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Bible Concordances

Torrey's Topical Textbook

Courts of Justice

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  • Have authority from God
    Romans 13:1-5

  • SUPERIOR COURT
    • Held first by Moses alone in the wilderness
      Exodus 18:13-20
    • Consisted subsequently of priests and Levites
      Deuteronomy 17:9 ; Malachi 2:7
    • Presided over by the governor or the high priest
      Deuteronomy 17:12 ; Judges 4:4,5
    • Held at the seat of government
      Deuteronomy 17:8
    • Decided on all appeals and difficult cases
      Exodus 18:26 ; Deuteronomy 1:17 ; 17:8,9
    • Decisions of, conclusive
      Deuteronomy 17:10,11

  • INFERIOR COURT
    • In all cities
      Deuteronomy 16:18 ; 2 Chronicles 19:5-7
    • Held at the gates
      Genesis 34:20 ; Deuteronomy 16:18 ; 21:19 ; Job 5:4
    • Judges of, appointed by the governor
      Exodus 18:21,25 ; Deuteronomy 1:9-15 ; 2 Samuel 15:3
    • All minor cases decided by
      Exodus 18:26 ; 2 Samuel 15:4
    • All transfers of property made before
      Genesis 23:17-20 ; Ruth 4:1,2

  • Re-established by Jehoshaphat
    2 Chronicles 19:5-10

  • Re-established by Ezra
    Ezra 7:25

  • SANHEDRIM OR COURT OF THE SEVENTY
    • Probably derived from the seventy elders appointed by Moses
      Exodus 24:9 ; Numbers 11:16,17,24-30
    • Mentioned in the latter part of sacred history
      Luke 22:66 ; John 11:47 ; Acts 5:27
    • Consisted of chief priest, &c
      Matthew 26:57,59
    • Presided over by high priest
      Matthew 26:62-66
    • Sat in high priest's palace
      Matthew 26:57,58

  • OF THE ROMANS IN JUDEA
    • Presided over by the governor or deputy
      Matthew 27:2,11 ; Acts 18:12
    • Place of, called the hall of judgment
      John 18:28,33 ; 19:9
    • Never interfered in any dispute about minor matters or About religion
      Acts 18:14,15
    • Could alone award death
      John 18:31
    • Never examined their own citizens by torture
      Acts 22:25-29
    • Appeals from, made to the emperor
      Acts 25:11 ; 26:32 ; 28:19

  • Generally held in the morning
    Jeremiah 21:12 ; Matthew 27:1 ; Luke 22:66 ; Acts 5:21

  • Sometimes held in synagogues
    Matthew 10:17 ; Acts 22:19 ; 26:11 ; James 2:2

  • PROVIDED WITH
    • Judges
      Deuteronomy 16:18
    • Officers
      Deuteronomy 16:18 ; Matthew 5:25
    • Tormentors or executioners
      Matthew 18:34

  • JUDGES OF
    • Called elders
      Deuteronomy 25:7 ; 1 Samuel 16:4
    • Called magistrates
      Luke 12:58
    • Rode often on white asses
      Judges 5:10
    • To judge righteously
      Leviticus 19:15 ; Deuteronomy 1:6
    • To judge without respect of persons
      Exodus 23:3,6 ; Leviticus 19:15 ; Deuteronomy 1:17 ; Proverbs 22:22
    • To investigate every case
      Deuteronomy 19:18
    • Not to take bribes
      Exodus 23:8 ; Deuteronomy 16:19
    • To judge as for God
      2 Chronicles 19:6,7,9
    • To decide according to the law
      Ezekiel 44:24
    • To promote peace
      Zechariah 8:16
    • Sat on the judgment-seat while hearing causes
      Exodus 18:13 ; Judges 5:10 ; Isaiah 28:6 ; Matthew 27:19
    • Examined the parties
      Acts 24:8
    • Conferred together before giving judgment
      Acts 5:34-40 ; 25:12 ; 26:30,31
    • Pronounced the judgment of the court
      Matthew 26:65,66 ; Luke 23:24 ; Acts 5:40

  • Both the accusers and accused required to appear before
    Deuteronomy 25:1 ; Acts 25:16

  • CAUSES IN, WERE OPENED BY
    • The complainant
      1 Kings 3:17-21 ; Acts 16:19-21
    • An advocate
      Acts 24:1

  • THE ACCUSED
    • Stood before the judge
      Numbers 35:12 ; Matthew 27:11
    • Permitted to plead their own cause
      1 Kings 3:22 ; Acts 24:10 ; 26:1
    • Might have advocates
      Proverbs 31:8,9 ; Isaiah 1:17
    • Exhorted to confess
      Joshua 7:19
    • Examined on oath
      Leviticus 5:1 ; Matthew 26:63
    • Sometimes examined by torture
      Acts 22:24,29
    • Sometimes treated with insult
      Matthew 26:67 ; John 18:22,23 ; Acts 23:2,3
    • The evidence of two or more witnesses required in
      Deuteronomy 17:6 ; 19:15 ; John 8:17 ; 2 Corinthians 13:1
    • Witnesses sometimes laid their hands on the criminal's head Before punishment
      Leviticus 24:14

  • False witnesses in to receive the punishment of the accused
    Deuteronomy 19:19

  • Corruption and bribery often practised in
    Isaiah 10:1 ; Amos 5:12 ; 8:6

  • THE JUDGMENT OF
    • Not given till accused was heard
      John 7:51
    • Recorded in writing
      Isaiah 10:1
    • Immediately executed
      Deuteronomy 25:2 ; Joshua 7:25 ; Mark 15:15-20
    • Witnesses first to execute
      Deuteronomy 17:7 ; Acts 7:58
    • Allusions to
      Job 5:4 ; Psalm 127:5 ; Matthew 5:22
    • Illustrative of the last judgment
      Matthew 19:28 ; Romans 14:10 ; 1 Corinthians 6:2

Copyright Statement
These files are in the public domain.

Bibliography Information
Torrey, Reuben Archer. Entry for 'Courts of Justice'. Torrey's Topical Textbook. https://www.studylight.org/concordances/ttt/c/courts-of-justice.html. 1897.

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