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Bridgeway Bible Dictionary
A basic element in fatherhood is that it is related to origins, to bringing things into existence (Genesis 17:5). Consequently, the Bible speaks about God as the Father of creation, for he is the source of all things (Numbers 16:22; Isaiah 64:8; Malachi 2:10; Luke 3:38; Hebrews 12:9; James 1:17; see ). This is possibly one aspect of God’s fatherhood that Paul refers to when he points out that all fatherhood comes ultimately from God. Earthly fathers exist only because there is a heavenly Father (Ephesians 3:14-15). (For the responsibilities of fathers in human society see .)
People in Bible times used the word ‘father’ as a respectful way of referring to their ancestors (Psalms 22:4; Hebrews 1:1; see ). They even used it to refer to their spiritual leaders, especially those who brought them to know God (2 Kings 6:21; 2 Kings 13:14; 1 Corinthians 4:14-15; 1 Timothy 1:2; 1 Timothy 1:18; 1 Peter 5:13; cf. Matthew 23:7-12). But the Bible’s most important use of ‘father’ is in relation to God.
Father of his people
When the Bible speaks of God’s fatherhood of his people, there is again a variety of meanings. In Old Testament times God was the Father of the nation Israel. He made Israel his people by covenant, and cared for them as a father cares for his children (Exodus 4:22; Deuteronomy 1:31; Deuteronomy 8:5; Hosea 11:1; Malachi 1:6; John 8:41). In particular he was Father to the king of his chosen people, and more particularly still, of the Messiah, whom Israel’s king foreshadowed (2 Samuel 7:14; Psalms 2:7; cf. Acts 13:33; Hebrews 1:5; see ). In addition to all this, God was Father in a special sense to the true believers within the nation (Psalms 103:13; Isaiah 63:16; Malachi 3:17; John 8:42).
The New Testament shows that God is Father to all who believe in him – not just Israelites, but believers of all nations (Romans 1:7; 1 Corinthians 1:2-3). All people, regardless of nationality, are dead in sin, but those who repent of their sin and believe in Jesus are ‘born again’. They receive new life from God and so become God’s children (John 1:12-13; Ephesians 2:1; see ). To use another picture, God adopts them into his family and gives them the status and privileges of full-grown sons (Galatians 4:4-6; see ). Believers therefore can speak to God confidently as their Father (Matthew 6:9; Luke 11:9-13; Romans 8:15-16; see ; ). Yet they must also reverence him, for he is their judge (Matthew 6:14-15; 1 Peter 1:17).
God, on his part, cares for his children’s needs and makes them heirs of his inheritance (Matthew 6:32; Luke 12:32; Romans 8:17), though he also chastises them when they do wrong (2 Samuel 7:14-15; Hebrews 12:7-11; see ). God’s children are to develop lives whose character is like that of their Father (Matthew 5:48).
Father of Jesus Christ
The highest sense in which God is Father is as the Father of Jesus Christ (John 1:18; John 5:36; Romans 15:6; 2 Corinthians 1:3). But his fatherhood of Jesus is different from his fatherhood of believers (cf. John 20:17).
God did not make Jesus his Son as he makes believers his sons. Jesus always has been the Son of God. There is no suggestion that God the Father existed first and God the Son came into existence later. The Father and the Son, both being God, have existed eternally, but they have existed eternally in this relationship of Father and Son. Though distinct persons, they are inseparably united (John 10:30; John 14:10; see ).
As the Son, Jesus alone has true knowledge of the Father. Therefore, only through the Son is the Father revealed to the world, and only through the Son can the world come to know the Father (Matthew 11:27; John 1:18; John 5:18; John 10:15; John 14:6-7).
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Fleming, Don. Entry for 'Father'. Bridgeway Bible Dictionary. https://www.studylight.org/dictionaries/eng/bbd/f/father.html. 2004.