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Verse-by-Verse Bible Commentary
Psalms 45:8

All Your garments are fragrant with myrrh and aloes and cassia; Out of ivory palaces stringed instruments have made You glad.
New American Standard Version

Bible Study Resources

Nave's Topical Bible - Aloes;   Cassia;   Ivory;   Myrrh;   Solomon;   Women;   Thompson Chain Reference - Aloes;   Cassia;   Ivory;   Myrrh;   Odours, Sweet;   Perfume;   Sweet Odours;   Trees;   Torrey's Topical Textbook - Christ, the King;   Garments;  
American Tract Society Bible Dictionary - Aloes;   Cassia;   Ivory;   Myrrh;   Psalms, the Book of;   Shushan;   Solomon's Song;   Bridgeway Bible Dictionary - Righteousness;   Spices;   Easton Bible Dictionary - Aloes;   Cassia;   House;   Music, Instrumental;   Myrrh;   Fausset Bible Dictionary - Aloe;   Cassia;   Ivory;   Kezia;   Music;   Myrrh;   Holman Bible Dictionary - Aloe;   Art and Aesthetics;   Cassia;   Ivory;   Myrrh;   Ointment;   Plants in the Bible;   Spices;   Hastings' Dictionary of the Bible - Aloes;   Cassia;   English Versions;   Greek Versions of Ot;   Korah, Korahites;   Messiah;   Myrrh;   Prophecy, Prophets;   Psalms;   Sin;   Solomon;   Hastings' Dictionary of the New Testament - Aloes;   Morrish Bible Dictionary - Aloes, Lign-Aloes;   Cassia;   Ivory;   Myrrh;   The Hawker's Poor Man's Concordance And Dictionary - Moriah;   Shoshannim;   People's Dictionary of the Bible - Aloe;   Cassia;   God;   Korah;   Marriage;   Messiah;   Myrrh;   Psalms the book of;   Solomon the song of;   Smith Bible Dictionary - Aloes, Lign Aloes;   Cassia;   Marriage;   Myrrh;   Perfumes;   Wilson's Dictionary of Bible Types - Aloes;   Cassia;   Ivory;   Myrrh;   Palace;   Smell;   Watson's Biblical & Theological Dictionary - Ivory;   Myrrh;  
International Standard Bible Encyclopedia - Aloes;   Cassia;   Ivory;   Myrrh;   Perfume;   Kitto Biblical Cyclopedia - Aloes;   Banquets;   The Jewish Encyclopedia - Aloes;   Costume;   Hatred;   Marriage;  

Clarke's Commentary

Verse Psalms 45:8. All thy garments smell of myrrh — The Asiatics are very partial to perfumes; every thing with them is perfumed, and especially their garments. And the ivory palaces mentioned are the wardrobes inlaid with ivory, in which their numerous changes of raiment were deposited. Myrrh and aloes are well known; cassia is probably the bark or wood of the cinnamon tree. These with frankincense, galbanum and other odoriferous drugs, were and are frequently used in the perfumes of the Asiatic nations.

Whereby they have made thee glad. — Referring to the effect of strong perfumes refreshing and exhilarating the spirits.

Bibliographical Information
Clarke, Adam. "Commentary on Psalms 45:8". "The Adam Clarke Commentary". https://www.studylight.org/​commentaries/​acc/​psalms-45.html. 1832.

Bridgeway Bible Commentary

Psalms 45:0 A royal wedding song

This song was written to be sung at the wedding of some Israelite king. The anticipation of such an occasion causes the writer’s heart to overflow with joy (1).
First the writer addresses his comments to the king. Handsome in appearance, gracious in speech and strong in purpose, this one has been supremely blessed by God to fight for truth and justice (2-5). Since he is God’s representative, the king will have an enduring kingdom. Since he fights for all that is right, God has given him honour and glory above all others (6-7). The writer sees this honour and glory reflected in the splendour of the wedding ceremony - the king’s magnificent robes, the music being played in the ivory-decorated palace, the attendant princesses from many countries, and the presence of the queen mother (8-9).
The writer then addresses his comments to the queen. She is reminded to transfer her loyalty from her former family to the king, and is assured that he will return her love. People of subject nations will bring her gifts (10-12). The psalmist describes the majestic beauty of her bridal robes and the joyous scene as her bridesmaids and musical attendants lead her to the king (13-15). The king is then addressed again. He is given the assurance that he will have a line of royal descendants more glorious than that of his ancestors, so that his name will be honoured for ever (16-17).

As in most ceremonial songs, the words of this psalm are extravagant when applied to the Israelite king. But the same words, when applied to the King of kings, are scarcely enough to begin to describe his glory and power (cf. Hebrews 1:8-9; Revelation 19:6-9).

Bibliographical Information
Flemming, Donald C. "Commentary on Psalms 45:8". "Fleming's Bridgeway Bible Commentary". https://www.studylight.org/​commentaries/​bbc/​psalms-45.html. 2005.

Coffman's Commentaries on the Bible

"All thy garments smell of myrrh, and aloes, and cassia;

Out of ivory palaces stringed instruments have made thee glad.

King's daughters are among thy honorable women:

At thy right hand doth stand the queen in gold of Ophir."

"Myrrh, aloes and cassia" (Psalms 45:8). The significance of the mention of these spices is in their connection with funerals and their use as a kind of embalmment in the burial of deceased loved ones. When Christ was buried, Joseph of Arimathea received from Pilate permission to receive the body of Jesus; and Nicodemus assisted in the burial by, "Bringing a mixture of myrrh and aloes, about a hundred pounds. So they took the body of Jesus and bound it in the linen cloths with the spices, as the custom of the Jews is to bury" (John 19:39-40).

"Myrrh was an aromatic resin, and aloes was a sweet-smelling wood from India. Cassia is a dried cinnamon blossom used as incense."[17] In all probability, this was also used in the burial of Jesus, because, "It was one of the perfumes used at funerals."[18]

"All thy garments" (Psalms 45:8). The words `smell of' do not belong in this passage. Translators thought they were clarifying the meaning by their addition, but they misunderstood what the text says. What is stated is that these spices were "all thy garments,"[19] indicating that these were the only `garments' the body of Jesus had in the burial. "The cloths" mentioned in John 19:40 were not garments at all, but medical-type bandages, or strips, with which they bound Jesus' body. (See a full discussion of this in Vol. 4 of my New Testament Series of Commentaries, pp. 447,448.)

The significance of Psalms 45:8 is therefore its indication that "God" who is here addressed would be buried. Yes, God himself, in the person of his Son, died upon the Cross and was buried in the new tomb of Joseph of Arimathea.

And, as for the notion that this verse is speaking about the marriage of some Jewish king, we need only ask, "When did any king ever get `embalmed' for his wedding?

"Out of the ivory palaces" (Psalms 45:8). Oh yes, this is supposed to refer to the so-called `ivory palace' of Ahab; but that royal residence deserved no such designation in spite of the fact that there were indeed plenty of ivory decorations, most of them of the inlaid variety. But, even so, it was only one palace; and many are mentioned here.

The great Christian hymn, Ivory Palaces catches the true meaning in the chorus:

"Out of the ivory palaces

Into a world of woe;

Only his great eternal love

Made my Saviour go."[20]

- Henry Barraclough

The ivory palaces can be nothing less than a poetic designation of the residence of God Himself in the heaven of heavens.

"King's daughters are among thy honorable women" (Psalms 45:9). To us it appears that this is a prophecy of the fact that the most noble and honorable women of the world were precisely those who welcomed the Messiah in his First Advent. Luke 8:2-3 mentions a number of prominent women who actually financed the campaign of Jesus and the Twelve. This pattern continued in the progress of the gospel. Again from Luke, "Many of them therefore believed; also of the Greek women of honorable estate, and of men, not a few" (Acts 17:12).

"At thy right hand doth stand the queen in gold of Ophir" (Psalms 45:9). Who is the queen here? Certainly not Jezebel the wife of Ahab, nor one of the 700 wives of Solomon! It is the King's wife, his true and only wife; and since the King is none other than the Messiah, his Bride is the Holy Church, as the scriptures declare (Revelation 19:9; 21:9) See also Ephesians 5:25.

"In gold of Ophir" (Psalms 45:9). This is a reference to the attractiveness, beauty, and desirability of that innumerable company of the Redeemed, who as the Bride of Christ, shall at last be presented unto him, "A glorious church, not having spot or wrinkle or any such thing, but ... holy and without blemish" (Ephesians 5:27). The gold of Ophir, dazzling as it was to the eyes of Orientals, was only a dim and inadequate suggestion of the true glory of the Church of God.

Bibliographical Information
Coffman, James Burton. "Commentary on Psalms 45:8". "Coffman's Commentaries on the Bible". https://www.studylight.org/​commentaries/​bcc/​psalms-45.html. Abilene Christian University Press, Abilene, Texas, USA. 1983-1999.

Barnes' Notes on the Whole Bible

All thy garments smell of myrrh - The word “smell” is not in the original. The literal translation would be, “Myrrh, and aloes - cassia - all thy garments;” that is, they were so impregnated with perfumes that these seemed to constitute his very clothing. The mention of the “anointing” in the previous verse may have suggested the idea of these perfumes, as the anointing with a richly perfumed unguent seemed to have spread over, and to have pervaded all his raiment. Compare Psalms 133:2. It was common, however, for Orientals to use much perfumery, particularly on festive occasions. Myrrh - מר môr or מוּר mur - is an article which exudes from a tree found in Arabia, and still more extensively in Abyssinia. It is obtained by making an incision in the bark. It constituted one of the earliest articles of commerce Genesis 43:11, and was highly esteemed by the Egyptians and Jews, as well as by the Greeks and the Romans. It is mentioned in Esther 2:12 as an article used in the purification of women; and as a perfume, Song of Solomon 4:6; Song of Solomon 5:5. It was used among the ancients, not only as a perfume, but as a fumigator, and as an article of medicine, and was employed in embalming the bodies of the dead. Herodotus, speaking of the practice of embalming among the Egyptians, says, “They then fill the body with powder of pure myrrh, cassia, and other perfumes, except frankincense,” ii. 86. Compare Exodus 30:23; Matthew 2:11; Mark 15:23; John 19:39. Of the tree which produces the myrrh, however, we have as yet no very accurate accounts. See Kitto’s Encyc., art. “Mor.”

And aloes - The word rendered “aloes” - אהלות 'ăhâlôth - occurs four times in the Old Testament: Numbers 24:6, where it is rendered “lign-aloes;” and here, as in Proverbs 7:17; Song of Solomon 4:14, where it is rendered “aloes.” The reference is, undoubtedly, to some odoriferous substance, well known in ancient times. Why the word “aloe” has been used as a translation of the original word, in the English and in the older versions, it is not easy to ascertain, but it is certain that the substance referred to is not to be confounded with the bitter and nauseous aloes known as a medicine. It is now generally understood that the reference in the word as used in the Scriptures, is to a species of odoriferous tree growing in India, and which anciently doubtless constituted part of the valuable commerce of the East. It is not a “fruit” or a “gum,” but the tree itself. It is a species of sweet-smelling “wood,” and was valued on account of its fragrance. It is produced still in India. The tree is believed to be a native of the mountainous tracts east and southeast of Silhet, in about 24 degrees of north latitude. See Kitto’s Encyc., art. “Ahalim.”

And cassia. - Cassia - קציעות qetsiy‛ôth - is better known. It is a bark resembling cinnamon, but less aromatic. It is mentioned in two other places in the Scriptures, Exodus 30:24; Ezekiel 27:19. This, as well as “aloes,” is a production of India and its islands. See Kitto’s Encyc., art. “Ketzioth.”

Out of the ivory palaces - That is, As thou comest out of the ivory palaces. The representation is that of the king as coming out of the palace where he dwelt, and as clad in apparel appropriate to his station, and surrounded by his attendants, diffusing joy all around them. The imagery has “chanqed” from what it was in Psalms 45:3-5, where he goes forth as a conqueror, with his sword on his “thigh,” and ascending his war-chariot. Here he appears clothed, indeed, in regal splendor, in the magnificence of state, but as the husband of the bride, and as encircled with the attendants of an Oriental court. Ivory palaces are palaces adorned with ivory, or where ivory constituted a prominent and striking part of the ornaments. It cannot be supposed that the palace was constructed entirely of ivory. Kitto supposes that this refers to the interior decorations, or that the walls were “inlaid” with ivory, gold, etc., as constituting a part of the decorations of the building. “Ivory,” it would seem, was so abundant and conspicu ous that the name might be given to the whole structure. Such a palace was that built by Ahab: 1 Kings 22:39.

Whereby they have made thee glad - Hebrew, “from them (or thence) they have gladdened thee.” That is, They, the attendants referred to more particularly in the following verses, have gladdened thee; have diffused around a general joy; have contributed to make thee happy. He was clad in robes that became his station, and was accompanied and surrounded by attendants who diffused around a general joy, and who made his own heart glad. The “idea” may be, that the Redeemer, the Messiah, is made happy by the affection and the companionship of the redeemed, his people.

Bibliographical Information
Barnes, Albert. "Commentary on Psalms 45:8". "Barnes' Notes on the Whole Bible". https://www.studylight.org/​commentaries/​bnb/​psalms-45.html. 1870.

Calvin's Commentary on the Bible

8.All thy garments smell of myrrh As to the signification of the words I am not disposed to contend much, for I find that even the Jews are not agreed among themselves as to the meaning of the third word, except that from the similarity of pronunciation it may be conjectured to denote cassia. It is sufficient that we understand the prophet as meaning that the garments of the king are perfumed with precious and sweet-smelling odours. He describes Solomon coming forth from his ivory palace amidst shoutings of universal applause and joy. I explain not the word מני, minni, Out of me, because no tolerable meaning can be drawn from this. I translate it whence, (165) and refer it to the ivory palaces Superfluity and excess in pleasures cannot be justified, not only in the common people, but not even in kings; yet, on the other hand, it is necessary to guard against too much austerity, that we may not condemn the moderate display of grandeur which is suitable to their dignity, even as, a little after, the prophet describes the queen sumptuously and royally apparelled. (166) We must, however, at the same time, consider that all that is here commended in Solomon was not approved of by God. Not to speak of other things, it is well known that from the very first the sin of polygamy was a thing displeasing to God, and yet concubines are here spoken of as included among the blessings of God, for there is no reason to doubt that by the honorable women, or maids of honor, (167) the prophet means Solomon’s wives, of whom mention is made in another place. The daughter of the king of Egypt, whom Solomon had married, was his principal wife, and the first in rank (168) but it appears that the others, whom sacred history describes as occupying an inferior rank, were provided for in a liberal and honorable manner. These the prophet calls the daughters of kings, because some of them were descended of the royal blood. In what sense, then, it might be asked, does the prophet account it among the praises of Solomon that he had many wives, — a thing which God condemns in all private persons, but expressly in kings? (Deuteronomy 17:17.) Doubtless it may easily be inferred that in commending, according to a common practice, the wealth and glory of the king, as the prophet here does, he did not mean to approve of the abuse of them. It was not his design to set forth the example of a man in opposition to the law of God. It is true, indeed, that the power, dignity, and glory, which Solomon enjoyed, were granted to him as singular blessings from God; but as generally happens, he defiled them greatly by not exercising self-control, and in abusing the great abundance with which he was blessed, by the excessive indulgence of the flesh. In short, it is here recorded what great liberality God manifested towards Solomon in giving him every thing in abundance. As to the fact that he took to him so many wives, and did not exercise a due moderation in his pomp, this is not to be included in the liberality of God, but is a thing as it were accidental.

(165) Calvin here seems to take the word מני, Minni, which has somewhat perplexed commentators, to be the particle מן, min, out of, with י, yod, paragogic, as it is in Psalms 44:19, and many other places; and to suppose that the relative אשר,asher, which, a pronoun frequently omitted, is to be understood, — “out of which palaces they have made thee glad. ” This is the view taken by many interpreters. Others understand the word מני, minni, to be a noun; (and from Jeremiah 51:27, it appears that מני, minni, was the proper name of a territory, which Bochart shows was a district of Armenia;) and they translate the words thus, “From the ivory palaces of Armenia they make thee glad,” make thee glad with presents. Others suppose that מני, minni, is here the name of a region, Minnaea in Arabia Felix, which abounded in myrrh and frankincense; and according to this view, the clause may be rendered, “The Minnaeitas from their ivory palaces make thee glad;” that is, coming to thee from their ivory palaces they gladden thee with presents. Rosenmüller thinks with Schmidt, De Wette, and Gesenius, that a more elegant sense will be brought out if we understand מני, minni, as a plural noun in a form somewhat unusual, but of which there are several other examples in the Old Testament, such as שכשי, 2 Samuel 23:8; כרי, 2 Kings 9:4; עמי, 2 Samuel 22:44; Psalms 144:2. “The word,” says he, “according to these examples, stands for מנים, and signifies, as in the Syriac, Psalms 150:4, chords, stringed instruments of music. The sense of the clause will thus be, ‘From the palaces of ivory, musical instruments — players on musical instruments — make thee glad.’” — Rosenmüller on the Messianic Psalms, pp. 213-215. — Biblical Cabinet, volume 32.

(166)Comme un peu apres le prophere descrit la Royne ornee somptueusement et magnifiquement.” — Fr.

(167)Ou, dames d’honneur.” — Fr.

(168)Car combien que la fille du Roy d’Egypte que Salomon avoit espousee, fust sa principale femme, et teinst le premier lieu.” — Fr.

Bibliographical Information
Calvin, John. "Commentary on Psalms 45:8". "Calvin's Commentary on the Bible". https://www.studylight.org/​commentaries/​cal/​psalms-45.html. 1840-57.

Smith's Bible Commentary

Psalms 45:1-17

The forty-fifth psalm is one of those beautiful psalms that refers to Christ, a Messianic psalm. The glorious king. But in this same psalm is seen the church, the bride of Jesus Christ. And so we have in Psalms 45:1-17 the beautiful mystery of Christ and the church. The King and His bride.

My heart is indicting a good matter: I speak of things which I have made touching the King: my tongue is the pen of a ready writer ( Psalms 45:1 ).

Describing the king,

Thou art fairer than the children of men: grace is poured into thy lips: therefore God hath blessed thee for ever. Gird thy sword upon thy thigh, O most Mighty, with thy glory and thy majesty. And in thy majesty ride prosperously, because of truth and meekness and righteousness; and thy right hand shall teach thee awesome things. Thine arrows are sharp in the heart of the King's enemies; whereby the people fall under thee. Thy throne, O God, is for ever and ever: the sceptre of thy kingdom is a right sceptre ( Psalms 45:2-6 ).

Now in the book of Hebrews it acknowledges that this was written concerning Jesus Christ. And as the author of the book of Hebrews is seeking to show the superiority of Jesus Christ over the angels, he quotes this particular psalm, showing that God called Him God. For this psalm is inspired by God, and God in inspiring the psalm saying of Jesus Christ, "Thy throne, O God, is forever and ever." So in the New Testament there are those that would challenge the deity of Jesus Christ, saying that it isn't really a biblical doctrine. In spite of the fact that in the first chapter of John we read, "In the beginning was the Word, the Word was with God, and the Word was God. And the same was in the beginning with God, and all things were made by Him, and without Him was not anything made that was made."

In spite of the fact that Thomas, when Jesus said to him after the resurrection, "Thomas, you want to put your finger in My hand? Go ahead. You want to thrust your hand into My side? Go ahead. See if it isn't Me." And Thomas cried, "My Lord, and my God" ( John 20:28 ). In spite of the fact that Paul the Apostle called Him God, declaring that we look forward to the great appearing of our glorious God and Savior Jesus Christ. It is pointed out in the book of Hebrews that even God Himself called Him God. For the Lord said to Him, "Thy throne, O God, is forever and ever. The sceptre of Thy kingdom is a right sceptre." So, John, Paul, Thomas, all were willing to acknowledge Him as God, and even the Father willing to acknowledge Him as God is good enough for me. I don't need the Jehovah Witnesses to come along and say that He is not God. There is ample biblical proof.

So inasmuch as this is quoted concerning Christ in the New Testament, we know we are on good ground as seeing the King as Christ.

Thou lovest righteousness, you hate wickedness: therefore God, thy God, hath anointed thee with the oil of gladness above thy fellows. All thy garments smell of myrrh, and aloes, and cassia, out of the ivory palaces, whereby they have made thee glad. Kings' daughters were among thy honorable women: upon thy right hand did stand the queen in gold of Ophir ( Psalms 45:7-9 ).

The queen, of course, the church.

Hearken, O daughter, and consider, and incline thine ear; forget also thine own people, and thy father's house; So shall the King greatly desire thy beauty: for he is thy Lord; and worship thou him ( Psalms 45:10-11 ).

How beautiful. Speaking now of this intimate, beautiful relationship between Christ and His church. "Hearken, O daughter, consider, incline thine ear. Forget the world, thy father's house. For the King greatly desires thee, thy beauty. For He is thy Lord, worship Him."

And the daughter of Tyre shall be there with a gift; even the rich among the people shall entreat thy favor. The King's daughter is all glorious within: her clothing is of wrought gold. She shall be brought unto the King in raiment of needlework: the virgins her companions that follow her shall be brought unto thee. With gladness and rejoicing shall they be brought: and they shall enter into the King's palace. Instead of thy fathers shall be thy children, whom thou mayest make princes in all the earth. I will make thy name to be remembered in all generations: therefore shall the people praise thee for ever and ever ( Psalms 45:12-17 ).

Much, much that is there to just go ahead and come back to this one and read it and meditate upon it. And just to see the beautiful picture of the bride of Christ. The glorious day when we are brought to Him. Unfolded for us in the book of Revelation, chapter 19. Invited. Now the other groups that will be there, outside of the church, the virgins, bringing their companions that follow, there's a lot there. "

Bibliographical Information
Smith, Charles Ward. "Commentary on Psalms 45:8". "Smith's Bible Commentary". https://www.studylight.org/​commentaries/​csc/​psalms-45.html. 2014.

Dr. Constable's Expository Notes

1. Praise for the bridegroom 45:1-9

Bibliographical Information
Constable, Thomas. DD. "Commentary on Psalms 45:8". "Dr. Constable's Expository Notes". https://www.studylight.org/​commentaries/​dcc/​psalms-45.html. 2012.

Dr. Constable's Expository Notes

Psalms 45

This royal psalm glorified a king as he prepared for his wedding. The writer related the counsel that the bride had received as she anticipated the wedding. He then predicted that people would honor the king forever because of the descendants born to him. The psalmist also appears to have spoken prophetically of Christ (cf. Ephesians 5:32-33; Hebrews 1:8-9). [Note: Kidner, p. 170.]

"Psalms 45 is another example of a royal psalm which reflects the historical situation of ancient Israel, but which ultimately applies to Christ in that He is the one through whom the primary aspects of its idealistic portrayal of the Davidic ruler are fully realized." [Note: Chisholm, "A Theology . . .," p. 270.]

"Shoshannim" in the title means "lilies." This may have been a hymn tune. The meaning of "Maskil" is still unclear. "A song of love" (lit., NASB) probably means "a wedding song" (NIV).

Bibliographical Information
Constable, Thomas. DD. "Commentary on Psalms 45:8". "Dr. Constable's Expository Notes". https://www.studylight.org/​commentaries/​dcc/​psalms-45.html. 2012.

Dr. Constable's Expository Notes

The king’s wedding garments were fragrant with aromatic spices. Perfumers made myrrh out of a gum that a certain kind of Arabian tree secreted (cf. Proverbs 7:17; Song of Solomon 1:13). Aloes apparently came from a good-smelling wood (cf. Numbers 24:6; Proverbs 7:17; Song of Solomon 4:14). Ancient oriental monarchs decorated their palaces with ivory, and the amount of it they displayed represented their wealth and glory (cf. 1 Kings 10:18; 1 Kings 22:39; Amos 3:15; Amos 6:4). Kings’ daughters were among the most prestigious attendants in weddings. The ancients considered gold from Ophir, probably situated in Arabia, to be the best (cf. 1 Kings 9:28; 1 Kings 10:11; 1 Kings 22:48; Job 28:16; Isaiah 13:12). The total picture of this wedding ceremony is one of extreme elegance and beauty, fitting for such a good king.

Bibliographical Information
Constable, Thomas. DD. "Commentary on Psalms 45:8". "Dr. Constable's Expository Notes". https://www.studylight.org/​commentaries/​dcc/​psalms-45.html. 2012.

Gill's Exposition of the Whole Bible

All thy garments [smell] of myrrh, and aloes, [and] cassia,.... Either his human nature, as anointed with the oil of gladness, and filled with the graces of the Spirit, signified by the holy anointing oil in the tabernacle, of which the things mentioned were ingredients,

Exodus 30:23; or the garments of salvation and robe of righteousness, wrought out by him for his people, which are well pleasing and acceptable to his Father, and of a sweet smelling savour, being agreeable to his law and justice; and also to himself, as they are put upon his people; see Song of Solomon 4:11. And likewise to them who rejoice at being clothed with them, and desire to be found in them: or else his people themselves, who are sometimes compared to a clothing and to garments, Isaiah 49:18; whose persons are to God as the smell of a field, whom the Lord has blessed; and whose sacrifices of prayer and praise are sweet odours to him, through the mediation of his Son;

out of the ivory palaces; see Song of Solomon 7:4; meaning the places from whence these garments were taken, the wardrobe; or from whence Christ came, and where he appears; as heaven, the palace of the great King, from whence he came down, whither he is gone, and from whence he is expected again; and the human nature of Christ, in which he tabernacled on earth, and was pure and clear from sin; and his churches, which are his temples and palaces, where he grants his presence. Or it may be rendered, "more than the ivory palaces" i, and so be expressive of the excellency of Christ's garments above them; and denote the purity of his human nature, the spotlessness of his righteousness, and the comeliness of his people;

whereby they have made thee glad; or, "wherein" or "from whence" k; in which palaces, the churches, the saints make Christ glad, by speaking of his glory; by ascribing glory to him; and by the exercise of grace upon him, with which his heart is ravished, Song of Solomon 4:9. Or "for which" l; garments of salvation, and robe of righteousness; they being clothed with them, and rejoicing in them, cause joy and gladness in Christ: or "more than they", or "theirs that make thee glad" m; meaning his fellows and their garments, his being more odorous than theirs.

i מן היכלי שן "prae palatiis eburneis", Cocceius, Gejerus. k מני "unde", Montanus, Musculus, Muis, Noldius, p. 629, No. 1664. l "Propter quod", Muis. m "Prae iis", Junius Tremellius "magis quam eorum", Piscator; so Ainsworth.

Bibliographical Information
Gill, John. "Commentary on Psalms 45:8". "Gill's Exposition of the Entire Bible". https://www.studylight.org/​commentaries/​geb/​psalms-45.html. 1999.

Henry's Complete Commentary on the Bible

Majesty and Glory of Christ.

      6 Thy throne, O God, is for ever and ever: the sceptre of thy kingdom is a right sceptre.   7 Thou lovest righteousness, and hatest wickedness: therefore God, thy God, hath anointed thee with the oil of gladness above thy fellows.   8 All thy garments smell of myrrh, and aloes, and cassia, out of the ivory palaces, whereby they have made thee glad.   9 Kings' daughters were among thy honourable women: upon thy right hand did stand the queen in gold of Ophir.

      We have here the royal bridegroom filling his throne with judgment and keeping his court with splendour.

      I. He here fills his throne with judgment. It is God the Father that says to the Son here, Thy throne, O God! is forever and ever, as appears Hebrews 1:8; Hebrews 1:9, where this is quoted to prove that he is God and has a more excellent name than the angels. The Mediator is God, else he neither would have been able to do the Mediator's work nor fit to wear the Mediator's crown. Concerning his government observe, 1. The eternity of it; it is for ever and ever. It shall continue on earth throughout all the ages of time, in despite of all the opposition of the gates of hell; and in the blessed fruits and consequences of it it shall last as long as the days of heaven, and run parallel with the line of eternity itself. Perhaps even then the glory of the Redeemer, and the blessedness of the redeemed, shall be in a continual infinite progression; for it is promised that not only of his government, but of the increase of his government and peace, there shall be no end (Isaiah 9:7); even when the kingdom shall be delivered up to God even the Father (1 Corinthians 15:24) the throne of the Redeemer will continue. 2. The equity of it: The sceptre of thy kingdom, the administration of thy government, is right, exactly according to the eternal counsel and will of God, which is the eternal rule and reason of good and evil. Whatever Christ does he does none of his subjects any wrong, but gives redress to those that do suffer wrong: He loves righteousness, and hates wickedness,Psalms 45:7; Psalms 45:7. He himself loves to do righteousness, and hates to do wickedness; and he loves those that do righteousness, and hates those that do wickedness. By the holiness of his life, the merit of his death, and the great design of his gospel, he has made it to appear that he loves righteousness (for by his example, his satisfaction, and his precepts, he has brought in an everlasting righteousness), and that he hates wickedness, for never did God's hatred of sin appear so conspicuously as it did in the sufferings of Christ. 3. The establishment and elevation of it: Therefore God, even thy God (Christ, as Mediator, called God his God,John 20:17, as commissioned by him, and the head of those that are taken into covenant with him), has anointed thee with the oil of gladness. Therefore, that is, (1.) "In order to this righteous government of thine, God has given thee his Spirit, that divine unction, to qualify thee for thy undertaking," Isaiah 61:1. 1. The Spirit of the Lord God is upon me, because he has anointed me. What God called him to he fitted him for, Isaiah 11:2. The Spirit is called the oil of gladness because of the delight wherewith Christ was filled in carrying on his undertaking. He was anointed with the Spirit above all his fellows, above all those that were anointed, whether priests or kings. (2.) "In recompence of what thou has done and suffered for the advancement of righteousness and the destruction of sin God has anointed thee with the oil of gladness, has brought thee to all the honours and all the joys of thy exalted state." Because he humbled himself, God has highly exalted him,Philippians 2:8; Philippians 2:9. His anointing him denotes the power and glory to which he is exalted; he is invested in all the dignities and authorities of the Messiah. And his anointing him with the oil of gladness denotes the joy that was set before him (so his exaltation is expressed, Hebrews 12:2) both in the light of his Father's countenance (Acts 2:28) and in the success of his undertaking, which he shall see, and be satisfied,Isaiah 53:11. This he is anointed with above all his fellows, above all believers, who are his brethren, and who partake of the anointing--they by measure, he without measure. But the apostle brings it to prove his pre-eminence above the angels, Psalms 1:4; Psalms 1:9. The salvation of sinners is the joy of angels (Luke 15:10), but much more of the Son.

      II. He keeps his court with splendour and magnificence. 1. His robes of state, wherein he appears, are taken notice of, not for their pomp, which might strike an awe upon the spectator, but their pleasantness and the gratefulness of the odours with which they were perfumed (Psalms 45:8; Psalms 45:8): They smell of myrrh, aloes, and cassia (the oil of gladness with which he and his garments were anointed): these were some of the ingredients of the holy anointing oil which God appointed, the like to which was not to be made up for any common use (Exodus 30:23; Exodus 30:24), which was typical of the unction of the Spirit which Christ, the great high priest of our profession, received, and to which therefore there seems here to be a reference. It is the savour of these good ointments, his graces and comforts, that draws souls to him (Song of Solomon 1:3; Song of Solomon 1:4) and makes him precious to believers,1 Peter 2:7. 2. His royal palaces are said to be ivory ones, such as were then reckoned most magnificent. We read of an ivory house that Ahab made, 1 Kings 22:39. The mansions of light above are the ivory palaces, whence all the joys both of Christ and believers come, and where they will be for ever in perfection; for by them he is made glad, and all that are his with him; for they shall enter into the joy of their Lord. 3. The beauties of his court shine very brightly. In public appearances at court, when the pomp of it is shown, nothing is supposed to contribute so much to it as the splendour of the ladies, which is alluded to here, Psalms 45:9; Psalms 45:9. (1.) Particular believers are here compared to the ladies at court, richly dressed in honour of the sovereign: Kings' daughters are among thy honourable women, whose looks, and mien, and ornaments, we may suppose, from the height of their extraction, to excel all others. All true believers are born from above; they are the children of the King of kings. These attend the throne of the Lord Jesus daily with their prayers and praises, which is really their honour, and he is pleased to reckon it his. The numbering of kings' daughters among his honourable women, or maids of honour, intimates that the kings whose daughters they were should be tributaries to him and dependents on him, and would therefore think it a preferment to their daughters to attend him. (2.) The church in general, constituted of these particular believers, is here compared to the queen herself--the queen-consort, whom, by an everlasting covenant, he hath betrothed to himself. She stands at his right hand, near to him, and receives honour from him, in the richest array, in gold of Ophir, in robes woven with golden thread or with a gold chain and other ornaments of gold. This is the bride, the Lamb's wife, whose graces, which are her ornaments, are compared to fine linen, clean and white (Revelation 19:8), for their purity, here to gold of Ophir, for their costliness; for, as we owe our redemption, so we owe our adorning, not to corruptible things, but to the precious blood of the Son of God.

Bibliographical Information
Henry, Matthew. "Complete Commentary on Psalms 45:8". "Henry's Complete Commentary on the Whole Bible". https://www.studylight.org/​commentaries/​mhm/​psalms-45.html. 1706.
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