Verse-by-Verse Bible Commentary

Revelation 19:6

Then I heard something like the voice of a great multitude and like the sound of many waters and like the sound of mighty peals of thunder, saying, "Hallelujah! For the Lord our God, the Almighty, reigns.
New American Standard Version

Bible Study Resources

Concordances:
Nave's Topical Bible - God Continued...;   Praise;   Vision;   Scofield Reference Index - Bride;   Thompson Chain Reference - Almighty;   Attributes of God;   Future, the;   God's;   Heavenly;   Host;   Joy;   King;   Kingdom;   Kingdom, Spiritual;   Kingship, Divine;   Many Saved;   Multitude;   Omnipotence;   Power;   Redeemed, the;   Saved, the;   Sovereignty of God;   Spiritual;   Weakness-Power;  
Dictionaries:
American Tract Society Bible Dictionary - Hallelujah;   Easton Bible Dictionary - Alleluia;   Hallelujah;   Fausset Bible Dictionary - Alleluia;   Obadiah;   Tongues, Gift of;   Turtle (Dove);   Holman Bible Dictionary - Revelation, the Book of;   Hastings' Dictionary of the Bible - Hallelujah;   Hastings' Dictionary of the New Testament - Armour (2);   Atonement (2);   God;   Hallelujah;   Patmos ;   Thunder ;   Water ;   Morrish Bible Dictionary - Allelula;   Omnipotent;   People's Dictionary of the Bible - Antichrist;   Smith Bible Dictionary - Alleluia,;   Wilson's Dictionary of Bible Types - Voice;   Watson's Biblical & Theological Dictionary - Alleluia;  
Encyclopedias:
International Standard Bible Encyclopedia - Omnipotence;   Reign;   Revelation of John:;   The Jewish Encyclopedia - Bat Ḳ;  
Devotionals:
Daily Light on the Daily Path - Devotion for October 6;  

Adam Clarke Commentary

The voice of a great multitude - This is the catholic or universal Church of God gathered from among the Gentiles.

The Lord God Omnipotent reigneth - Εβασιλευσε Κυριος ὁ Θεος ὁ παντοκρατωρ . Many excellent MSS., most of the versions, with Andreas and Arethas, the two most ancient commentators on this book, add ἡμων, our, after ὁ Θεος· and according to this the text reads emphatically thus: Our Lord God, the Almighty, reigneth. What consolation to every genuine Christian that His Lord and God is the Almighty, and that this Almighty never trusts the reins of the government of the universe out of his hands! What therefore has his Church to fear?

Copyright Statement
These files are public domain.
Bibliographical Information
Clarke, Adam. "Commentary on Revelation 19:6". "The Adam Clarke Commentary". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/acc/revelation-19.html. 1832.

Albert Barnes' Notes on the Whole Bible

And I heard as it were the voice of a great multitude - In Revelation 19:1 he says that he “heard a great voice of much people”; here he says he “heard as it were a voice of a great multitude.” That is, in the former case he heard a shout that he at once recognized as the voice of a great multitude of persons; here he says that he heard a sound not distinctly recognized at first as such, but which resembled such a shout of a multitude. In the former case it was distinct; here it was confused - bearing a resemblance to the sound of roaring waters, or to muttering thunder, but less distinct than the former. This phrase would imply:

(a)alouder sound; and,

(b)that the sound was more remote, and therefore less clear and distinct.

And as the voice of many waters - The comparison of the voices of a host of people with the roar of mighty waters is not uncommon in the Scriptures. See the notes on Isaiah 17:12-13. So in Homer:

“The monarch spoke, and straight a murmur rose,

Loud as the surges when the tempest blows;

That dash‘d on broken rocks tumultuous roar,

And foam and thunder on the stony shore.”

And as the voice of mighty thunderings - The loud, deep, heavy voice of thunder. The distant shouts of a multitude may properly be represented by the sound of heavy thunder.

Saying, Alleluia - See the notes on Revelation 19:1. This is the fourth time in which this is uttered as expressive of the joy of the heavenly hosts in view of the overthrow of the enemies of the church. The occasion will be worthy of this emphatic expression of joy.

For the Lord God omnipotent reigneth - Yahweh - God Almighty - the true God. The meaning is, that as the last enemy of the church is destroyed, he now truly reigns. This is the result of his power, and therefore it is proper that he should be praised as the “omnipotent” or “Almighty God” - for he has shown that he can overcome all his enemies, and bring the world to his feet.

Copyright Statement
These files are public domain.
Bibliographical Information
Barnes, Albert. "Commentary on Revelation 19:6". "Barnes' Notes on the Whole Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/bnb/revelation-19.html. 1870.

John Gill's Exposition of the Whole Bible

And I heard, as it were, the voice of a great multitude,.... Even of all the servants of the Lord, and them that fear him, small and great; a vast multitude of converted Jews and Gentiles, in the several parts of the world, who in answer to the voice out of the throne, which came with great power and energy, lift up their voices in praise to God, both for their own conversion, and for the downfall of Babylon:

and as the voice of many waters: falling down in a descent, or in rough and rocky places, which make a great noise, and is heard afar off; and such must be the united voice of so great a multitude of converts as will be gathered together everywhere at this time: the same metaphor is used of the voice of Christ in Revelation 1:15

and as the voice of mighty thunderings; violent claps of it, which are sometimes so loud that they rend the very heavens, and strike the inhabitants of the earth with the utmost consternation: these are the same voices which will be heard in the church when the seventh angel sounds his trumpet, Revelation 11:15

saying, Alleluia; or praise ye the Lord; they will call upon one another to celebrate the praises of God, on account of the above things, in the same manner, and using the same word the people in heaven, and the four and twenty elders and four living creatures, do; and this is the fourth time the word is used in this context, and confirms the observation that has been made, that this vision refers to the conversion of the Jews, which will quickly follow the destruction of Rome: and the Jews themselves have a notion, that when Rome is destroyed the Messiah will come; and so he will in his spiritual reign. They sayF15Tzeror Hammor, fol. 148. 1. ,

"our redemption will be immediately upon the destruction of Rome.'

And againF16Tzeror Hammor, fol. 163. 4. ,

"the root of our redemption depends upon the destruction of Rome.'

The reason for their saying "hallelujah" follows,

for the Lord God omnipotent reigneth; by whom is meant the Lord Jesus Christ, who is Lord of all, and God over all, blessed for ever, and is the Almighty; and though he was set up as King over the holy hill of Zion, and has reigned over the church in every age, and came as King into this world, though his kingdom was not of it, and at his resurrection was declared Lord and Christ, and his kingdom was then more manifest, and he has ever since displayed his kingly power in defending his church, and defeating the enemies of it; yet now will he reign more visibly and gloriously, his kingdom will be enlarged from one end of the earth to the other, and he will be King over all the earth, which will occasion great joy to Jews and Gentiles; see Psalm 47:1 and See Gill on Revelation 11:17.

Copyright Statement
The New John Gill's Exposition of the Entire Bible Modernised and adapted for the computer by Larry Pierce of Online Bible. All Rights Reserved, Larry Pierce, Winterbourne, Ontario.
A printed copy of this work can be ordered from: The Baptist Standard Bearer, 1 Iron Oaks Dr, Paris, AR, 72855
Bibliographical Information
Gill, John. "Commentary on Revelation 19:6". "The New John Gill Exposition of the Entire Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/geb/revelation-19.html. 1999.

Geneva Study Bible

And I heard 6 as it were the voice of a great multitude, and as the voice of many waters, and as the voice of mighty thunderings, saying, Alleluia: for the Lord God omnipotent reigneth.

(6) Outside the temple in heaven.
Copyright Statement
These files are public domain.
Text Courtesy of BibleSupport.com. Used by Permission.
Bibliographical Information
Beza, Theodore. "Commentary on Revelation 19:6". "The 1599 Geneva Study Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/gsb/revelation-19.html. 1599-1645.

Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible

many waters — Contrast the “many waters” on which the whore sitteth (Revelation 17:1). This verse is the hearty response to the stirring call, “Alleluia! Praise our God” (Revelation 19:4, Revelation 19:5).

the Lord God omnipotentGreek,the Omnipotent.”

reigneth — literally, “reigned”: hence reigneth once for all. His reign is a fact already established. Babylon, the harlot, was one great hindrance to His reign being recognized. Her overthrow now clears the way for His advent to reign; therefore, not merely Rome, but the whole of Christendom in so far as it is carnal and compromised Christ for the world, is comprehended in the term “harlot.” The beast hardly arises when he at once “goeth into perdition”: so that Christ is prophetically considered as already reigning, so soon does His advent follow the judgment on the harlot.

Copyright Statement
These files are a derivative of an electronic edition prepared from text scanned by Woodside Bible Fellowship.
This expanded edition of the Jameison-Faussett-Brown Commentary is in the public domain and may be freely used and distributed.
Bibliographical Information
Jamieson, Robert, D.D.; Fausset, A. R.; Brown, David. "Commentary on Revelation 19:6". "Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/jfb/revelation-19.html. 1871-8.

Robertson's Word Pictures in the New Testament

As it were the voice (ως πωνηνhōs phōnēn). Used here three times, as once in Revelation 19:1: once of a second great multitude (οχλου πολλουochlou pollou), not of angels as in Revelation 19:1, but the innumerable multitude of the redeemed of Revelation 7:9; then “of many waters” (υδατων πολλωνhudatōn pollōn) as in Revelation 1:15; Revelation 14:2 like “the roar of a cataract” (Swete); and once more “the voice of mighty thunders” (βροντων ισχυρωνbrontōn ischurōn) as in Revelation 6:1; Revelation 10:3.

Saying (λεγοντωνlegontōn). The best attested reading, genitive plural of λεγωlegō agreeing with οχλουochlou (genitive singular), for roll of the waters and the roar of the thunders were not articulate. Some MSS. have λεγοντεςlegontes (nominative plural) referring also to οχλουochlou though nominative instead of genitive. The fourth “Hallelujah” comes from this vast multitude.

The Lord our God, the Almighty (Κυριοσ ο τεοσ ο παντοκρατωρKuriosεβασιλευσενho theosβασιλευωho pantokratōr). For this designation of God see also Revelation 1:8; Revelation 4:8; Revelation 11:17; Revelation 15:3; Revelation 16:7, Revelation 16:14; Revelation 19:15; Revelation 21:22. Cf. deus et dominus noster used of the Roman emperor.

Reigneth (ebasileusen). First aorist active of basileuō Probably ingressive prophetic aorist, “God became king” in fulness of power on earth with the fall of the world power.

Copyright Statement
The Robertson's Word Pictures of the New Testament. Copyright Broadman Press 1932,33, Renewal 1960. All rights reserved. Used by permission of Broadman Press (Southern Baptist Sunday School Board)
Bibliographical Information
Robertson, A.T. "Commentary on Revelation 19:6". "Robertson's Word Pictures of the New Testament". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/rwp/revelation-19.html. Broadman Press 1932,33. Renewal 1960.

Wesley's Explanatory Notes

And I heard as it were the voice of a great multitude, and as the voice of many waters, and as the voice of mighty thunderings, saying, Alleluia: for the Lord God omnipotent reigneth.

And I heard the voice of a great multitude. So all his servants did praise him.

The Almighty reigneth — More eminently and gloriously than ever before.

Copyright Statement
These files are public domain and are a derivative of an electronic edition that is available on the Christian Classics Ethereal Library Website.
Bibliographical Information
Wesley, John. "Commentary on Revelation 19:6". "John Wesley's Explanatory Notes on the Whole Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/wen/revelation-19.html. 1765.

John Trapp Complete Commentary

6 And I heard as it were the voice of a great multitude, and as the voice of many waters, and as the voice of mighty thunderings, saying, Alleluia: for the Lord God omnipotent reigneth.

Ver. 6. And I heard as it were the voice] See how morigerous the saints are, and ready-hearted to obey God. No sooner are they bidden to praise God, but they are at it, dicto citius. See the like Psalms 27:8.

Saying, Alleluia] This was the Hosanna Rabba, as the Jews call it; the victoria Halleluiatica, as the old Britons called their victory over the Saxons. The story is this. Under the conduct of Germanus (here in Britain), who came over from France to subdue the Pelagian heresy (which then prevailed among us), against a mighty army of Saxons and Picts, the Britons prevailed only by the three times pronouncing the word Hallelujah; which voice echoing and redoubling from the acclamation of his followers among the mountains, near to which the enemy had encamped, frightened them and won the conquest, upon which it was called victoria Halleluiatica. (Dr Ussier, de Brit. Eccles. Primord. p. 332.)

Reigneth] i.e. He now maketh it appear that he reigneth, which Averroes and some other of the world’s wizards doubted, yea, denied; because they saw bad men prosper, good men suffer.

Copyright Statement
These files are public domain.
Text Courtesy of BibleSupport.com. Used by Permission.
Bibliographical Information
Trapp, John. "Commentary on Revelation 19:6". John Trapp Complete Commentary. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/jtc/revelation-19.html. 1865-1868.

Sermon Bible Commentary

Revelation 19:6

The Marriage Supper of the Lamb.

I. God's people are looked at in two ways. First, as forming a great body: the body of Christ, the Church. In this light the whole Church is the bride of the Lamb. Secondly, as a great multitude of separate believers, regarded now as guests at the great marriage supper of their Lord. Both parts of this sacred vision have their full counterpart in other portions of Scripture. On the one hand, we find many passages in which the whole Church together is spoken of as the bride of Christ, the Queen who is to reign by the King's side in heaven; on the other, there is no lack of passages which speak of the great marriage feast at which Christian people, now regarded one by one, are to sit down to meat in the kingdom of heaven, received to the marriage supper of the King, each in his own wedding garment of repentance and faith.

II. As the Church is represented, on the one hand, as being one, the bride of Christ, the wife of the Lamb, who hath made herself ready, so we must take great care to keep in the Church, to cling to the unity of the Church, lest we should have no part nor portion in the unspeakable blessedness of the bride of Christ. As, on the other hand, Christian people are represented as being received one by one to the marriage feast of the Lamb, so we must remember that, besides clinging to the Church of God and forming part of the oneness of the queenly bride of Christ, we must ourselves be fit guests for that heavenly feast, and live and die with that clean and white array, that wedding garment of repentance and faith, which alone can give us admission to it,

G. Moberly, Brighstone Sermons, p. 292.


Copyright Statement
These files are public domain.
Text Courtesy of BibleSupport.com. Used by Permission.
Bibliographical Information
Nicoll, William R. "Commentary on Revelation 19:6". "Sermon Bible Commentary". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/sbc/revelation-19.html.

Expository Notes with Practical Observations on the New Testament

In the former verses an exhortation was given to all the saints to abound in the duty of thanksgiving; here we find them unanimously addressing themselves to the practice and peformance of that duty; and accordingly they are called here a great multitiude, their voice like many waters for unity, and like mighty thunderings, denoting that zeal and fervour which is in their thanksgivings.

Where note, How exceedingly the church doth rejoice and triumph, not so much in Babylon's ruin, as in the glory of God advanced, and as his own kingdom is promoted by it.

Observe, 2. A superadded ground and reason for this extraordinary joy and rejoicing, For the marriage of the Lamb is come, and his wife hath made herself ready.

By the marriage of the Lamb, Mr. Mede and Dr. More do understand the conversion of the Jews; by the Lamb's wife, the nation of the Jews, so called in regard of that relation which they stand in to God, by virtue of the covenant; and she is said to have made herself ready, namely, by the wedding-garment of faith, to accept of her formerly despised Bridegroom.

Note, That it is probably conjectured by some, that the conversion of the Jews shall soon follow the destruction of antichrist, for his idolatry and persecution are great scandals to the Jews, and mighty stumbling-blocks in the way of their conversion.

And whereas it is added, That it was granted to her to be arrayed in fine linen, the words do seem to import, that the Jews shall in due time be brought in to be clothed with it, and that an holy emulation shall be found between the Gentiles and them, which shall most and best adorn the profession of the gospel.

From the whole note, How the church is called Christ's wife. Christ and she are here betrothed to each other, but at the great day the marriage will be consummated.

Note farther, The church's spiritual nakedness in herself considered, It was granted to her to be arrayed in fine linen; she had it not of herself, but it was put on by Christ; he decks and dresses his own bride with the ornaments of grace here, and glory hereafter, that he may present it to himself a glorious church, without spot or wrinkle, holy, and without blemish.

Copyright Statement
These files are public domain.
Text Courtesy of BibleSupport.com. Used by Permission.
Bibliographical Information
Burkitt, William. "Commentary on Revelation 19:6". Expository Notes with Practical Observations on the New Testament. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/wbc/revelation-19.html. 1700-1703.

Charles Simeon's Horae Homileticae

DISCOURSE: 2522

GOD’S GOVERNMENT, A GROUND OF JOY

Revelation 19:6. Alleluia: for the Lord God Omnipotent reigneth.

IN the government of Jehovah all acquiesce, so far as relates to his conferring of rewards upon his obedient people: but from his inflicting of punishment on the disobedient the minds of the generality revolt; because they have formed to themselves an idea of a God whose mercy swallows up, as it were, all his other attributes. But justice is, in its place, as honourable to the Deity as mercy: and the exercise of it, towards those who shall die in their sins, will be a subject of praise and thanksgiving through all the hosts of heaven, no less than the exercise of mercy itself. The whole preceding chapter proclaims the destruction of the mystical Babylon, that is, of Rome; whose abominations have reached unto heaven [Note: Revelation 18:5.], and whose persecutions of the saints have been long crying out for vengeance against her [Note: Revelation 18:24.]. At the execution of God’s judgments upon her, all heaven is represented as rejoicing: and the one song which is heard through all the regions of the blest, is “Alleluia! for true and righteous are God’s judgments: for he hath judged the great whore, which did corrupt the earth with her fornication, and hath avenged the blood of his servants at her hand. And again they said, Alleluia: and her smoke rose up for ever and ever [Note: ver. 1–3.].” In this, all on earth are called to unite: and the entire chorus of the assembled universe is “as the voice of many waters, and as the voice of mighty thunderings, saying, “Alleluia! for the Lord God Omnipotent reigneth.” Connected with the ruin of antichrist is the diffusion of the Redeemer’s kingdom throughout the world: for then will be the marriage of the Lamb, and his taking of the Church into a visible union with himself, and his consummation of her happiness. Then will the Lord God Omnipotent reign on earth; and nothing but hallelujahs be heard throughout the universe. Let me then call upon you, as it were by a voice from heaven, to commence this song,

I. As an expression of grateful acknowledgment—

Certain it is, that we have abundant ground for this song in this present world

[Let us look back to the circumstances of our birth; the time, when the Sun of Righteousness had arisen upon the earth; and the place, where his rays were shining forth in their meridian splendour. This can be traced to nothing but God’s sovereign will and pleasure: for it is to Him alone that we owe it, that we were not born amidst all the errors of Popish delusion; or in a heathen land, under the darkness of Pagan superstition, or of Mahometan imposture.

Let us survey our whole life; our dangers, both seen and unseen; and our deliverances, which nothing but an overruling Providence could ever have effected. Particularly, let us view our temptations to sin, and the wonderful preservations which we have experienced; sometimes, perhaps, through the remonstrances of conscience; sometimes through the intervention of some seasonable occurrence; and sometimes through a mere want of opportunity to execute the secret wishes of our hearts. Let us, in this respect, compare ourselves with, those who, having been less favourably circumstanced in relation to their temptations and restraints, have been left to carry into effect the evil dictates of their hearts; and we shall, if we know any thing of ourselves, find abundant occasion for thanksgivings to our God.

If, through the grace of God, we have been brought to the knowledge of Christ, and been made partakers of his salvation, shall we not, in that case, pour forth our acclamations and hosannahs? Or, if we be yet in our unconverted state, shall we not praise him, that “space is yet given us for repentance?” If there were no other ground of praise than this, that we are not at this moment lifting up our eyes in the torments of hell, and crying in vain for a drop of water to cool our tongues, there is not one amongst us who may not well lift up his voice, even as thunder itself, in hallelujahs to the Lord God Omnipotent, who, by his sovereign power and grace, has distinguished us from the millions who are gone beyond a possibility of redemption.]

And shall we not burst forth into this song, the very instant that we enter into the invisible world

[There we shall have a complete view of all the dangers to which we ever were exposed, and all the deliverances that ever were vouchsafed unto us here below. Our feelings will be not unlike to those of Joshua and the Israelites after their establishment in the land of Canaan. They doubtless would look back on all their way, from the time that Moses had come to Egypt for their deliverance: they would call to remembrance the many successive plagues that had been inflicted on that land for the humiliation of Pharaoh, and the terrible slaughter of the first-born that had at last constrained him to consent: they would have strongly painted also before their eyes the dangers to which they had been exposed, when, with the sea before them, and mountains and morasses on either side, the enraged army of Pharaoh pressed upon their rear. They would, in particular, review their passing of the Red Sea as on dry ground, and the total destruction of their pursuers in the returning waters. In a word, they would have before their eyes the diversified events during the whole of their sojourning in the wilderness, the mercies and the judgments of every kind, till at last they were brought in safety to the possession of the promised land. Nor would they be unmindful of the myriads, who, through their unbelief, had fallen short of that rest; and of the distinguishing favours which they themselves had experienced at the hands of God. Thus, I say, will our souls, if ever they be permitted to reach the heavenly land, behold at one glance all the wonders of grace and mercy which they have experienced in this vale of tears: and, O with what rapture will they adore and magnify their God! Methinks the deafening sound of cataracts, or the terrific roar of thunders, will be as nothing, in comparison of the hallelujahs that shall burst from the millions of the redeemed at that day.]

But there is another view, in which the words of my text may be considered; namely,

II. As an effusion of confident anticipation—

This, indeed, is the precise view in which they should be understood; for Rome is not yet destroyed; and, consequently, the “alleluias” are uttered only in the prospect of that event. And we too, with a prospective regard to future events, may utter this song: we may utter it,

1. In reference to the world at large—

[Most awful is the state of the world at this time. Revolutions and counter-revolutions are occurring in mighty kingdoms, and in rapid succession: and no one can foresee what their end shall be. But it is a sweet consolatory thought, that God reigneth, and is accomplishing his own designs by these unconscious and unwitting agents. In the rise and fall of the four great empires, God wrought his own sovereign and unerring will. Cyrus little thought whose instrument he was, in the subversion of the Chaldean empire; nor did the mighty conquerors, who, in succession, reduced the Persian, Grecian, and Roman empires, know whose decrees they executed, or whose purposes they fulfilled. So, at this time, contending nations little imagine that there is One on high who makes use of them for the effecting of his own purposes; and who will infallibly direct their ambitious and selfish projects for the attainment of his own ends. Nothing can appear more independent of the Deity than “winds and storms:” yet they, all of them without exception, “fulfil his will:” and truly this may well compose our minds, in relation to the issue of these events: and whilst others are filled with terrors, we may calmly and confidently say, “Alleluia! for the Lord God Omnipotent reigneth.”]

2. In reference to the Church of God—

[This is at a low ebb. Whole countries, where religion once flourished, are now as destitute of it as if the Gospel had never been proclaimed unto them. Even the Churches of Asia, once so distinguished by the favour of Heaven, have their candlesticks removed, and are now immersed in total darkness. And Christendom itself is in a very dark degraded state; few, very few, experiencing the power of godliness, or adorning in any respect the principles they profess. But shall the light of divine truth be wholly extinguished, or the powers of darkness ultimately prevail against the Church of Christ? No: we are assured that “the gates of hell shall never prevail against it.” Not all the efforts of God’s enemies, therefore, need intimidate us, or partial failures tempt us to despond: for “God’s counsel shall stand; and He will do all his will.” God sees the impious conspiracies of the wicked; and he laughs them to scorn; saying, “Yet have I set my King upon my holy hill of Zion [Note: Psalms 2:1-6.].” And the time is surely coming, when “all the kingdoms of the world shall become the kingdom of the Lord and of his Christ:” so that, with as much confidence as if we saw this already actually existing, we may celebrate it with the loudest hallelujahs to God and to the Lamb.]

3. In reference to our own souls—

[Many discouragements do we meet with in our way; so that we are ready at times to say, like David, “I shall one day perish by the hands of my great enemy.” But it is our privilege to know, that “God has laid help for us upon One that is mighty,” and that “greater is He that is in us than he that is in the world.” See the spirit of David, when replying to the boasts of the self-confident Goliath: such should be our spirit, in the midst of all our conflicts: nor should we doubt the issue of the contest, when we go forth in the name of the God of Israel, though we have nothing but a sling and a stone wherewith to oppose our mighty adversary. In a certain prospect of being “more than conquerors through Him that loveth us,” we may adopt the language of the prophet, “The Lord God will help me; therefore shall I not be confounded: therefore have I set my face like a flint; and I know that I shall not be ashamed. He is near that justifieth me: who will contend with me? let us stand together: who is mine adversary? let him come near to me. Behold, the Lord God will help me: who is he that shall condemn me? lo, they all shall wax old, as a garment: the moth shall eat them up [Note: Isaiah 50:7-9.].” Such was also the Apostle’s boast [Note: Romans 8:34-39.]—: and such also may be ours. “Let the floods lift up their waves ever so high, He who sitteth on high is mightier [Note: Psalms 93:1-4.]:” and therefore, in a certain dependence upon him, we may go on our way, assured of victory, and saying, “Alleluia! for the Lord God Omnipotent reigneth.”]

See then, beloved, what ground we have in this passage,

1. For submission—

[There will doubtless be many untoward circumstances, which, at the time, will prove very afflictive to our minds. But we must never forget, that, however fortuitous they may appear, or with whatever hostile intention they may be contrived, they are all ordered by unerring wisdom and unbounded love: and, however bitter they may be, we should say, “The cup which my Father hath given me, shall I not drink it?” We should remember, that, though “clouds and darkness may be round about him, righteousness and judgment are the basis of his throne.” Jacob’s complaint, “All these things are against me,” was far from being justified by the event: for the very events which he complained of, were the means ordained for the preservation of his whole family. Only bear in mind, that God rules on high; and then, whatever may occur, you will say, “It is the Lord: let him do what seemeth him good.”]

2. For gratitude—

[See the hand of God in every thing; and your mouth will be ever filled with praise. What is painful, will be received as a token of his love; and what is pleasing, as a fruit of his favour. But, above all, the security which will be felt in the soul, and that in the midst of this tumultuous and ensnaring world—methinks, in the contemplation of this, a man’s songs of praise should be as loud and constant as those in heaven. Dear brethren, think of this: nothing is done, which does not proceed from the hand of God; nor shall any thing be done, which shall not “work together far your good.” Rejoice then, and shout for joy: and let your Alleluias go forth unto your God day and night.]

3. For affiance—

[Put yourselves, and all your concerns, into the hands of your Almighty Friend: and fear not, though all the men on earth, and all the fiends in hell, should be confederate against you. If you cannot comprehend God’s dealings with you now, be content; and say, “What I know not now, I shall know hereafter.” Wait, to “see the end of the Lord:” and if, like Job, you are afflicted now, expect that, like him, you shall ere long see reason to glorify your God for all his dispensations, however dark, however afflictive. Of this you may be assured, that they who wait on him shall find him ready to help; and “those who trust in him shall not be ashamed or confounded world without end.”]

Copyright Statement
These files are public domain.
Text Courtesy of BibleSupport.com. Used by Permission.
Bibliographical Information
Simeon, Charles. "Commentary on Revelation 19:6". Charles Simeon's Horae Homileticae. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/shh/revelation-19.html. 1832.

Matthew Poole's English Annotations on the Holy Bible

By this multitude most understand the church. Some understand the Jews as well as the Gentiles, supposing that they shall be before this time converted and added to the church. Others think their conversion is the marriage spoken of in the next verse. The saints do not rejoice in the ruin of their adversaries, but in the glory of God advanced by it, and as his kingdom is by it promoted.

Copyright Statement
These files are public domain.
Text Courtesy of BibleSupport.com. Used by Permission.
Bibliographical Information
Poole, Matthew, "Commentary on Revelation 19:6". Matthew Poole's English Annotations on the Holy Bible. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/mpc/revelation-19.html. 1685.

Alexander MacLaren's Expositions of Holy Scripture

Вседержитель Или «Всемогущий». Встречается в Откровении 9 раз для называния Бога (ср. ст. 15; 1:8; 4:8; 11:17; 15:3; 16:7, 14; 21:22). Великое восхваление многочисленной толпы звучит как массивные удары волн.

Copyright Statement
These files are public domain.
Text Courtesy of BibleSupport.com. Used by Permission.
Bibliographical Information
MacLaren, Alexander. "Commentary on Revelation 19:6". Alexander MacLaren's Expositions of Holy Scripture. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/mac/revelation-19.html.

Justin Edwards' Family Bible New Testament

Hearty acquiescence in all the dealings of God is the duty of all creatures, and the delight of all the holy.

Copyright Statement
These files are public domain.
Text Courtesy of BibleSupport.com. Used by Permission.
Bibliographical Information
Edwards, Justin. "Commentary on Revelation 19:6". "Family Bible New Testament". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/fam/revelation-19.html. American Tract Society. 1851.

Coffman Commentaries on the Bible

And I heard as it were the voice of a great multitude, and as the voice of many waters, and as the voice of mighty thunders, saying, Hallelujah: for the Lord our God, the Almighty, reigneth.

This, together with Revelation 19:7, constitutes a proleptic or anticipatory announcement of the "Marriage of the Lamb," an event that does not take place until the Second Advent.[11]

The Lord our God, the Almighty reigneth ... This is grossly misunderstood when it is thought to mean that God "reigneth" only after the harlot, the beast, and the dragon are destroyed. The word "reigneth" is the eternal present. Let any one in doubt go back to Revelation 4 and Revelation 5 and read them again. God has never left his throne.

The Almighty ... This is a characteristic designation for God in this prophecy.

It occurs ten times in the New Testament; once it is in an Old Testament quotation (2 Corinthians 6:18); and the other nine times are in Revelation (Revelation 1:8; 4:8; 11:17; 15:3; 16:7,14; 19:6,15; 21:22).[12]

The Almighty God is eternal, and there has never been the fraction of an instant when he was not in complete and universal control of the entire universe, nor has there ever been the slightest interruption of his eternal reign. Oh to be sure, rebels have flaunted his laws; but they never broke any of them! They merely illustrated them! "The Scriptures cannot be broken" (John 10:35). See full comment on this in my Commentary on John, pp. 265-267.

The first clause in this verse is "John's usual way of showing a new division."[13] "The first hymn (Revelation 19:1-5) looks backward; this one (Revelation 19:6-10) looks forward."[14]

[11] George Eldon Ladd, A Commentary on the Revelation of John (Grand Rapids, Michigan: Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Company, 1972), p. 245.

[12] William Barclay, op. cit., p. 173.

[13] Isbon T. Beckwith, op. cit., p. 725.

[14] Ibid.

Copyright Statement
Coffman Commentaries reproduced by permission of Abilene Christian University Press, Abilene, Texas, USA. All other rights reserved.
Bibliographical Information
Coffman, James Burton. "Commentary on Revelation 19:6". "Coffman Commentaries on the Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/bcc/revelation-19.html. Abilene Christian University Press, Abilene, Texas, USA. 1983-1999.

Expository Notes of Dr. Thomas Constable

This praise followed and probably included that of the angels. Together all God"s servants in heaven now praised Him for the fact that He reigns, after destroying Babylon. In this proleptic statement they look forward to what is about to happen, namely, Jesus Christ"s return to earth and the beginning of His eternal reign. [Note: Beckwith, p726; Robertson, 6:449; Ladd, p246.] Here He receives the title "the Lord our God, the Almighty." This praise is appropriately great since Messiah"s earthly reign is the climax of history. Thus John heard a voice that sounded like multitudes of people, the roar of a huge waterfall, and loud claps of thunder announcing its arrival (cf. Ezekiel 1:24; Ezekiel 43:2; Daniel 10:6). The singers are evidently angels (cf. Revelation 6:1; Revelation 10:1-4; Revelation 11:15-17; Revelation 14:2).

Copyright Statement
These files are public domain.
Text Courtesy of BibleSupport.com. Used by Permission.
Bibliographical Information
Constable, Thomas. DD. "Commentary on Revelation 19:6". "Expository Notes of Dr. Thomas Constable". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/dcc/revelation-19.html. 2012.

Schaff's Popular Commentary on the New Testament

Revelation 19:6. And I heard as it were a voice of a great multitude, and as a voice of many waters, and as a voice of mighty thunders, saying, Hallelujah, for the Lord hath taken to him his kingdom, even our God, the Almighty. The song is new, celebrating something greater and higher than the last, not merely judgment on foes, but the full taking possession of His kingdom by the Lord.

Copyright Statement
These files are public domain.
Text Courtesy of BibleSupport.com. Used by Permission.
Bibliographical Information
Schaff, Philip. "Commentary on Revelation 19:6". "Schaff's Popular Commentary on the New Testament". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/scn/revelation-19.html. 1879-90.

George Haydock's Catholic Bible Commentary

The voice of a great multitude. Menochius applies this voice to the multitude of Angels and saints, which from its strength may be compared to the voice of rushing waters, and because of the terror with which it strikes the wicked. Pastorini understands by this voice of many waters, the voices of many Angels that preside over the nations, denoted by waters, which had all before groaned under the tyranny of antichrist; and the voice of great thunders, that of the Angel who presides over fire, which, as employed in military engines, by its explosion resembles thunder. It must be observed that the latter author refers it to the last stage of the world.

Copyright Statement
These files are public domain.
Text Courtesy of BibleSupport.com. Used by Permission.
Bibliographical Information
Haydock, George Leo. "Commentary on Revelation 19:6". "George Haydock's Catholic Bible Commentary". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/hcc/revelation-19.html. 1859.

E.W. Bullinger's Companion Bible Notes

mighty. Compare App-172.

God. App-98. Most of the texts read "our God".

Omnipotent = The Omnipotent. App-98. "Almighty" in Revelation 19:15.

Copyright Statement
These files are public domain.
Text Courtesy of BibleSupport.com. Used by Permission.
Bibliographical Information
Bullinger, Ethelbert William. "Commentary on Revelation 19:6". "E.W. Bullinger's Companion bible Notes". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/bul/revelation-19.html. 1909-1922.

Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible - Unabridged

And I heard as it were the voice of a great multitude, and as the voice of many waters, and as the voice of mighty thunderings, saying, Alleluia: for the Lord God omnipotent reigneth.

Many waters. Contrast the "many waters" on which the whore sitteth (Revelation 17:1). This verse is the hearty response to the stirring call, 'Halleluia! Praise our God,' etc. (Revelation 19:4-5).

The Lord God omnipotent - `the Omnipotent.'

Reigneth - reigned: hence, reigneth once for all. His reign is a fact established. Babylon, the harlot, was one great hindrance to His reign being recognized. Her overthrow clears the way for His advent to reign: not merely Rome, but all Christendom, in so far as it compromised Christ for the world, is comprehended in the 'harlot.' The beast hardly arises when he at once "goeth into perdition;' so Christ is considered as already reigning, so soon does His advent follow the judgment on the harlot.

Copyright Statement
These files are public domain.
Text Courtesy of BibleSupport.com. Used by Permission.
Bibliographical Information
Jamieson, Robert, D.D.; Fausset, A. R.; Brown, David. "Commentary on Revelation 19:6". "Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible - Unabridged". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/jfu/revelation-19.html. 1871-8.

Treasury of Scripture Knowledge

And I heard as it were the voice of a great multitude, and as the voice of many waters, and as the voice of mighty thunderings, saying, Alleluia: for the Lord God omnipotent reigneth.
and as the voice of many
1:15; 14:2; Ezekiel 1:24; 43:2
and as the voice of mighty
4:5; 6:1; 8:5; 14:2; 19:6; Job 40:9; Psalms 29:3-9; 77:18
for
11:15-18; 12:10; 21:22; Psalms 47:2,7; 93:1; 97:1,12; 99:1; Isaiah 52:7; Matthew 6:13
Reciprocal: 2 Kings 18:28 - the king of Assyria;  1 Chronicles 16:31 - The Lord;  Psalm 8:1 - our;  Psalm 18:13 - thundered;  Psalm 30:4 - Sing;  Psalm 31:23 - saints;  Psalm 34:3 - let us;  Psalm 47:8 - reigneth;  Psalm 66:8 - make;  Psalm 68:34 - Ascribe;  Psalm 86:12 - praise;  Psalm 95:1 - let us make;  Psalm 96:7 - O ye kindreds;  Psalm 96:10 - the Lord;  Psalm 98:4 - GeneralPsalm 103:20 - Bless;  Psalm 145:10 - and thy saints;  Psalm 149:2 - let the;  Psalm 149:6 - the high;  Isaiah 24:23 - when;  Ezekiel 3:12 - Blessed;  Obadiah 1:21 - and the;  Matthew 6:10 - Thy kingdom;  Matthew 22:10 - and the;  Luke 11:2 - Thy kingdom;  John 3:23 - much;  Acts 21:20 - they glorified;  Romans 11:36 - to whom;  1 Timothy 1:17 - be;  Revelation 5:11 - was;  Revelation 11:17 - thou hast;  Revelation 19:1 - Alleluia

Copyright Statement
These files are public domain.
Text Courtesy of BibleSupport.com. Used by Permission.
Bibliographical Information
Torrey, R. A. "Commentary on Revelation 19:6". "The Treasury of Scripture Knowledge". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/tsk/revelation-19.html.

Walter Scott's Commentary on Revelation

THE MARRIAGE OF THE LAMB.

Revelation 19:6-10. — "And I heard as it were a voice of a great multitude, and as it were a voice of many waters, and as it were a voice of strong thunders, saying, Hallelujah, for (the) Lord our God the Almighty has taken to Himself kingly power. Let us rejoice and exult, and give Him glory; for the marriage of the Lamb is come, and His wife has made herself ready. And it was given to her that she should be clothed in fine linen, bright (and) pure; for the fine linen is the righteousnesses of the saints. And he says to me, Write, Blessed (are) they who are called to the supper of the marriage of the Lamb. And he says to me, These are the true words of God. And I fell before his feet to worship him. And he says to me, See (thou do it) not. I am thy fellow-bondman and (the fellow-bondman) of thy brethren who have the testimony of Jesus. Worship God. For the spirit of prophecy is the testimony of Jesus." We have transcribed in full this passage of surpassing interest. There are two main subjects: God manifestly assuming His kingly power, and the Lamb taking to Himself His bride — the Church of the New Testament. The moment has not yet arrived for the Lord Jesus Christ, Who suffered as none ever did, to mount His throne. But all is getting ready for that grand event. O blessed moment for which creation groans and waits, for which the Church hopes and prays, and for which the wearied tribes of Israel long with eager expectation! The Nazarene is God's appointed King. But two events must necessarily take place before the throne of the world is occupied by Christ: Babylon must be judged on earth, and the marriage of the Lamb be celebrated in Heaven. We have had the one; we are now about to witness the other.

THE GRAND HALLELUJAH.

The call of the throne (v. 5) meets with a magnificent and immediate response. The praise is loud, deep, and full, and characterised by strength and grandeur. The "great multitude" (v. 6) here probably embraces all the redeemed in Heaven, save the bride. If this is so, as a careful study of the whole passage would seem to indicate, then the "great multitude" must be a larger and more comprehensive company than that mentioned in verse 1. In the former passage (v. 1) the "great multitude" is not distinguished from the elders, the representatives of the redeemed of past and present ages; while in the latter (v. 6) the "great multitude" is evidently a company apart from the bride (v. 7). The voice heard by the Seer is likened to the sound of "many waters" and "strong thunders," that is, majesty and power combined.{*In various parts of the Apocalypse the symbols of waters and thunders are separately noted, but here, as also in Revelation 14:2, they are united. Waters have a double signification. First, when in motion is conveyed the idea of MAJESTY and GREATNESS when still the symbolic reference is to NATIONS and PEOPLES for rivers, sea, etc., see page 190.} Having had the summons from the throne, the mighty choir takes up the strain in a voice of majesty and power — not voices, for the mind of Heaven is one. We now hear what fell upon the enraptured soul of the Seer; the last "Hallelujah" is sounded. It is not now Christ the object of praise, but God on the throne in holy and righteous action. The titles under which He is worshipped gather up all the various manifestations of God to His people of old. Separately they set forth distinctive relations and glories; when combined they form a tower of strength; when seen as united in Him the grandeur of the whole is beyond all telling. We have already remarked on the meaning and force of these various titles in a former part of our exposition.{*See page 240, Revelation 11:15. "He now reigned as the Lord God Omnipotent — that character, or those characters in which He dealt with the earth, whether as God, Creator, Promiser, and Shield of His people while strangers, or the everlasting Accomplisher of all He had promised, Jehovah, Elohim, Shaddai. All these He took now in power and reigned." — Darby.}

We gather that this is the moment anticipated in Revelation 11:15. The kingdom has now come, and kingly power is assumed. This is the first great subject of praise by the heavenly host. What a relief to creation, burdened with six thousand years of sin and sorrow! But ere the second theme is announced, calling for the adoration of the redeemed, we read, "Let us rejoice and exult, and give Him glory."

In the revelation of God on His throne as Jehovah and the Almighty the whole being is bowed before Him. The soul is awed, not in fear, but in profoundest depth, and surely that is right and proper as we contemplate Him in the greatness of His Being.

But in the subject now to be introduced the affections are deeply stirred and the heart moved to its very centre. Hence the prefatory call to rejoice and give God glory, for the "marriage of the Lamb is come, and His wife has made herself ready."

Copyright Statement
These files are a derivative of an electronic edition available at BibleSupport.com. Public Domain.
Bibliographical Information
Scott, Walter. "Commentary on Revelation 19:6". "Walter Scott's Commentary on Revelation". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/sor/revelation-19.html.

E.M. Zerr's Commentary on Selected Books of the New Testament

So many people of the civilized world had suffered under the oppression of Rome through the Dark Ages, that it explains why the voice of a great multitude was heard praising God. Voice of many waters is the same except it is in symbolic form, waters in figurative language being used to represent human voices in action. Omnipotent means almighty; God can do anything that is right. The difliculty of conquering the giant influence of the beast in Rome was regarded so great, that it brought to their attention the might of God and called forth these words of praise, and caused the declaration that He reigneth.

Copyright Statement
These files are public domain.
Text Courtesy of BibleSupport.com. Used by Permission.
Bibliographical Information
Zerr, E.M. "Commentary on Revelation 19:6". E.M. Zerr's Commentary on Selected Books of the New Testament. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/znt/revelation-19.html. 1952.

Hanserd Knollys' Commentary on Revelation

Revelation 19:6

Revelation 19:6-7 And I heard as it were the voice of a great multitude, and as the voice of many waters, and as the voice of mighty thunderings, saying, Alleluia: for the Lord God omnipotent reigneth7 Let us be glad and rejoice, and give honour to him: for the marriage of the Lamb is come, and his wife hath made herself ready.

This

great multitude,

are the concourse of the Jews and gentiles joining together to sing alleluia's to God and Christ; as was prophesied { Isaiah 52:7-12} How beautiful upon the mountains, are the feet of him that bringeth good tidings, that publisheth peace, that bringeth good things of good, that publisheth salvation, that faith unto Zion, Thy God reigneth! Thy watchmen shall lift up the voice, with the voice together shall they sing: for they shall see eye to eye, when the Lord shall bring again Zion. Break forth into joy, sing together ye waste places of Jerusalem: for the Lord hath comforted his people, he hath redeemed Jerusalem. The Lord hath made bare his holy arm in the eyes of all the Nations, and all the ends of the earth shall see the salvation of our God. Depart ye, depart ye, go ye out from thence, touch no unclean thing; go ye out of the midst of her; be ye clean, that bare the vessels of the Lord. For ye shall not go out with haste, nor go by flight: for the Lord will go before you; and the God of Israel will be your rereward. The voice of singing together. The matter of their song was the kingdom of Christ;

For the Lord God omnipotent reigneth.

Revelation 11:15-17. See KNOLLYS: Revelation 11:15 See KNOLLYS: Revelation 11:16 See KNOLLYS on " Revelation 11:17" - SeeKNOLLYS: Revelation 11:16 Revelation 19:7 contains another cause of the high praises of God,

Let us be glad and rejoice, and give honour to him: for the marriage of the Lamb is come, and his wife hath made herself ready.

Read 2 Corinthians 11:2; Hosea 2:19-23; Revelation 21:1-2. And this joy and gladness was prophesied of the Lord Jesus Christ also, { Song of Solomon 3:11} -Go forth, O ye, Daughters of Zion, and behold King Solomon with the crown wherewith his mother crowned him in the day of his espousals, and the day of the gladness of his heart.

Copyright Statement
These files are public domain.
Text Courtesy of BibleSupport.com. Used by Permission.
Bibliographical Information
Knollys, Hanserd. "Commentary on Revelation 19:6". "Hanserd Knollys' Commentary on Revelation". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/hkc/revelation-19.html.

Ernst Hengstenberg on John, Revelation, Ecclesiastes, Ezekiel & Psalms

Revelation 19:6. And I heard as a voice of a great multitude, and as a voice of many waters, and as a voice of loud thunder, saying, Hallelujah! For the Lord our God, the Almighty has taken the kingdom. Bengel: "Here is the accomplishment of what was called for in Revelation 19:5." On the words, "as a voice of many waters and as a voice of loud thunder," see at ch. Revelation 14:2. In regard to the βασιλεύ ειν, to reign = to take the government, see at ch. Revelation 11:17. The full realization of the word is to be found at the close of ch. 20. For, there we see all hostile powers lying prostrate in the dust. The subject of the church's song of praise is twofold; first that the Almighty has entered on the kingdom, (this here), and then that the marriage of the Lamb is come (in Revelation 19:7-8). The first is the negative side; the foundation of the dominion of God is the overthrow of the enemies (comp. on ch. 1 Kings 19:6); the second is the positive. As soon as the enemies of God are cast down, the glorification of the church breaks forth. Before this, immediately after the atonement of Christ, it is said in ch. Revelation 12:10, "Now is come the kingdom of our God." What existed there in the germ must now be developed and unfolded, and it is here anticipated in respect to this state of coming development and unfolding. Ch. Revelation 11:17, is directly parallel. We have here no "new stage of what was announced there;" cannot possibly have it, as there already a time was spoken of, when not merely a particular phase of the worldly power, but this power itself was to fall under the heavy stroke of the Lord. There, however, the general plan only was announced, and here we have the plan filled up.

Copyright Statement
These files are public domain.
Text Courtesy of BibleSupport.com. Used by Permission.
Bibliographical Information
Hengstenberg, Ernst. "Commentary on Revelation 19:6". Ernst Hengstenberg on John, Revelation, Ecclesiastes, Ezekiel & Psalms. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/heg/revelation-19.html.

Whedon's Commentary on the Bible

6.The responsive song has now come to a climax. First, there was a great voice from heaven; then, a repeat; third, a response from the elders; fourth, a response from the throne; and last, this universal voice as of waters and thunderings, in which the seer is drowned.

Reigneth—Aorist, has reigned. That is, has acted the king—has decisively ruled in destroying the harlot; for that is the theme of all these responsive chants.

 

Copyright Statement
These files are public domain.
Text Courtesy of BibleSupport.com. Used by Permission.
Bibliographical Information
Whedon, Daniel. "Commentary on Revelation 19:6". "Whedon's Commentary on the Bible". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/whe/revelation-19.html. 1874-1909.

The Expositor's Greek Testament

Revelation 19:6. S ingeniously but awkwardly punctuates after “Hallelujah,” connecting . . ., with the subsequent .— . . . A sublimated version of the old watchword which had been the rallying cry of pious Jews and especially of the Pharisees (e.g., Ps. Sol. 17:1, 2, 38, 51, 2:34–36, 5:20, 21) during the conflict with Roman aggression. This divine epithalamium is the last song of praise in the Apocalypse. At this point also the writer reverts for a moment to the Lamb, absent since Revelation 17:14 from his pages, and absent again till Revelation 21:9.

 

 

Copyright Statement
These files are public domain.
Text Courtesy of BibleSupport.com. Used by Permission.
Bibliographical Information
Nicol, W. Robertson, M.A., L.L.D. "Commentary on Revelation 19:6". The Expositor's Greek Testament. https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/egt/revelation-19.html. 1897-1910.

The Bible Study New Testament

6. Then I heard. He uses different symbols to describe the voice of praise directed to God!

 

 

 

Copyright Statement
These files are public domain.
Bibliographical Information
Ice, Rhoderick D. "Commentary on Revelation 19:6". "The Bible Study New Testament". https://www.studylight.org/commentaries/ice/revelation-19.html. College Press, Joplin, MO. 1974.