the Week of Proper 20 / Ordinary 25
Fausset's Bible Dictionary
The four represent the four quarters (Ezekiel 37:9; Daniel 8:8; Matthew 24:31; Jeremiah 49:36). The N. wind was coldest (Song of Solomon 4:16). The N. wind "awakes," i.e. arises strongly; the Holy Spirit as the Reprover of sin (John 16:8-11). The S. wind "comes" gently; the Comforter (John 14:16). The W. wind brings rain from the sea (1 Kings 18:44-45); its precursor is cloud (Luke 12:54), prevailing in Palestine from November to February. The E. wind is tempestuous (Job 27:21) and, withering (Genesis 41:23). The N. wind is first invoked (Song of Solomon 4:16) to clear the air (Job 37:22); then the warm S. wind (Job 37:17; Luke 12:55); so the Holy Spirit first clears away mists of gloom, error, unbelief, and sin, which intercept the light of the Sun of righteousness, then infuses warmth (2 Corinthians 4:6), causing the graces to exhale their odor.
In Proverbs 25:23 "the N. wind driveth away (literally, causeth to grieve, so puts to flight) rain," so a frowning countenance drives away a backbiting tongue. So Vulgate, Chald., and Syriac less appropriately "bringeth forth rain." The N. wind prevails from June to the equinox, the N.W. wind thence to November. The E. wind, "the wind of the wilderness" (Job 1:19; Job 27:21; Jeremiah 13:24). It is parching and penetrating, like the sirocco (Jonah 4:8). The E. wind blowing from across the Red Sea, just at the Passover time of year, was the natural agency employed by divine interposition to part the waters of the Red Sea S. of Suez (Exodus 14:21). The E. wind meant in Genesis 41:6; Genesis 41:23 is probably the S.E. wind blowing from the Arabian desert, called the chamsin , so parching as to wither up all grass; during it there is an entire absence of ozone in the air.
The samoom blows from the S.S.E.; blowing over the Arabian peninsula, it is parching when it reaches Palestine. Lake squalls (lailaps ) are noticed Mark 4:37; Luke 8:23. The Greek (lips ) name for S.W. wind, and the Latin (cores ) N.W. wind, and the violent Εuraquilon (not Euroclydon), E.N.E. wind, are noticed Acts 27:12; Acts 27:14. (See .) The E. wind symbolizes empty violence (Job 15:2; Hosea 12:1; Israel "followeth after" not only vain but pernicious things) and destruction (Jeremiah 18:17; Isaiah 27:8). Wind indicates speed (Psalms 104:4; Hebrews 1:7), transitoriness (Job 7:7; Psalms 78:39), the Holy Spirit (John 3:8; Acts 2:2; Genesis 3:8 margin).
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Fausset, Andrew R. Entry for 'Winds'. Fausset's Bible Dictionary. https://www.studylight.org/​dictionaries/​eng/​fbd/​w/winds.html. 1949.