Verse-by-Verse Bible Commentary

Revelation 19:4

And the twenty-four elders and the four living creatures fell down and worshiped God who sits on the throne saying, "Amen. Hallelujah!"
New American Standard Version

Bible Study Resources

Concordances:
Nave's Topical Bible - Amen;   Animals;   Elder;   Praise;   Throne;   Vision;  
Dictionaries:
American Tract Society Bible Dictionary - Hallelujah;   Bridgeway Bible Dictionary - Apocalyptic literature;   Babylon;   Hallelujah;   Praise;   Easton Bible Dictionary - Alleluia;   Hallelujah;   Fausset Bible Dictionary - Alleluia;   Holman Bible Dictionary - Revelation, the Book of;   Hastings' Dictionary of the Bible - Hallelujah;   Hastings' Dictionary of the New Testament - Amen (2);   Hallelujah;   Morrish Bible Dictionary - Adoration;   Allelula;   Elders;   People's Dictionary of the Bible - Antichrist;   Watson's Biblical & Theological Dictionary - Alleluia;  
Encyclopedias:
International Standard Bible Encyclopedia - Creature, Living;   Four;   Revelation of John:;  

Adam Clarke Commentary

The four and twenty elders - The true Church of the Lord Jesus converted from among the Jews. See Revelation 4:10; Revelation 5:14.

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Clarke, Adam. "Commentary on Revelation 19:4". "The Adam Clarke Commentary". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/acc/revelation-19.html. 1832.

Albert Barnes' Notes on the Whole Bible

And the four and twenty elders and the four beasts - See the notes on Revelation 4:4, Revelation 4:6-7. As representatives of the church, and as interested in its welfare, they are now introduced as rejoicing in its final triumph, and in the destruction of its last foe.

Fell down - Prostrated themselves - the usual posture of worship.

And worshipped God that sat on the throne - Revelation 4:2-3, Revelation 4:10. That is, they now adored him for what he had done in delivering the church from all its persecutions, and causing it to triumph in the world.

Saying, Amen - See the notes on Matthew 6:13. The word here is expressive of approbation of what God had done; or of their solemn assent to all that had occurred in the destruction of the great enemy of the church.

Alleluia - See the notes on Revelation 19:1. The repetition of this word so many times shows the intenseness of the joy of heaven in view of the final triumph of the church.

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Barnes, Albert. "Commentary on Revelation 19:4". "Barnes' Notes on the Whole Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/bnb/revelation-19.html. 1870.

John Gill's Exposition of the Whole Bible

And the four and twenty elders and the four beasts,.... Mentioned in Revelation 4:4 and who represent the churches of Christ and ministers of the Gospel in the several periods of time, these join in the chorus, and praise the Lord on the account of the destruction of Rome, and ruin of antichrist; so they are often heard of in this book, when any remarkable thing is done, or when there is any breaking forth of the kingdom and glory of Christ; see Revelation 5:8 these

fell down; on their faces before God, as in Revelation 4:10 in great reverence of him, and of his righteous judgments:

and worshipped God that sat on the throne; described in Revelation 4:2 this refers to the public worship of God in the churches, by the ministers and members of them:

saying, Amen; Alleluia; they said "Amen", and signified their assent to what the much people in heaven had said, Revelation 19:1 and joined in the same "hallelujah", or expressions of praise to God, for this great appearance of his in the downfall of Babylon. Both these words are used together in Psalm 106:48, see Revelation 5:14.

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The New John Gill's Exposition of the Entire Bible Modernised and adapted for the computer by Larry Pierce of Online Bible. All Rights Reserved, Larry Pierce, Winterbourne, Ontario.
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Gill, John. "Commentary on Revelation 19:4". "The New John Gill Exposition of the Entire Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/geb/revelation-19.html. 1999.

Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible

beasts — rather, “living creatures.”

satGreek, “sitteth.”

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This expanded edition of the Jameison-Faussett-Brown Commentary is in the public domain and may be freely used and distributed.
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Jamieson, Robert, D.D.; Fausset, A. R.; Brown, David. "Commentary on Revelation 19:4". "Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/jfb/revelation-19.html. 1871-8.

Robertson's Word Pictures in the New Testament

Fell down and worshipped God (επεσαν και προσεκυνησαν τωι τεωιepesan kai prosekunēsan tōi theōi). Precisely as in Revelation 7:11, which see. The twenty-four elders and the four living creatures take up the antiphonal chorus of the angels.

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The Robertson's Word Pictures of the New Testament. Copyright Broadman Press 1932,33, Renewal 1960. All rights reserved. Used by permission of Broadman Press (Southern Baptist Sunday School Board)
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Robertson, A.T. "Commentary on Revelation 19:4". "Robertson's Word Pictures of the New Testament". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/rwp/revelation-19.html. Broadman Press 1932,33. Renewal 1960.

Wesley's Explanatory Notes

And the four and twenty elders and the four beasts fell down and worshipped God that sat on the throne, saying, Amen; Alleluia.

And the four and twenty elders, and the four living creatures felt down — The living creatures are nearer the throne than the elders. Accordingly they are mentioned before them, with the praise they render to God, Revelation 4:9,10; 5:8,14; inasmuch as there the praise moves from the centre to the circumference. But here, when God's judgments are fulfilled, it moves back from the circumference to the centre. Here, therefore, the four and twenty elders are named before the living creatures.

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These files are public domain and are a derivative of an electronic edition that is available on the Christian Classics Ethereal Library Website.
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Wesley, John. "Commentary on Revelation 19:4". "John Wesley's Explanatory Notes on the Whole Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/wen/revelation-19.html. 1765.

Scofield's Reference Notes

beasts

living creatures. (See Scofield "Ezekiel 1:5").

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Scofield, C. I. "Scofield Reference Notes on Revelation 19:4". "Scofield Reference Notes (1917 Edition)". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/srn/revelation-19.html. 1917.

John Trapp Complete Commentary

4 And the four and twenty elders and the four beasts fell down and worshipped God that sat on the throne, saying, Amen; Alleluia.

Ver. 4. And the four and twenty elders] The former Alleluiah was more private; every good heart being lifted up with joy and thankfulness, when first they hear the good news of Antichrist’s overthrow. Now is this the joint Alleluiah of the public congregation, praising and magnifying God. This may be a further means to move the Jews to come in.

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Trapp, John. "Commentary on Revelation 19:4". John Trapp Complete Commentary. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/jtc/revelation-19.html. 1865-1868.

Expository Notes with Practical Observations on the New Testament

Note here, 1. How the whole heavenly choir praise God on the fore- mentioned account, acknowledging the justice of his proceeding against Babylon; and,

2. An invitation is here given to all the saints upon earth, both small and great, to fear upon earth, both small and great, to fear and praise him.

Whence note, How the church triumphant and militant, the saints in heaven and Christians on earth, jointly give praise to God, and glorify him for this great work, adoring his divine justice in destroying Babylon, the mother of idolatry, the nest of luxury, the seat of oppression and cruelty; it is a duty well becoming the saints, both small and great, to celebrate the praises of God for the equity of his judgments upon his church's incorrigible and unreclaimable enemies; and here God himself, and his ministers, call upon the whole church to join in this solemn work of praise and thanksgiving: A voice came out of the throne, saying, Praise our God, and the four and twenty elders, and the four beasts fell down and worshipped.

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Burkitt, William. "Commentary on Revelation 19:4". Expository Notes with Practical Observations on the New Testament. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/wbc/revelation-19.html. 1700-1703.

Heinrich Meyer's Critical and Exegetical Commentary on the New Testament

Revelation 19:4. The twenty-four elders and the four beings, responding first of all by the ʼαμήν, confirming the ascription of praise just proclaimed, then also, on their part, expressly continue the same: ἀλληλ.(4032)

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Meyer, Heinrich. "Commentary on Revelation 19:4". Heinrich Meyer's Critical and Exegetical Commentary on the New Testament. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/hmc/revelation-19.html. 1832.

Matthew Poole's English Annotations on the Holy Bible

See Poole on "Revelation 4:1", and following verses to Revelation 4:11. All the heavenly choir praise God upon this account, desiring that the Lord would fulfil what he had begun.

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Poole, Matthew, "Commentary on Revelation 19:4". Matthew Poole's English Annotations on the Holy Bible. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/mpc/revelation-19.html. 1685.

Alexander MacLaren's Expositions of Holy Scripture

двадцать четыре старца Правильнее всего толковать, что это представители церкви (см. пояснение к 4:4).

четыре животных Особый отряд ангельских существ (см. пояснение к 4:6). Они относятся к той же группе, что и в 7:11, и часто связаны с восхвалением (4:8, 11; 5:9-12, 14; 11:16-18).

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MacLaren, Alexander. "Commentary on Revelation 19:4". Alexander MacLaren's Expositions of Holy Scripture. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/mac/revelation-19.html.

Justin Edwards' Family Bible New Testament

Amen; Alleluia; be it so, praise ye the Lord; showing their hearty acquiescence in the infliction of his judgments.

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Edwards, Justin. "Commentary on Revelation 19:4". "Family Bible New Testament". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/fam/revelation-19.html. American Tract Society. 1851.

Coffman Commentaries on the Bible

And the four and twenty elders and the four living creatures fell down and worshipped God that sitteth on the throne, saying, Amen; Hallelujah.

The four and twenty elders and the four living creatures ... These come from the early chapters (Revelation 4 and Revelation 5) of the prophecy. Hendriksen understood the 24 elders as symbolizing "the entire church, and the living creatures as representing the cherubim";[8] however, there is little use of pursuing their identity, because the rejoicing is clearly for the benefit of the saints on earth and is intended to show how they will rejoice upon their entry into heaven.

"The violent hatred of Rome" shown in these passages is alleged by some to be "not Christian"; but Beckwith exploded such charges by pointing out that God's hatred "is not of people, but of a corrupt anti-Christianity."[9] It is not Christian vengeance which is seen here, but divine retribution. The thing to keep in focus here is a vision of "God that sitteth on the throne."

[8] William Hendriksen, More than Conquerors (Grand Rapids, Michigan: Baker Book House, 1956), p. 214.

[9] Isbon T. Beckwith, The Apocalypse of John (Grand Rapids, Michigan: Baker Book House, 1919, p. 723.

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Coffman Commentaries reproduced by permission of Abilene Christian University Press, Abilene, Texas, USA. All other rights reserved.
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Coffman, James Burton. "Commentary on Revelation 19:4". "Coffman Commentaries on the Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/bcc/revelation-19.html. Abilene Christian University Press, Abilene, Texas, USA. 1983-1999.

Foy E. Wallace's Commentary on the Book of Revelation

Among the heavenly worshippers were listed the four and twenty elders of verse four, a symbol based on the twelve patriarchs and the twelve apostles, representative of the whole and true Israel of God--the church; as discussed in chapters 5, 8, 14, and 11:18. The song of praise was an anthem of victory for the whole church.

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Wallace, Foy E. "Commentary on Revelation 19:4". "Foy E. Wallace's Commentary on the Book of Revelation". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/foy/revelation-19.html. 1966.

Expository Notes of Dr. Thomas Constable

The24elders and the four living creatures echoed these sentiments in a third song of praise (cf. Revelation 4:9-10; Revelation 5:8; Revelation 5:14; Revelation 7:9-11; Revelation 14:3). The one who sits on the throne is evidently God the Father. "Amen" voices the elders" and creatures" approval of the two previous expressions of praise ( Revelation 19:1-3), and "Hallelujah" expresses their own praise (cf. Revelation 7:12).

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Constable, Thomas. DD. "Commentary on Revelation 19:4". "Expository Notes of Dr. Thomas Constable". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/dcc/revelation-19.html. 2012.

Schaff's Popular Commentary on the New Testament

Revelation 19:4. The four and twenty elders and the four living creatures respond to the song of the heavenly host. The Elders we heard last at chap. Revelation 11:16, at the moment when the seventh trumpet had sounded, and the ‘great voices in heaven’ had declared, ‘The kingdom of the world is become the kingdom of our Lord and of His Christ.’ One of the four living creatures we saw last at chap. Revelation 15:7, when it gave to the seven angels their ‘seven golden bowls full of the wrath of God.’ With peculiar propriety, therefore, these beings first answer the hosts of heaven with their loud Amen, and then take up their song Hallelujah.

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Schaff, Philip. "Commentary on Revelation 19:4". "Schaff's Popular Commentary on the New Testament". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/scn/revelation-19.html. 1879-90.

Gary Hampton Commentary on Selected Books

The four creatures around the throne and 24 elders join in the praises of God.

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Hampton, Gary. "Commentary on Revelation 19:4". "Gary Hampton Commentary on Selected Books". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/ghc/revelation-19.html. 2014.

E.W. Bullinger's Companion Bible Notes

elders. See Revelation 4:4.

beasts. Greek. zoa, as Revelation 4:6. Elders and beasts mentioned here for the last time.

worshipped. App-137.

That sat. Literally the (One) sitting. on. App-104. with texts.

Amen. See Revelation 3:14 and p. 1511 (Verily).

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Bullinger, Ethelbert William. "Commentary on Revelation 19:4". "E.W. Bullinger's Companion bible Notes". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/bul/revelation-19.html. 1909-1922.

Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible - Unabridged

And the four and twenty elders and the four beasts fell down and worshipped God that sat on the throne, saying, Amen; Alleluia.

Beasts - `living creatures.'

Sat - `sitteth.'

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Jamieson, Robert, D.D.; Fausset, A. R.; Brown, David. "Commentary on Revelation 19:4". "Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible - Unabridged". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/jfu/revelation-19.html. 1871-8.

Ellicott's Commentary for English Readers

(4) And the four and twenty . . .—The twenty-four elders, the representatives of the Church, and the four living beings, the representatives of nature, fell down and worshipped God who sitteth (not “sat,” as in the English version) on the throne. These, too, join in the chorus of praise.

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Ellicott, Charles John. "Commentary on Revelation 19:4". "Ellicott's Commentary for English Readers". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/ebc/revelation-19.html. 1905.

Treasury of Scripture Knowledge

And the four and twenty elders and the four beasts fell down and worshipped God that sat on the throne, saying, Amen; Alleluia.
the four
4:4-10; 5:8-11,14; 11:15,16; 15:7
Amen
5:14; 1 Chronicles 16:36; Nehemiah 5:13; 8:6; Psalms 41:13; 72:19; 89:52; 106:48; Jeremiah 28:6; Matthew 6:13; 28:20; 1 Corinthians 14:16
Alleluia
1
Reciprocal: Psalm 105:45 - Praise ye the Lord;  Isaiah 24:23 - when;  Isaiah 52:8 - with;  Luke 17:16 - fell;  1 Corinthians 14:25 - falling;  2 Corinthians 4:15 - the abundant;  Ephesians 1:10 - he;  Revelation 4:2 - and one;  Revelation 4:6 - four beasts;  Revelation 4:10 - fall;  Revelation 7:11 - all;  Revelation 7:12 - Amen

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Torrey, R. A. "Commentary on Revelation 19:4". "The Treasury of Scripture Knowledge". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/tsk/revelation-19.html.

E.M. Zerr's Commentary on Selected Books of the New Testament

The four beasts (living creatures) felt happy over the victory of Christ because it was through His blood that they had been redeemed from sin. And the four and twenty elders had the same motive for praising God, because they represented the two organized systems of salvation that had produced the four living creatures.

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Zerr, E.M. "Commentary on Revelation 19:4". E.M. Zerr's Commentary on Selected Books of the New Testament. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/znt/revelation-19.html. 1952.

Hanserd Knollys' Commentary on Revelation

Revelation 19:4

Revelation 19:4-5 And the four and twenty elders and the four beasts fell down and worshipped God that sat on the throne, saying, Amen; Alleluia5 And a voice came out of the throne, saying, Praise our God, all ye his servants, and ye that fear him, both small and great.

By

the four and twenty elders, and the four living creatures,

we are to understand the ministers, and members of Christ in his churches of saints on earth who worship God that sits upon his throne in heaven. { Psalm 103:19} The Lord hath prepareth his throne in the heavens, and his kingdom ruleth over all,

Saying, Amen; Alleluia

Praise ye the Lord.

And a voice came out of the Throne, saying, Praise our God, all ye his servants, and ye that fear him, both small and great.

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Knollys, Hanserd. "Commentary on Revelation 19:4". "Hanserd Knollys' Commentary on Revelation". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/hkc/revelation-19.html.

Ernst Hengstenberg on John, Revelation, Ecclesiastes, Ezekiel & Psalms

Revelation 19:4. And the four and twenty elders and the four beasts fell down, and worshipped God that sat upon the throne, and said, Amen, Hallelujah. The four and twenty elders, the heavenly representatives of the church, their elite as it were, stand forth, because the multitude of believers had begun the song of praise, and the flock cannot be separated from their shepherds; and also because the point of view from which the matter is contemplated is that of the revenge of God for the blood of his servants. The four beasts follow, the representatives of the living creation upon earth (see in ch. Revelation 4:6), to present their thanksgivings for the redemption of the earth, which the great whore had corrupted by her fornication— comp. Isaiah 13:7, where it is said in regard to the overthrow of old Babylon, "the whole earth is at rest, is quiet, they break forth into jubilee." We may, perhaps, here as in ch. Revelation 5:8, regard the elders as the only speakers—comp. however ch. Revelation 5:14, where the four beasts utter a similar Amen, as also the angels in ch. Revelation 7:12.

In ch. Revelation 11:15, ss. also, precisely as here, the multitude of believers first step forth, and then the company of elders. But there is this difference, that here the heavenly representatives of the church only assent, while there the theme merely indicated by the multitude of believers is expanded by them. The Amen, Hallelujah, is from Psalms 106:48.

The Amen, Hallelujah, forms the conclusion of the extended and important announcement of the Seer upon the fate of heathen Rome. On this point we have a few additional remarks to make.

That by Babylon, and by the great whore, heathen Rome is denoted, was understood even in the earlier ages of Christianity, during the dominion of Rome itself, and while the fulfilment was in progress; and that, not merely here and there, but by all who followed generally the historical exposition.

Irenaeus, in B. V. c. 30, on the ground of this interpretation, expects the partition of the Roman empire among the ten kings.

Tertullian says, that Babylon is with John the figurative designation of the city Rome, which was as great as ancient Babylon, equally proud in respect to her dominion, and equally, too, a persecutor of the saints of God.[Note: Adv. Mar. III. c. 13: Sic et Babylon etiam apud Johannem nostrum Romanae urbis figura est, proinde magnae et regno superbae et sanctorum dei dibellatricis. So also adv. Jud. c. 9.] Lactantius says, with evident allusion to the Apocalypse, that the announcements of the prophets foretold, under the veil of another name, the immediately approaching downfal of Rome.[Note: Instit. L. VII. c. 15, sect. 17: Quod si haec ita sunt, quid restat nisi ut sequatur interitus senectutem? et id futurum brevi, conciones prophetarum denunciant sub ambage aliorum nominum, ne facile quis intelligat. Comp. s. 11: Romanum nomen, quo nunc regitur orbis (horret animus dicere, sed dicam quid futurum est) tolletur de terra.] Jerome always remains consistent with himself, in understanding by Babylon, the great whore of the Apocalypse, the Rome of his own day. It was not in his view an exegetical conjecture, but he considered it as a matter quite established, and generally recognized.[Note: So he says in his epistle, which in the year 386 he wrote in the name of Paula and Eustochium to Marcella, in order to warn her to flee from Rome to Bethlehem (epist. 46) Lege Apocalypsin Joannis, et quid de muliere purpurata, et scripta in ejus fronte blasphemia, septem montibus, aquis multis, et Babylonia cantetur exitu, contuere. Exite, inquit dominus, de illa, populous meus, et ne participles sitis delictorum ejus, et de plagis ejus not accipiatis. See also his Comm. on Isaiah 24, where he speaks of the spiritual Babylon, whose judgment is described in the Apocalypse of John.] Orosius in B. II. c. 1, represents the Roman state as the antitype and continuation of the Babylonian, and pursues the parallel between the two farther, in ch. 2 and 3, and in B. VII. c. 2. The testimony of Bereugandus was given formerly.

Here we must examine a natural objection to this view, of which no notice has been taken in the preceding exposition. Rome, it is said, at the time of the overthrow of her dominion, had already renounced her heathenism. Is it credible, that God would have punished Christian Rome for the sins that had been committed by heathen Rome?[Note: This point was raised even by Berengaudus on ch. 17:8: Sed dicet aliquis, Quomodo per mulierem meretricem Romani designantur, cum illis temporibus, quando hae gentes diversas clades generi humano intulerunt, Romani Christiani exstiterint. Substantially, too, he gave the right answer: Ad quod nos respondemus, quia per mulierem meretricem non electi, qui ex eadem gente fuerunt, intelliguntur, quippe mundi gloriam pro amove gloriae coelestis contemserunt: sed reprobi sive pagani sive Christiani fueriut. Illorum ergo potestas ab iis gentibus destructal est, qui impia dominatione genus humanum premebant.]

We remark, first of all, on the other side, that at the period when the judgment here announced began to be executed, heathenism still reigned uncontrolled in Rome, and that it continued to have a deep root there when the prophecy was actually going into fulfilment, when nothing but the shadow remained of the old dominion and glory. Constantine despaired of getting heathenism properly extirpated in Rome, and transferred the seat of empire to Byzantium, (see Gieseler's History I. 2, p. 7). In the days of Jerome heathenism still had the ascendancy in Rome; and according to his commentary on the epistle to the Galatians, Rome was the capital of all superstition—comp. on ch. Revelation 4:3. The Christian zeal of Theodosins was not able to reach its end in Rome, (Gieseler, p. 29). Even in the fifth century it was still the centre of heathenism.[Note: How powerful the heathenish element was at Rome in still later times, strikingly appears from what Orosius relates, in B. VII. c. 38, of the attempt made against Rome by the Goths under Rhadagaisus: Hoc igitur Romanis arcibus imminente, fit omnium paganorum in urbe concursus, hostem adesse cum utiquo virium copia, tum maxime praesidio deorum potentem: Urbem autem ideo destitutam et mature perituram, quia deos et sacra perdiderit. Magnis querelis ubique agitur et coutinuo de repetendis sacris celebrandisque tractatur. Fervent tota urbe blusphemiae, vulgo nomen Christi tanquam lues aliqun praesentium temporum opprobriis gravatur.]

But farther, even with the formal conversion of Rome to Christianity, it did not cease to be the object of the judicial agency of God delineated in this prophecy. For that conversion was in great part a merely external one. The sinful corruption, that had established itself in the time of Rome's supremacy, continued to work still. It had penetrated so deeply, that the state, as such, was no longer capable of regeneration, and the renewing power of Christianity could take effect only on individuals. The overthrow of the Roman state itself shews this. This could not have happened, if the state had undergone a real revival through the Gospel. The same, too, is abundantly proved by the testimonies of those, who lived in Rome during the execution of the divine judgments.[Note: We have a striking picture of the corrupt state of Rome, especially in the work of Salvianus, composed in the first half of the fifth century, de gub. dei. In B. VI. c. 14, he says: Quae spes Christiania plebibus ante deum est, quandoquidem ex illo tempore in urbibus Romanis haec mala non sunt, ex quo in Barbarorum jure esse coeperunt? Ac per hoc vitiositas et impuritas quasi germanitas quaedam est Romanorum hominum et quasi mena atque natura, quia ibi praecipue vitia ubicunque Romana. In B. VII. p. 134: Prope idem omnes, paene unus gurges, omnium gula; paene unum lupanar omnium vita. See also p. 137, and again, p. 155: Minime minim est, si respublica Romana aliquando patitur quod jamdudum meretur. Haec impuritas in Romanis et ante Christi evangelium esse coepit, et, quod gravius est, nec post Evangelia cessavit.] Materials of another kind had to be sought for the formation of a Christian state; and these presented themselves in the people of the ten kings of the Apocalypse, the Germanic tribes.

But that in the midst of the divine judgments, which alighted on the whole Roman state, as being now incapable of deliverance and full of corruption, the protecting grace of God should manifest itself in the case of individuals—this was expressly announced beforehand in the Apocalypse. For it contains an address, in ch. Revelation 18:4, to the people of Christ, who might be in Rome. At the same time in this book a veil is spread over the future existence of a Christian Roman state, which is to be explained on the ground, that this state was not to be a truly Christian one. That the grace of God, however, did really manifest itself in the way of granting deliverances, may be proved from many remarkable facts in history.[Note: Orosius says, in B. II. c. 3: Hic et Christiani fuerunt qui parcerent, et Christiani proper quorum memoriam et in quorum memoria parceretur. And again, in B. VII. Ci. 39, in regard to the taking of Rome by Alarich: Adest Alaricus, trepidam Romam obsidet, turbat, irrumpit. Dato tamen praecepto prius, ut si qui in sancta loca praecipusque in sanctorum Apostolorum Petri et Pauli basillcae confugissent, hos imprimie inviolatos securosque esse sinerent.] To this also it is to be ascribed, that amid the full and complete destruction, which in accordance with the prophecy befel Rome, in her imperial power and majesty, as the great whore, "the great city, which had dominion over the kings of the earth," still the city itself, which was so often on the brink of entire destruction, continued to stand. It was otherwise with ancient Babylon, whose place can now hardly be discovered, because it possessed none of God's people.

What was historically realized in the course of centuries is in the prophecy compressed into one scene. This prophetical mode of representation was not understood by many of the older expositors, who perceived that imperial Rome was the object of the threatening. Overlooking the difference between prophecy and history, they supposed, that in the history some single event was to be pitched upon, which the Seer must have had in his eye. Thus Grotius points to the taking of Rome under Attila, Bossuet to the taking of Rome under Alarich. While they thus set in the place of the whole process that developed itself in the history of the world a single section of the process, they gave to the advocates of the view, which refers all to the Papacy, an important advantage, which these understood well how to employ. See Vitringa, for example, in his closing remarks on ch. 18. With such weapons, the interpretation that applied the prophecy to Papal Rome, was not to be driven from the field.

Ch. Revelation 19:5-10. In these verses we have the porch to the building of Revelation 19:11 to Revelation 20:15. A voice from the throne, the voice of the Lord of the church, calls upon the whole people of God to praise him, Revelation 19:5. The church of the Lord responds to this call; by faith anticipating what is to come, she rejoices in the thought, that the kingdom of God has entered, that the marriage of the Lamb has come, that the bride appears in suitable apparel, Revelation 19:6-8. The angel who stood at the side of St John, affirms the truth of the facts, which form the theme of the heavenly song of praise, Revelation 19:9. John is gladdened by this glorious message, testifies his profound regard to him, who had communicated it on behalf of himself and the church, and the angel returns his acknowledgment, Revelation 19:10.

We cannot here think of a continuation of the preceding song of praise, which was raised over the destruction of Babylon, seen in vision as already accomplished. For, apart from the difference in the contents, the preceding scene was brought to a proper close. But we find in other parts of the Apocalypse songs of praise, which anticipate what is to come, comp. Revelation 15:2-4, Revelation 11:15-18.

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Bibliographical Information
Hengstenberg, Ernst. "Commentary on Revelation 19:4". Ernst Hengstenberg on John, Revelation, Ecclesiastes, Ezekiel & Psalms. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/heg/revelation-19.html.

Whedon's Commentary on the Bible

4.To the song in heaven there now comes a profound response. It is from the twenty-four elders and from the four living ones, who commenced their session at chapter 6. The elders rise from their seats and prostrate themselves before the throne. They give their responsive amen, and a third utterance, to the alleluias of the great voice in heaven.

 

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Whedon, Daniel. "Commentary on Revelation 19:4". "Whedon's Commentary on the Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/whe/revelation-19.html. 1874-1909.

The Expositor's Greek Testament

Revelation 19:4. After the long interlude of judgments on the earth, the and (incidentally mentioned in Revelation 11:16, Revelation 14:3) re-appear upon the scene, though for the last time, to take part in the chorus of praise over Rome’s ruin. The cradle-song of the future is the dirge of Rome. The drama now centres mainly round the city of God, and the earlier temple-scenery of the Apocalypse (Revelation 19:4-11, Revelation 15:5 to Revelation 16:17) passes almost wholly out of sight.— : the initial (and primitive) use of , social (e.g., 1 Kings 1:36) as well as liturgical, which gravely assents to the preceding words of another speaker.

 

 

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Bibliographical Information
Nicol, W. Robertson, M.A., L.L.D. "Commentary on Revelation 19:4". The Expositor's Greek Testament. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/egt/revelation-19.html. 1897-1910.