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Fausset's Bible Dictionary
(1 Chronicles 2:9; 1 Chronicles 2:18-19; 1 Chronicles 2:42; 1 Chronicles 2:50). Son of Hezron, son of Pharez, son of Judah; father of Hur by Ephrath; grandfather of Caleb the son of Hur, the firstborn of Ephratah. In 1 Chronicles 4:15 Caleb the spy is called "son of Jephunneh," and in 1 Chronicles 2:49 the elder Caleb seemingly is father of the daughter Achsa. In Joshua 15:17 Caleb the spy is father of Achsah. Possibly, after all, the Caleb of 1 Chronicles 2 is the same as Caleb the spy; his adoption into Hezron's family accounting for his appearing in the public Israelite record as his son. In this case the different families assigned to him he must have had by different wives, having their lots in different localities. This genealogy (1 Chronicles 2), drawn up in Hezekiah's reign, alone mentions the supposed elder Caleb. Caleb, the illustrious spy, is also called" the Kenezite," or "son of Kenaz" (Numbers 32:12).
Caleb was "head" (Numbers 13:3) of the Hezronite family in Judah; while Nahshon son of Amminadab was head or prince of the whole tribe (Numbers 1:7). He and Oshea or Joshua, alone of the twelve, on returning from Canaan to Kadesh Barnea, encouraged the people when dispirited by the other spies: "Let us go up at once, and possess the land (he does not for a moment doubt Israel's ability; not Let us try; success is certain, the Lord being on our side), for we are well able to overcome it" (Numbers 13:30). His character answers to his name, all heart. His reward was according to his faith (Numbers 14:24). "My servant Caleb, because he had another spirit, and hath followed Me fully, him will I bring into the land where unto he went, and his seed shall possess it."
Forty-five years afterward Caleb reminded Moses of God's promise, adding that now at 85 he was as strong as then. "Hebron therefore (the land he had trodden upon in faith as a spy, Deuteronomy 1:36) became the inheritance of Caleb, ... because that he wholly followed the Lord God of Israel" (Joshua 14:8-9; Joshua 14:14). He dislodged the three sons of Anak , Joshua 15:14, and gave Achsah his daughter to Othniel, son of Kenaz his brother, for taking Debir. (See ; ACHSAH; DEBIR . In Joshua 15:13, "unto Caleb Joshua gave a part among the children of Judah, according to the commandment of the Lord, ... even the city of Arba, father of Anak-Hebron," it is implied that he was not by birth of Judah, but was given his portion in that tribe by the special command of the" God of Israel."
By marriage and submission to the bond of Jehovah's covenant with Israel he became a true Israelite by adoption; a specimen of God's mercy to the Gentiles even in Old Testament times, and a pledge of the opening of the door of faith to them widely in the New Testament So Jethro, Rahab, Ruth, Naaman. Kenaz his ancestor was a duke of Edom (Genesis 36:11; Genesis 36:15). The names Shobal and Manahath are other Edomite (Genesis 36:20-23) names which appear among the sons of the Caleb in 1 Chronicles 2:50; 1 Chronicles 2:52.
Jephunneh, his father's name, is probably the same as Pinon (1 Chronicles 1:52; Genesis 36:41). Termanites too are among the children of Ashur, Hezron's son (1 Chronicles 4:6). This consideration helps to account for the large numbers of Israelites at the Exodus; proselytes and marriage connections from other races swelled the number of Israelites of pure blood. Hebron was afterward a priests' city, belonging to the Kohathites; but the territory about continued in Caleb's family (from which sprang the churl Nabal, for faith does not always come by blood descent)at the time of David (1 Samuel 25:3; 1 Samuel 30:14).
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Fausset, Andrew R. Entry for 'Caleb'. Fausset's Bible Dictionary. https://www.studylight.org/dictionaries/eng/fbd/c/caleb.html. 1949.