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Old Testament Hebrew Lexical Dictionary
Strong's #4941 - מִשְׁפָּט
1) judgment, justice, ordinance
1a1) act of deciding a case
1a2) place, court, seat of judgment
1a3) process, procedure, litigation (before judges)
1a4) case, cause (presented for judgment)
1a5) sentence, decision (of judgment)
1a6) execution (of judgment)
1a7) time (of judgment)
1b) justice, right, rectitude (attributes of God or man)
1d) decision (in law)
1e) right, privilege, due (legal)
1f) proper, fitting, measure, fitness, custom, manner, plan
V) ups (סהפתה ShPTh) - Judge: To rule over cases of dispute or wrong doing. [Hebrew and Aramaic] KJV (204): (vf: Paal, Niphal, Participle) judge, plead, avenge, condemn, execute, judgment, defend, deliver, magistrate - Strongs: H8199 (שָׁפַט), H8200 (שְׁפַט)
Jeff Benner, Ancient Hebrew Research Center Used by permission of the author.
מִשְׁפָּט (from שָׁפַט)
(a) used of the act of judging, Levit. 19:15, “do no unrighteousness בַּמִּשְׁפָּט in judgment;” verse 35 Leviticus 19:35; Deuteronomy 1:17, כִּי הַמִּשְׁפָּט לֵאלֹהִים הוּא “for the judgment (is) God’s.” Isaiah 28:6, יוֹשֵׁב עַל הַמִּשְׁפָּט “he who sitteth in judgment.” Ezekiel 21:32, עַד־בּאֹ אֲשֶׁר לוֹ הַמִּשְׁפָּט “until he shall come whose the judgment is.”
(b) of the place of judgment (מְקוֹם הַמִּשְׁפָּט Ecclesiastes 3:16). בּאֹ בַּמִּשְׁפָּט עִם to bring any one into judgment, Job 9:32, 22:4 Psalms 143:2 compare Job 14:3; Ecclesiastes 11:9.
(c) a forensic cause, Numb. 27:5. עָרַךְ מִשְׁפָּט to set forth a cause, Job 13:18, 23:4. שָׁפַט עָשָׂה מִשְׁפַּט פּ׳, to plead any one’s cause, to be his patron, Deuteronomy 10:18; Psalms 9:5 (compare דִּין and רִיב). דִּבֶּר מִשְׁפָּטִים אֵת to contend with any one, Jeremiah 12:1. בַּעַל מִשְׁפָּטִי my adversary, prop. he who has a cause with me, Isaiah 50:8.
(d) sentence of a judge, 1 Kings 3:28, 20:40 Psalms 17:2 pl. מִשְׁפְּטֵי יְהֹוָה judgments of the Lord, 19:10 119:75, 137 Psalms 119:137. Especially used of a sentence by which penalty is inflicted. מִשְׁפַּט מָוֶת sentence of death, Deuter. 21:22 Jeremiah 26:11. דִּבֶּר מִשְׁפָּטִים אֶת פּ׳ to pass a hard sentence upon one, to impose punishment upon him, Jeremiah 1:16, 4:12 39:5 52:9 2 Kings 25:6 (see the same phrase, let. c.) Also used of punishment [?], Isaiah 53:8.
(e) fault, crime, for which one is judged, Jeremiah 51:9. מִשְׁפַּט דָּמִים capital crime, Ezekiel 7:23.
(2) right, that which is just, lawful, according to law. הִטָּה מִשִׁפָּט to pervert right, Deuteronomy 16:19, 27:19 1 Samuel 8:3. עָשָׂה מִשְׁפָּט וּצְדָקָה to do judgment (right) and justice. Jeremiah 22:15, 23:5 33:15 Deuteronomy 32:4, בָּל־דְּרָבָיז מִשֻׁפָּט “all his ways (are) right,” i.e. just. מאֹזְנֵי מִשְׁפָּט just balances, Proverbs 16:11. לַמִּשְׁפָּט according to what is. right, Jeremiah 46:28 and on the other hand, בְּלֹא מִשְׁפָּט without right, Proverbs 16:11; Jeremiah 22:13. Specially
(a) a law, a statute (as a rule of judging), Exodus 21:1, 24:3 often מִשְׁפְּטֵי יְיָ, of the laws of God, Leviticus 18:4, Leviticus 18:5, 26 Leviticus 18:26, 19:37 20:22, seqq.; Deuteronomy 4:1, 7:11, 12 and collect, used of the body of laws (as we say, the law of Moses, the Justinian code), e.g. מִשְׁפַּט יְיָ Isaiah 51:4 and simply מִשְׁפַּט 42:1, Isaiah 42:3, Isaiah 42:4, the divine law (i.q. תּוֹרָה), divine religion.
(b) used of that which is lawfully due to any one, (privilege). מִשְׁפַּט הַגְּאֻלָּה right of redemption, Jeremiah 32:7 מ׳ הַבְּכֹרָה right of primogeniture, Deuteronomy 21:17 and collect. מִשְׁפַּט חַמֶּלֶךְ regal right, or, regal rights and privileges, 1 Samuel 8:9, 11 1 Samuel 8:11, 10:25 מִשְׁפַּט הַכֹּהֲנִים מֵאֵת הָעָם the things due to the priests from the people, Deuteronomy 18:3 מִשְׁפַּט הַבָּנוֹת the privileges of daughters, Exodus 21:9. As laws have arisen not only from the will of a legislator, but also often from the manners and customs of nations, מ׳ is also
(c) a manner, custom. 2 Kings 11:14, “and behold the king stood upon a standing place כַּמִּשְׁפָּט according to the manner;” 17:33, 34 2 Kings 17:34, 40 2 Kings 17:40. Genesis 40:13, כַּמִּשְׁפָּט הָרִאשׁוֹן “in the former manner,” Exodus 26:30; Jeremiah 30:18. (Comp. Arab. دِينُ and Gr. δίκη.) Hence
(d) fashion, kind, plan. 2 Kings 1:7, מֶה מִשְׁפַּט הָאִישׁ “what kind of a man was he?” Judges 13:12, מַה יִּהְיֶה מִשְׁפַּט הַנַּעַר וּמַעֲשֵׁהוּ “what kind of a boy shall he be? and what will he do?”
the Fourth Week after Epiphany