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Holman Bible Dictionary
Old Testament While the word advocate is not found in the Old Testament, the concept of advocacy is found. Abraham intercedes with God in behalf of Sodom ( Genesis 18:23-33 ); Moses intercedes with God in behalf of the Israelites (Exodus 32:11-14 ); Samuel intercedes with God in behalf of the children of Israel (1 Samuel 7:8-9 ). Other examples may be found in Jeremiah 14:7-9 ,Jeremiah 14:7-9,14:13 ,Jeremiah 14:13,14:19-22 and Amos 7:2 ,Amos 7:2,7:5-6 . Modern translators often use “advocate” to refer to Job's desire for a heavenly attorney to plead his case even though he die (Job 16:19 ).
New Testament “Advocate” is the translation often given to the Greek parakletos in 1 John 2:1 , a word found elsewhere only in John's Gospel as a title referring to the Holy Spirit, and there translated “Helper,” “Comforter,” “Counselor,” or “Advocate” (John 14:16 ,John 14:16,14:26; John 15:26; John 16:7 ). Ancient Greeks used the term for one called in to assist or speak for another, frequently in a court setting. Rabbis transliterated the word into Hebrew, using it to denote an advocate before God. 1John portrayed a courtroom scene in which Jesus Christ, the righteous One, intercedes with the Father on behalf of sinners. Such a portrayal stands in line with Old Testament ideas of advocacy, but supersedes it. In contrast to Old Testament advocates, Jesus is both the one righteous Advocate and the “atoning sacrifice” (NIV) for the world's sins (1 John 2:2 ). 1 John 2:1 parallels other New Testament descriptions of Jesus' intercessory role ( Romans 8:34; Hebrews 7:25 ). See Helper; Paraclete; Intercession; Jesus Christ , High Priest .
R. Robert Creech
These dictionary topics are from the Holman Bible Dictionary, published by Broadman & Holman, 1991. All rights reserved. Used by permission of Broadman & Holman.
Butler, Trent C. Editor. Entry for 'Advocate'. Holman Bible Dictionary. https://www.studylight.org/dictionaries/eng/hbd/a/advocate.html. 1991.