Old Testament Hebrew Lexical Dictionary
Strong's #1481 - גּוּר
1) to sojourn, abide, dwell in, dwell with, remain, inhabit, be a stranger, be continuing, surely
1a1) to sojourn, dwell for a time
1a2) to abide, stay, temporarily dwell
1b1) to seek hospitality with
1b2) to assemble oneself
2) to stir up trouble, strife, quarrel, gather together
2a1) to stir up strife
2a2) to quarrel
2b) (Hithpolel) to excite oneself
3) to dread, fear, stand in awe, be afraid
3a1) to fear, be afraid
3a2) to be in awe, stand in awe
Jeff Brenner, Ancient Hebrew Research Center Used by permission of the author.
גּוּר i.q. Arab. جَاَر prop. to turn aside from the way, like זוּר; hence to turn aside to any one, and in the common use of the language
(1) to tarry anywhere, as a sojourner and stranger, to sojourn; used of individuals, Genesis 12:10, 19:9 20:1 Judges 17:7 and of whole nations, Exodus 6:4; Psalms 105:23; Ezra 1:4. Poet. used of brutes, Isaiah 11:6. Followed by בְּ of the land in which any one tarries as a stranger, Genesis 21:23, 26:3 47:4 עִם is prefixed to the person or people with whom any one tarries, Genesis 32:5 אֵת Exodus 12:48 Levit. 19:33 בְּ Isaiah 16:4, but poet. these are also put in the accusative; Psalms 120:5, אוֹיָה־לִּי כִּי גַרְתִּי מֶשֶׁךְ “woe is me, that I sojourn in Mesech;” Judges 5:17, וְדָן לָמָּה יָגוּר אֳנִיּוֹת “and why did Dan remain in his ships?” i.e. sit at leisure on the sea shore, as is well expressed by LXX., Vulg., Luth. Job 19:15, גָּרֵי בֵיתִי “the sojourners of my house,” i.e. servants, for in the other hemistich there is handmaids; Exodus 3:22, גָּרַת בֵּיתָהּ “her sojourners;” or according to Vulg. hospita ejus. LXX. σύσκηνος. Others understand neighbour, from the Arabic usage; Isaiah 33:14, מִי יָגוּר לָנוּ אֵשׁ אֹכֵ֑לָה מִי־יָגוּר לָנוּ מוֹקְדֵי עוֹלָם “who among us shall dwell with the devouring fire, who shall dwell with everlasting burnings?” It is the cry of sinners near the overthrow sent by Jehovah (verse 12 Isaiah 33:12, 13 Isaiah 33:13), fearing for themselves. גּוּר בְּאֹהֶל יְהֹוָה “to sojourn in the tent of Jehovah,” is i.q. to be frequently present in the temple; to be as it were God’s guest, and (what is joined with this idea) to have His care and protection. Psalms 15:1, 61:5, compare 39:13, also with acc., Psalms 5:5, לֹא יְגֻרְךָ רָע “a wicked person shall not dwell with thee.” Parall. God hath no pleasure in wickedness. (Arab. جار Conj. III, to remain in a temple on account of religion, also to receive under protection. جَارُ اْللَّه a guest or client of God, used of a man tarrying long in a holy city.) Part. גָּר, which is distinguished from the verbal noun גֵּר, whence Leviticus 17:12, הַגֵּר הַגָּר בְּתוֹכְכֶם “the stranger that sojourneth amongst you;” 18:26 19:34. [“Plural גָּרִים strangers, nomades, Isaiah 5:17.”]- Job 28:4, in the description of a mine, פָּרַץ נַחַל מֵעִם גָּר with Rabbi Levi I interpret, “a man breaks a channel (i.e. a shaft) from where he dwells, and as it were sojourns,” i.e. from the surface of the ground as the abode of men; מֵעִם גָּר for the fuller מֵעִם אֲשֶׁר גָּר שָׁם i.q. afterwards מֵאֱנוֹשׁ.
(2) to fear, like יָגֹר and وَجِرَ. This signification is taken from that of turning aside, since one who is timid and fearful of another, goes out of the way and turns aside from him (geht ihm aus dem Wege, tritt zurück). Followed by מִן (compare מִן No. 2, a) Job 41:17 and מִפְּנֵי Numbers 22:3; Deuteronomy 1:17, 18:22 1 Samuel 18:15 once used with an acc. of the thing feared; Deuteronomy 32:27 לְ of the thing for which one fears, Hosea 10:5. Of fear or reverence towards God, Psalms 22:24, 33:8.
(3) to be gathered together, or gather selves together; this signification (which I have defended at length against J. D. Michaëlis, in Thes. p. 274) it has in common with the kindred verbs אָגַר, גָּרַר which see, zufammen fcharren. Psalms 56:7, יָגוּרוּ יַצְפִּינוּ “they are gathered together (and) hide themselves;” i.e. they lie hid in troops in their lurking places. Followed by עַל and אֵת against any one, Psalms 59:4; Isaiah 54:15 see Hithpalel. Once, apparently, transitively i.q. Ch., Syr. גָּרֵג, ܓܰܪܶܓ; Lat. congreg are (from grex, gregis). Psalms 140:3, יָגוּרוּ מִלְחָמוֹת “they gathered together wars.”
(1) i.q. Kal No. 1, to tarry; 1Ki. 17:20.
(2) i.q. Kal No. 3, to gather selves together. In Hosea 7:14, עַל־דָּגָן וְתִירוֹשׁ יִתְגּוֹרָרוּ יָסוּרוּ בִי “they gather themselves together for corn and new wine, they turn aside from me;” i.e. they gather together to supplicate idols for the fertility of their fields. מִתְגֹּרֵר Jeremiah 30:23 see under the root גָּרַר.
Derivatives גֵּר, גֵּיר, גֵּרוּת; מָגוֹר, מָגוּר, מְגוֹרָה, מְגוּרָה, מַמְּגוּרָה and pr.n. יָגוּר.
[“II. גּוּר, a different root. Perhaps to suck, whence גּוּר, גּוֹר a suckling, the sucking whelp of a lion. Compare עַיִר. Eth. ዕዋል፡ a young ass; עוּל a sucking child, ܒܺܝܠܐܳ a young animal.” Ges. add.]
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