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Bible Dictionaries

Vine's Expository Dictionary of NT Words


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1: κακός
(Strong's #2556 — Adjective — kakos — kak-os' )

indicates the lack in a person or thing of those qualities which should be possessed; it means "bad in character" (a) morally, by way of thinking, feeling or acting, e.g., Mark 7:21 , "thoughts;" 1 Corinthians 15:33 , "company;" Colossians 3:5 , "desire;" 1 Timothy 6:10 , "all kinds of evil;" 1 Peter 3:9 , "evil for evil;" (b) in the sense of what is injurious or baneful, e.g., the tongue as "a restless evil," James 3:8 ; "evil beasts," Titus 1:12 ; "harm," Acts 16:28 ; once it is translated "bad," 2 Corinthians 5:10 . It is the opposite of agathos, "good." See EVIL , HARM , ILL , NOISOME , WICKED.

2: πονηρός
(Strong's #4190 — Adjective — poneros — pon-ay-ros' )

connected with ponos, "labor," expresses especially the "active form of evil," and is practically the same in meaning as (b), under No. 1. It is used, e.g., of thoughts, Matthew 15:19 (cp. kakos, in Mark 7:21 ); of speech, Matthew 5:11 (cp. kakos, in 1 Peter 3:10 ); of acts, 2 Timothy 4:18 . Where kakos and poneros are put together, kakos is always put first and signifies "bad in character, base," poneros, "bad in effect, malignant:" see 1 Corinthians 5:8 , and Revelation 16:2 . Kakos has a wider meaning, poneros a stronger meaning. Poneros alone is used of Satan and might well be translated "the malignant one," e.g., Matthew 5:37 and five times in 1John ( 1 John 2:13-14 ; 3:12 ; 5:18,19 , RV); of demons, e.g., Luke 7:21 . Once it is translated "bad," Matthew 22:10 . See EVIL , GRIEVOUS , HARM , LEWD , MALICIOUS , WICKED.

3: σαπρός
(Strong's #4550 — Adjective — sapros — sap-ros' )

"corrupt, rotten" (akin to sepo, "to rot"), primarily, of vegetable and animal substances, expresses what is of poor quality, unfit for use, putrid. It is said of a tree and its fruit, Matthew 7:17,18 ; 12:33 ; Luke 6:43 ; of certain fish, Matthew 13:48 (here translated "bad"); of defiling speech, Ephesians 4:29 . See CORRUPT.

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Bibliography Information
Vines, W. E., M. A. Entry for 'Bad'. Vine's Expository Dictionary of NT Words. 1940.

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Thursday, July 16th, 2020
the Week of Proper 10 / Ordinary 15
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