist Standard Bearer, 1 Iron Oaks Dr, Paris, AR, 72855

Bibliography
Gill, John. "Commentary on Psalms 45:1". "The New John Gill Exposition of the Entire Bible". https:https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/geb/psalms-45.html. 1999.

Geneva Study Bible

"To the chief Musician upon a Shoshannim, for the sons of Korah, Maschil, A Song of b loves." My heart is inditing a good matter: I speak of the things which I have made touching the king: my tongue [is] the pen of a ready writer.

(a) This was a certain tune of an instrument.

(b) Of that perfect love that ought to be between the husband and the wife.


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These files are public domain.
Text Courtesy of BibleSupport.com. Used by Permission.

Bibliography
Beza, Theodore. "Commentary on Psalms 45:1". "The 1599 Geneva Study Bible". https:https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/gsb/psalms-45.html. 1599-1645.

Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible

Psalm 45:1-17. Shoshannim - literally, “Lilies,” either descriptive of an instrument so shaped, or denoting some tune or air so called, after which the Psalm was to be sung (see on Psalm 8:1, title). A song of loves, or, of beloved ones (plural and feminine) - a conjugal song. Maschil - (See on Psalm 32:1, title, and see on Psalm 42:1, title) denotes the didactic character of the Psalm; that it gives instruction, the song being of allegorical, and not literal, import. The union and glories of Christ and his Church are described. He is addressed as a king possessed of all essential graces, as a conqueror exalted on the throne of a righteous and eternal government, and as a bridegroom arrayed in nuptial splendor. The Church is portrayed in the purity and loveliness of a royally adorned and attended bride, invited to forsake her home and share the honors of her affianced lord. The picture of an Oriental wedding thus opened is filled up by representing the complimentary gifts of the wealthy with which the occasion is honored, the procession of the bride clothed in splendid raiment, attended by her virgin companions, and the entrance of the joyous throng into the palace of the king. A prediction of a numerous and distinguished progeny, instead of the complimentary wish for it usually expressed (compare Genesis 24:60; 4:11, 4:12), and an assurance of a perpetual fame, closes the Psalm. All ancient Jewish and Christian interpreters regarded this Psalm as an allegory of the purport above named. In the Song of Songs the allegory is carried out more fully. Hosea (Hosea 1:1-3:5) treats the relation of God and His people under the same figure, and its use to set forth the relation of Christ and His Church runs through both parts of the Bible (compare Isaiah 54:5; Isaiah 62:4, Isaiah 62:5; Matthew 22:3; Matthew 25:1; John 3:29; Ephesians 5:25-32, etc.). Other methods of exposition have been suggested. Several Jewish monarchs, from Solomon to the wicked Ahab, and various foreign princes, have been named as the hero of the song. But to none of them can the terms here used be shown to apply, and it is hardly probable that any mere nuptial song, especially of a heathen king, would be permitted a place in the sacred songs of the Jews. The advocates for any other than the Messianic interpretation have generally silenced each other in succession, while the application of the most rigorous rules of a fair system of interpretation has but strengthened the evidences in its favor. The scope of the Psalm above given is easy and sustained by the explication of its details. The quotation of Psalm 45:6, Psalm 45:7 by Paul (Hebrews 1:8, Hebrews 1:9), as applicable to Christ, ought to be conclusive, and their special exposition shows the propriety of such an application.

An animated preface indicative of strong emotion. Literally, “My heart overflows: a good matter I speak; the things which I have made,” etc.

inditing — literally, “boiling up,” as a fountain overflows.

my tongue is the pen — a mere instrument of God‘s use.

of a ready writer — that is, it is fluent. The theme is inspiring and language flows fast.


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These files are a derivative of an electronic edition prepared from text scanned by Woodside Bible Fellowship.
This expanded edition of the Jameison-Faussett-Brown Commentary is in the public domain and may be freely used and distributed.

Bibliography
Jamieson, Robert, D.D.; Fausset, A. R.; Brown, David. "Commentary on Psalms 45:1". "Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible". https:https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/jfb/psalms-45.html. 1871-8.

Wesley's Explanatory Notes

My heart is inditing a good matter: I speak of the things which I have made touching the king: my tongue is the pen of a ready writer.

Enditing — Heb. boileth, or bubbleth up like water over the fire. This denotes that the workings of his heart, were fervent and vehement, kindled by God's grace, and the inspiration of the Holy Ghost.

Made — Have composed.

Pen — He was only the pen or instrument in uttering this song; it was the spirit of God, by whose hand this pen was guided.


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These files are public domain and are a derivative of an electronic edition that is available on the Christian Classics Ethereal Library Website.

Bibliography
Wesley, John. "Commentary on Psalms 45:1". "John Wesley's Explanatory Notes on the Whole Bible". https:https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/wen/psalms-45.html. 1765.

Calvin's Commentary on the Bible

1My heart is boiling over (157) with a good matter This preface shows sufficiently that the subject of the psalm is no common one; for whoever the author of it may have been, he here intimates, at the very outset, that he will treat of great and glorious things. The Holy Spirit is not accustomed to inspire the servants of God to utter great swelling words, and to pour forth empty sounds into the air; and, therefore, we may naturally conclude, that the subject here treated of is not merely a transitory and earthly kingdom, but sortie-thing more excellent. Were not this the case, what end would it serve to announce, as the prophet does in such a magnificent style, that his heart was boiling over, from his ardent desire to be employed in rehearsing the praises of the king? Some prefer to translate the word to utter; but the other signification of the word appears to me to be more appropriate; and it is confirmed by this, that from this verb is derived the noun מרהשת, marchesheth, a word which is found once or twice in Moses, and signifies a frying-pan, in which sweatmeats are baked. It is then of the same import as if the inspired writer had said, My heart is ready to breathe forth something excellent and worthy of being remembered. He afterwards expresses the harmony between the tongue and the heart, when he compares his tongue to the pen of a swift and ready writer


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Bibliography
Calvin, John. "Commentary on Psalms 45:1". "Calvin's Commentary on the Bible". https:https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/cal/psalms-45.html. 1840-57.

Scofield's Reference Notes

Shoshannim

Shoshannim, "lilies," and so, the spring; the Shoshannim Psalms were probably connected with the Passover season, and hence reminders of redemption out of bondage, and of the origins of Israel.

king

This great psalm of the King, with Psalms 46-47, obviously looks forward to the advent in glory. The reference in Hebrews 1:8; Hebrews 1:9 is not so much to the anointing as an event Matthew 3:16; Matthew 3:17 as to the permanent state of the King. Cf. Isaiah 11:1; Isaiah 11:2.

The divisions are:

(1) The supreme beauty of the King (Psalms 45:1; Psalms 45:2);

(2) the coming of the King in glory Psalms 45:3-5; Revelation 19:11-21.

(3) the deity of the King and character of His reign Psalms 45:6; Psalms 45:7; Hebrews 1:8; Hebrews 1:9; Isaiah 11:1-5.

(4) as associated with Him in earthly rule, the queen is presented, Psalms 45:9-13 and in that relation the King is not called Elohim (See Scofield "Genesis 1:1") as in Psalms 45:6, but Adonai, the husband name of Deity See Scofield "Genesis 15:2".

(5) the virgin companions of the queen, who would seem to be the Jewish remnant. (See Scofield "Romans 11:5"). Revelation 14:1-4 are next seen Psalms 45:14; Psalms 45:15 and

(6) the Psalm closes with a reference to the earthly fame of the King.

See Psalms 68, next in order of the Messianic Psalms.


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These files are considered public domain and are a derivative of an electronic edition that is available in the Online Bible Software Library.

Bibliography
Scofield, C. I. "Scofield Reference Notes on Psalms 45:1". "Scofield Reference Notes (1917 Edition)". https:https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/srn/psalms-45.html. 1917.

John Trapp Complete Commentary

Psalms 45:1 « To the chief Musician upon Shoshannim, for the sons of Korah, Maschil, A Song of loves. » My heart is inditing a good matter: I speak of the things which I have made touching the king: my tongue [is] the pen of a ready writer.

Upon Shoshannim] The name of an instrument with six strings, saith Kimchi. Or, concerning the lilies, Song of Solomon 2:1-2, that is, the Messiah and his people, saith Kabuenaki. The city Shushan had its name from lilies there plentifully growing; as Rhodes from roses, Florence from flowers, &c.

Maschil] It is not said, as elsewhere, of David; and yet some will have him to have been the penman, others Solomon, epitomizing his Book of Canticles; with which indeed it is of the self-same argument, viz.

A Song of loves] An epithalamium or nuptial verse, made at the marriage of Solomon and the Shulamite. As for Pharaoh’s daughter, various good divines are of the opinion, that neither here nor in the Canticles any respect is had or allusion made to that match of Solomon with her, so expressly condemned by the Holy Ghost, 1 Kings 11:1-3, ut per absurdum mihi videatur, illud matrimonium existimare fuisse tantae rei typum, saith learned Beza. Ainsworth rendereth it, A song of the well beloved virgins, friends of the bridegroom and bride, Psalms 45:9; Psalms 45:14, to set forth Christ in his glory, and his Church in her beauty. So, when Jerome had freed the Locrians from the tyranny of Anaxilos and Cleophron, the virgins sang his praise, as is to be read in Pindarus’s Odes; which Politian preferred before David’s psalms, auso nefario, like an atheist as he was.

Ver. 1. My heart is inditing a good matter] Heb. frieth, sicut quae in sartagine friguntur, as things are fried in a frying pan, Leviticus 7:9. The prophet, being to sing of such a sublime subject, would not utter anything but what he had duly digested, thoroughly thought upon, and was deeply affected with, Exordium ut vocant floridum. What a high pitch flieth St Paul whenever he speaketh concerning Christ? See Ephesians 1:6; Ephesians 2:4; Ephesians 2:7; Ephesians 3:19. The like is reported of Origen: Nusquam non ardet, saith Erasmus; sed nusquam est ardentior quam ubi Christi sermones actusque tractet; that he was ever earnest; but most of all when he discoursed of Christ (Praefat. ad Origen. Opera). Of Johannes Mollias, a Bononian, it is said, that whensoever he spake of Jesus Christ his eyes dropped; for he was fraught with a mighty fervency of God’s Holy Spirit; and, like the Baptist, he was first a burning (boiling or bubbling), and then a shining light. Ardor mentis est lux doctrinae. Zeal of mind is the light of doctrine.

I speak of the things which I have made touching the king] Or, I will speak in my works, that is, in this psalm, concerning the king, viz. Solomon, and him that is greater than Solomon in all his glory, Christ, the King of the Church. Works he calleth this poem, not for the greatness, but for the exquisiteness thereof; it being breve et longum planeque aureum; utpote in quo universa pane salutis nostrae mysteria continentur, as containing almost all the mysteries of man’s salvation.

My tongue is the pen of a ready writer] i.e. I will roundly and readily relate what I have so well ruminated; and dexterously deliver my most mature meditations concerning the mystical marriage of Christ and his Church. This is a good precedent for preachers. Demosthenes would have such a one branded for a pernicious man to the commonwealth who durst propose anything publicly which he had not beforehand seriously pondered. And Aristides, being pressed to speak to something propounded extempore, answered, Propound today, and I will answer tomorrow; for we are not of those that spit or spun up things, &c.


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Bibliography
Trapp, John. "Commentary on Psalms 45:1". John Trapp Complete Commentary. https:https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/jtc/psalms-45.html. 1865-1868.

Thomas Coke Commentary on the Holy Bible

Psalms 45.

The majesty and grace of Christ's kingdom. The duty of the church, and the benefits thereof.

To the chief musician upon Shoshannim, for the sons of Korah, Maschil.

A Song of Loves.

Title. שׁשׁנים על al Shoshannim. Upon Shoshannim] Houbigant and others render it, upon the lilies; which seems to be the true meaning of the original word. Parkhurst observes, that Christ, the divine light, and true believers, who are the sons of light, and who are accordingly described as clothed in white, are emblematically represented by lilies: see Song of Solomon 2:1; Song of Solomon 2:16; Son_4:5; Son_6:1-2. Hence may be explained the title of the present, the 69th, and the 80th Psalms, which Acquila constantly renders "To the giver of victory, concerning the lilies:" i.e. the emblematical lilies just mentioned. The version of the LXX, of שׁשׁנים על al shoshannim, is, "Concerning those who are to be changed or transformed;" i.e. from corruption to incorruption, from dishonour to glory, from natural to spiritual. The title of the 60th Psalm is in the singular; שׁושׁן על al shushan, "concerning the lily; i.e. the divine light, who is a banner to them that fear God, and is his right hand, by whom the beloved are delivered." See Parkhurst's Lexicon on the word שׁשׁ shesh, and the remarks on the title of Psalms 22. It is further called a song of loves, which being in Hebrew ידידת שׁיר shiir iedidoth, may allude both to Jedidiah, the name given to Solomon by Nathan, 2 Samuel 12:25 and likewise to the custom observed in the Jewish marriages, wherein the bride was encircled by young virgins, who sung a peculiar song or Psalm in honour of her espousals. Hence some render it, A song of the beloved maids;—a song of the bride-maids; and it has been thought that the Psalm was sung on the marriage of Solomon with Pharaoh's daughters; though unquestionably, like the Book of Canticles, it has a much higher reference. Most interpreters, says Bishop Patrick, conclude that it was composed upon the occasion, at least, of Solomon's marriage with Pharaoh's daughter; who, it is most likely, was a proselyte to the Jewish religion. Some few indeed will not allow so much as this, or that there is any respect to Solomon at all in this Psalm, but only to Christ; and the truth is, many of the expressions in it are so magnificent, that they can but in a very poor and low sense be applied to Solomon and his bride; and some of them scarcely at all. It being so apparent, no Christian can deny it, that the mind of the prophet, while he was writing some part of this Psalm, was carried quite beyond king Solomon, to the great King, the LORD CHRIST: or, at least, he was guided to use words so high, that they proved too big for Solomon; and we must say, as our Saviour did in another case, BEHOLD! A GREATER THAN SOLOMON IS HERE! This the best of the Jewish interpreters acknowledge, particularly Kimchi, Aben-ezra, and Solomon Jarchi.

Psalms 45:1. My heart is inditing a good matter The word רחשׁ rachash, rendered inditing, signifies boiling or bubbling up; and is here used metaphorically for deeply meditating with fervour and vehemency, in allusion either to water boiled over a fire, or else springing forth from a fountain. The King, means either primarily Solomon, or more properly the Messiah. My tongue is the pen, &c. as if he had said, "I will recite what I have composed with so much fluency, as shall equal the style of the most skilful and diligent writer." Green transposes the clauses in this verse; making the words, I speak of the things, &c. the last clause; because, says he, the address follows in the very next words. He renders it, I will address my work unto the king.


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Bibliography
Coke, Thomas. "Commentary on Psalms 45:1". Thomas Coke Commentary on the Holy Bible. https:https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/tcc/psalms-45.html. 1801-1803.

Hawker's Poor Man's Commentary

CONTENTS

Here is another Psalm of gospel grace and truth, in which the Redeemer of his Church is celebrated in a Most illustrious strain of prophecy, as the Husband and Conqueror of his Church. And the Church as also beautifully set forth, as married to her Lord, and adorned with his grace end comeliness.

To the chief Musician upon Shoshannim, for the sons of Korah, Maschil, a Song of loves.

The title of this Psalm is the first thing which demands our attention. Some have thought that the word Shoshannim means an instrument, and as such is addressed to the chief Musician of the temple service. But others, and with much greater probability of being right, as it is a Song of loves, and professedly treating of the love of Christ to his Church, make the word Shoshannim to mean, Roses or Lilies; thereby corresponding to what Christ himself hath said, I am the Rose of Sharon, and the Lily of the Valley, Song of Solomon 2:1. And as it is well known that flowers were made use of at nuptial ceremonies among the Jews and this Song of loves is an epithalamium, it should seem that nothing can be more probable.

Psalms 45:1

The person writing this Psalm, thus introduceth himself. He professeth to be under divine teaching. Like Elihu, his heart is so full, in inditing this glorious subject, concerning the King, the Messiah, that he is ready to burst. Job 32:19.


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Bibliography
Hawker, Robert, D.D. "Commentary on Psalms 45:1". "Hawker's Poor Man's Commentary". https:https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/pmc/psalms-45.html. 1828.

Matthew Poole's English Annotations on the Holy Bible

PSALM 45

THE ARGUMENT

The subject matter of this Psalm is by the consent both of Jewish and Christian, ancient and modern, interpreters agreed to be the Messias, and his marriage with the church of God; of which it treats either,

1. Remotely, under the type of Solomon and his marriage with Pharaoh’s daughter, of which it is to be primarily and literally understood, and then immediately and ultimately of Christ. Or rather,

2. Immediately and directly; although the words be so ordered, that they carry a manifest allusion either to that or some other royal marriage; which seems more than probable from the following arguments:

1. From the great congruity of the matter and style of this Psalm with that of the book of Canticles; whereof this seems to be a kind of abridgement.

2. From the magnificent preface, Psalms 45:1, which seems too sublime and spiritual for such carnal and earthly matters.

3. And especially from the matter of the Psalm. For there are many things which do not agree to Solomon; such as the warlike posture and exploits, Psalms 45:3-5, and the title of God, Psalms 45:6, which is appropriated to Christ, and affirmed to be incommunicable to any mere creature, Hebrews 1:8. compared with Psalms 45:6, and that numerous posterity, and the amplitude of their dominion, Psalms 45:16, and divers other passages, as we shall see in the progress.

To the chief musician upon Shoshannim; which title is also prefixed to Psa 119, and with some small addition, Psa 130, and with a little variation, Psa 60. It seems to be the name of a song or tune, or instrument of music. It properly signifies lilies or roses; which some apply to the subject of the Psalm, because those flowers were used ill garlands, or otherwise in nuptial solemnities, and because Christ calls himself the lily and the rose, Song of Solomon 2:1.

A Song of loves, to wit, of Christ and his church. Or, of the beloved ones, to wit, the virgins, who waited upon the bride, as some men did upon the bridegroom, who thence were called his friends, John 3:29; in whose name and person this Psalm may seem to be uttered.

The psalmist singeth of the beauty of Christ above that of the children of men, Psalms 45:1,2; of his terribleness and conquest over his enemies, Psalms 45:3-5; of his everlasting throne, and unction above his fellows, Psalms 45:6-9. The church is invited to forsake her father’s house, that Christ might delight in her, Psalms 45:10-12. Her glory and excellency by his graces, which shall be remembered and praised for ever, Psalms 45:13-17.

My heart; I am about to utter not vain, or rash, or foolish, or false words, but such as proceed from my very heart, and most serious thoughts, and cordial affections.

Is inditing, Heb. boileth, or bubbleth up, like water in a pot over the fire. This phrase notes that the workings of his heart in this matter were frequent and abundant, fervent and vehement, free and cheerful, and withal kindled by God’s grace, and by the inspiration of the Holy Ghost.

A good matter; either,

1. Pleasant or delightful, and fit for the nuptial solemnity here expressed; as a feast day is sometimes called a good day. Or,

2. Excellent, as this word is oft used, as Numbers 24:5 Deuteronomy 8:12; or, holy and spiritual, as it is most commonly used. This is no vain, or carnal, or wanton love song, but sublime and heavenly, and full of majesty, as is manifest from the body of this Psalm.

Which I have made; which I by Divine inspiration have composed.

Touching the king; or rather, to the king; for to him he addresseth his speech in the following verses; and this Hebrew prefix lamed generally signifies to, though sometimes it be rendered of, or concerning. The pen; or, as the pen; whereby he intimates that he was only the pen or instrument in uttering this song, and that it had another and a higher original, to wit, the Spirit of God, by whose hand this pen was guided and managed.

Of a ready writer; whereby he understands either,

1. God’s Spirit, who writ or spoke this by the pen or mouth of the psalmist; or,

2. Himself; whom he so calls, not out of vain ostentation, or self-commendation, but to teach us that this song was not the effect of his own deep and serious study, but did freely flow into him by Divine inspiration, and did as freely and readily flow from him.


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Bibliography
Poole, Matthew, "Commentary on Psalms 45:1". Matthew Poole's English Annotations on the Holy Bible. https:https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/mpc/psalms-45.html. 1685.

Peter Pett's Commentary on the Bible

The Psalmist Indicates the Joy With Which He Writes (Psalms 45:1)

Psalms 45:1

‘My heart overflows with a goodly matter;

I speak the things which I have made touching the king.

My tongue is the pen of a ready writer.’

It is clear from these words that the writer was almost overwhelmed at the occasion as he considered his subject matter, the king dressed in all his finery and his jewels, the magnificence of the decorated palace, the array of queens and princesses and the glory of his queenly bride.

He recognises that he has a goodly matter to write about, and his heart overflows at the thought. He is also conscious that he will be speaking about things which he has formulated which concern his sovereign, a thought which fills him with awe. And thus his tongue flows smoothly like the pen of a capable and willing writer.


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Pett, Peter. "Commentary on Psalms 45:1". "Peter Pett's Commentary on the Bible ". https:https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/pet/psalms-45.html. 2013.

Whedon's Commentary on the Bible

1. My heart is inditing—Literally, is boiling over. I am full of my subject.

A good matter—A pleasant word, or discourse, equal to “a song of loves,” in the title.

Which I have made touching the king—Literally, I am speaking my words to the king; that is, the king is my theme, or, I dedicate my works to him.

Ready writer—A rapid scribe, an expert. Psalms 45:1 is a dedicatory introduction.


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Bibliography
Whedon, Daniel. "Commentary on Psalms 45:1". "Whedon's Commentary on the Bible". https:https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/whe/psalms-45.html. 1874-1909.

Expository Notes of Dr. Thomas Constable

The psalmist claimed to be full of joy and inspiration as he composed this song. He said what he did out of a full heart.


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Constable, Thomas. DD. "Commentary on Psalms 45:1". "Expository Notes of Dr. Thomas Constable". https:https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/dcc/psalms-45.html. 2012.

Joseph Benson's Commentary of the Old and New Testaments

Psalms 45:1. My heart is enditing a good matter — I am about to utter, not rash, vain, or foolish, much less false words, but such as proceed from my very heart, and most cordial affections; and are the result of my most deliberate and serious thoughts: things not only pleasant and delightful, and fit for the nuptial solemnity here intended, but excellent, as the word שׂוב, tob, often signifies: or holy and spiritual, as it is most commonly used: things heavenly and divine, and full of majesty, as is manifest from the matter of the Psalm. Surely this magnificent preface is too sublime and spiritual for such a carnal and earthly subject as Solomon’s marriage with Pharaoh’s daughter. The word רחשׁ, rachash, here rendered is enditing, properly means boiling, or bubbling up, and is here used metaphorically, for meditating deeply, with fervour and vehemency, in allusion either to water boiled over a fire, or else springing forth from a fountain. I will speak of the things I have made — Hebrew, מעשׂי, magnasi, my work, or composition; touching the king — The King Messiah and his government. The Hebrew, למלךְ, lemelech, is literally, to the king, and the clause is translated by the Seventy, λεγω εγω τα εργα μου τω βασιλει, I rehearse my works to the king. My tongue is the pen of a ready writer — That is, as some interpret it, “I will recite what I have composed with so much fluency, as shall equal the style of the most skilful and diligent writer.” Or, rather, he means, I am but the pen or instrument in uttering this song. It has another and higher original, namely, the Spirit of God, by whose hand this pen is guided.


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Bibliography
Benson, Joseph. "Commentary on Psalms 45:1". Joseph Benson's Commentary. https:https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/rbc/psalms-45.html. 1857.

George Haydock's Catholic Bible Commentary

may allude to the defeat of Sennacherib, (Houbigant) or might be sung by the Corites at the dedication of the second temple, when peace was restored to the world, after the death of Cambyses, Ezechiel xxxviii. The Fathers explain it of the Christian Church, delivered from persecutions. (St. Chrysostom, &c.) (Calmet)


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Bibliography
Haydock, George Leo. "Commentary on Psalms 45:1". "George Haydock's Catholic Bible Commentary". https:https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/hcc/psalms-45.html. 1859.

E.W. Bullinger's Companion Bible Notes

Title. For the sons of Korah = By, &c. The third of nine so ascribed. See Title, Psalm 42, and App-63.

Maschil = giving instruction. The fourth of thirteen so named. See Title, Psalm 32, and App-65.

A Song. Hebrew shir, as in Psalm 18. See App-65.loves. Probably plural of majesty = significant love. If in connection with the marriage of Hezekiah (2 Kings 21:1 and Isaiah 62:4), its place here is accounted for between Psalms 44


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Bibliography
Bullinger, Ethelbert William. "Commentary on Psalms 45:1". "E.W. Bullinger's Companion bible Notes". https:https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/bul/psalms-45.html. 1909-1922.

Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible - Unabridged

My heart is inditing a good matter: I speak of the things which I have made touching the king: my tongue is the pen of a ready writer.

Psalms 45:1-17 -A praise-song to the King on His marriage.

Solomon, the type, suggests much of the imagery, but the inapplicability of the rest to him (as the warlike character of the King, Psalms 45:3-5) shows that Messiah alone is the ultimate reference. Hebrews 1:7-9 decides this. Only on the view that the marriage is that of King Messiah, the antitype of warlike David and of peaceful Solomon, to Israel and His Church, can the admission of an Epithalamium into the Canon be accounted for. Moreover, He is described as divine (Psalms 45:6-7).

Psalms 45:1-17.-Excellence of the Psalmist's theme, of which he is full (Psalms 45:1); address praising the King, His grace, might, triumph over foes in behalf of truth: perpetuity and righteousness of His sceptre; His anointing of God; the myrrh, etc., sent from various kings' palaces; His consorts and the Queen-bride pre-eminent (Psalms 45:2-9); address to the Queen to give up all else for Him, so will He desire her beauty; she appears in her father's house, whence He takes her home (Psalms 45:10-12); the procession, her beauty, the virgins with her; the princes' posterity; the people's perpetual praises of the King (Psalms 45:13-17).

The Title. - To the chief Musician. The psalm was designed for the choral service of the temple. This certainly it never would have been if it had been a mere literal love-song.

Upon Shoshannim - occurring also in the titles of Psalms 69:1-36 and Psalms 80:1-19. "Upon" expresses the object of the psalm. In Psalms 60:1-12 the singular occurs, Shushan. It means 'lilies' - i:e., beautiful virgins. But lest it should be misunderstood in a mere earthly sense, there is added for the sons of Korah-the authors of the psalm; as "for" l


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Bibliography
Jamieson, Robert, D.D.; Fausset, A. R.; Brown, David. "Commentary on Psalms 45:1". "Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible - Unabridged". https:https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/jfu/psalms-45.html. 1871-8.

Ellicott's Commentary for English Readers

(1) Inditing.—A most unhappy rendering of a word, which, though only used here, must, from the meaning of its derivative (a “pot,” or “cauldron”), have something to do with a liquid, and means either to “boil over” or to “bubble up.” The LXX. and Vulg. have apparently thought of the bursting out of a fountain: eructavit. Symmachus has, “been set in motion.” The “spring,” or “fountain,” is a common emblem of inspired fancy:—

“Ancient founts of inspiration well through all my fancy yet.”

TENNYSON: Locksley Hall.

A good matter.—That is, a theme worthy a poet’s song. Luther: “A fine song.”

I speak of the things which I have made touching the king.—This rendering follows the LXX., Vulg., and most of the older translations. Perhaps, however, we are to understand Aquila and Symmachus as rendering “my poems;” and undoubtedly the true rendering is, I am speaking: my poem is of a king (not the king, as in Authorised Version).

My tongue . . .—So lofty a theme, so august a subject, inspires him with thoughts that flow freely. The ready or expeditious scribe (LXX. and Vulg., “A scribe writing quickly”) was, as we learn from Ezra 7:6, a recognised form of praise for a distinguished member of that body, one of whose functions was to make copies of the Law.


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Ellicott, Charles John. "Commentary on Psalms 45:1". "Ellicott's Commentary for English Readers". https:https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/ebc/psalms-45.html. 1905.

Treasury of Scripture Knowledge

My heart is inditing a good matter: I speak of the things which I have made touching the king: my tongue is the pen of a ready writer.
(Title
&) To the chief. Or, rather, "To the chief musician upon the hexachords, a didactic ode for the sons of Korah, and a song of loves." Shoshannim most probably denotes hexachords, or six-stringed instruments, from shesh, "six:" hence the Persian shasta, a six-stringed lute. This Psalm is supposed by some to be an epithalamium, or nuptial song, on the marriage of Solomon with Pharaoh's daughter; but with what propriety could Solomon be described as fairer than the children of men, a mighty warrior, a victorious conqueror, and a prince whose throne is for ever and ever? A greater than Solomon is here; and the person described is no other than the Messiah, as is acknowledged by many Jewish writers. The Targum on ver. 3 says, "Thy beauty, malka meshecha, O King Messiah, is greater than the children of men;" and the Apostle expressly quotes it as such Heb 1:8, 9. It was probably written by David after Nathan's prophetic address 1 Ch 17:27.
Shoshannim
69:1; 80:1; *titles
Maschil
or, of instruction. A song.
Song of Solomon 1:1,2-7; Isaiah 5:1; Ephesians 5:32
is inditing
Heb. boileth, or, bubbleth up.
Job 32:18-20; Proverbs 16:23; Matthew 12:35
a good
49:3; Job 33:3; 34:4; Proverbs 8:6-9
touching
2:6; 24:7-10; 110:1,2; Song of Solomon 1:12; Isaiah 32:1,2; Matthew 25:34; 27:37
tongue
2 Samuel 23:2; 2 Peter 1:21

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Bibliography
Torrey, R. A. "Commentary on Psalms 45:1". "The Treasury of Scripture Knowledge". https:https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/tsk/psalms-45.html.

Ver. 1. My heart boils with good words, I speak: my works to the king, my tongue a style of a quick writer. This is the introduction. The expression: my works to the king, forms the centre. A consequence of this is the goodness of the word, which is directed upon the glory of the object, and that the tongue must resemble the style of a quick writer. The exalted subject fills the Psalmist with animation, so that he has no need to seek for words, but they flow in upon him of themselves and flow out again. רחש, to boil, points to the internal excitement and fulness. It belongs to verbs of fulness, and on this account has the accusative with it, Ew. § 484. John Arnd: "Now mark and learn here the new heart of the faithful, in which Christ dwells through faith, and which is so full of Christ the Lord that it runs over like a fountain, and cannot be silent, it must break forth." The expression: my works to the king, is to be taken as an exclamation, as also the third member, comp. Ew. § 585. The מלךְ in prose would have the article,—compare upon the want of the article in poetry, Ew. § 533. We must not explain: my works, by: my poem. For this signification is entirely without proof, the plural is then extraordinary, and the common signification is proved by this, that the works according to the common trilogy, stand here beside the heart and the tongue. Hence the meaning can only be: to the service of the king must all my doing be consecrated. But this, from the connection, is certainly said with special respect to the work, which the Psalmist had now in hand. מהחיר is always hastening. The sig. active, expert, is not proved by any of the passages brought in support of it. Ezra derived his name: the quick writer, Ezra 7:6, after the Jewish custom, from this passage. The view of most of the older expositors, according to which the writer must be the Holy Spirit, the words an explanation upon the inspiration, has been fruitlessly revived by Stier. Ezra already understood by writer, a scribe, otherwise he would never have supposed himself at liberty to appropriate the name.


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Bibliography
Hengstenberg, Ernst. "Commentary on Psalms 45:1". Ernst Hengstenberg on John, Revelation, Ecclesiastes, Ezekiel & Psalms. https:https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/heg/psalms-45.html.

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