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Bible Dictionaries

Fausset's Bible Dictionary

Sin Offering

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(See SACRIFICE; ATONEMENT; LEPROSY.) As chatteth , hamartia , is the "sin offering", so asham (implying "negligence"), lutron , is the "trespass offering". (See SIN.) The trespass offering was a forfeit for the violated rights of others, whether of Jehovah as head of the nation or of a fellow man. It related to the consequence of sin more immediately than to sin itself in the sinner's heart. Its connection with the consecration of the leper, and reconsecration of the Nazarite, expressed the share each has in sin's consequences, disease, death, and consequent defilement (Leviticus 5:14; Leviticus 5:14; Leviticus 5:15). It was less connected with the conscience than the sin offering (Leviticus 4:3). There was no graduation of offerings according to the worshipper's circumstances. It was accompanied with pecuniary fine, one fifth besides the value of the injury done, in fact "fine offerings" (Numbers 5:5-8). None of the blood was put on the altar horns, as in the sin offering. The victim was a ram instead of a female sheep or goat.

In Isaiah 53:10 translated "when His soul shall have made an offering for sin" (asham , a "trespass offering", Matthew 20:28, "a ransom for many," lutron anti polloon ), He voluntarily laying down His life (John 10:17-18; Ephesians 5:2; Hebrews 9:14). (On the ceremonies of the Day of Atonement. see DAY OF ATONEMENT.) The later Jews, instead of setting the scape-goat free in the wilderness, led it to a high precipice called Sook ("narrow") and dashed it down. This was done to avoid the recurrence of what once occurred, namely, the scape-goat came back to Jerusalem, which was thought a bad omen. Lieut. Conder has discovered the spot, the hill el Muntar, half a mile beyond the well of Suk beside the ancient road from Jerusalem. The ridge still is named Ηadeidun , answering to the Hebrew name of the district, Ηidoodin ("sharp").

A tabernacle was erected at every space of 2,000 cubits, to evade the law of the Sabbath day's journey, for they led the scape-goat out on the Sabbath; after eating bread and drinking water the conductor of the goat could go on to the next tabernacle; ten stages were thus made between Seek and Jerusalem, in all six and a half miles to el Muntar, from whence the conductor caught the first sight of the great desert. Beside the well probably was the tenth tabernacle, to which he returned after precipitating the goat, and where he sat until sundown, when he might return to Jerusalem. (Palestine Exploration Quarterly Statement, July 1878, p. 118). Sins of ignorance, rather of inadvertence. Ecclesiastes 5:6; Ecclesiastes 10:5; Hebrews 9:7, "errors," Greek "sins of ignorance." Leviticus 4:2, in contrast to presumptuous sins entailing (ipso facto, whether the crime incurred civil punishment or not) the being cut off (Numbers 15:22-30; Psalms 19:12-13; Hebrews 10:26-27; Proverbs 2:13-15; Exodus 31:14; Leviticus 7:20; Matthew 12:31; 1 John 5:16; Acts 3:17; Ephesians 4:18; 1 Peter 1:14; Luke 12:48).

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Bibliography Information
Fausset, Andrew R. Entry for 'Sin Offering'. Fausset's Bible Dictionary. 1949.

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