Vine's Expository Dictionary of NT Words
from a root signifying "a nourisher, protector, upholder" (Lat., pater, Eng., "father," are akin), is used (a) of the nearest ancestor, e.g., Matthew 2:22; (b) of a more remote ancestor, the progenitor of the people, a "forefather," e.g., Matthew 3:9; 23:30; 1 Corinthians 10:1; the patriarchs, 2 Peter 3:4; (c) one advanced in the knowledge of Christ, 1 John 2:13; (d) metaphorically, of the originator of a family or company of persons animated by the same spirit as himself, as of Abraham, Romans 4:11,12,16,17,18 , or of Satan, John 8:38,41,44; (e) of one who, as a preacher of the Gospel and a teacher, stands in a "father's" place, caring for his spiritual children, 1 Corinthians 4:15 (not the same as a mere title of honor, which the Lord prohibited, Matthew 23:9 ); (f) of the members of the Sanhedrin, as of those who exercised religious authority over others, Acts 7:2; 22:1; (g) of God in relation to those who have been born anew (John 1:12,13 ), and so are believers, Ephesians 2:18; 4:6 (cp. 2 Corinthians 6:18 ), and imitators of their "Father," Matthew 5:45,48; 6:1,4,6,8,9 , etc. Christ never associated Himself with them by using the personal pronoun "our;" He always used the singular, "My Father," His relationship being unoriginated and essential, whereas theirs is by grace and regeneration, e.g., Matthew 11:27; 25:34; John 20:17; Revelation 2:27; 3:5,21; so the Apostles spoke of God as the "Father" of the Lord Jesus Christ, e.g., Romans 15:6; 2 Corinthians 1:3; 11:31; Ephesians 1:3; Hebrews 1:5; 1 Peter 1:3; Revelation 1:6; (h) of God, as the "Father" of lights, i.e., the Source or Giver of whatsoever provides illumination, physical and spiritual, James 1:17; of mercies, 2 Corinthians 1:3; of glory, Ephesians 1:17; (i) of God, as Creator, Hebrews 12:9 (cp. Zechariah 12:1 ).Note: Whereas the everlasting power and divinity of God are manifest in creation, His "Fatherhood" in spiritual relationship through faith is the subject of NT revelation, and waited for the presence on earth of the Son, Matthew 11:27; John 17:25 . The spiritual relationship is not universal, John 8:42,44 (cp. John 1:12; Galatians 3:26 ).
"from one's fathers, or ancestors," is said of that which is handed down from one's "forefathers," Galatians 1:14 .
"without father" (a, negative, and pater), signifies, in Hebrews 7:3 , with no recorded genealogy.
"handed down from one's fathers" (pater, and paradidomi, "to hand down"), is used in 1 Peter 1:18 .
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Vines, W. E., M. A. Entry for 'Father'. Vine's Expository Dictionary of NT Words. https://www.studylight.org/dictionaries/eng/ved/f/father.html. 1940.