International Standard Bible Encyclopedia
har´vest ( קציר , ḳācı̄r ; θερισμός , therismós ): To many of us, harvest time is of little concern, because in our complex life we are far removed from the actual production of our food supplies, but for the Hebrew people, as for those in any agricultural district today, the harvest was a most important season ( Genesis 8:22; Genesis 45:6 ). Events were reckoned from harvests (Genesis 30:14; Joshua 3:15; Judges 15:1; Rth 1:22; Rth 2:23; 1 Samuel 6:13; 2 Samuel 21:9; 2 Samuel 23:13 ). The three principal feasts of the Jews corresponded to the three harvest seasons (Exodus 23:16; Exodus 34:21 , Exodus 34:22 ); (1) The feast of the Passover in April at the time of the barley harvest (compare Rth 1:22); (2) The feast of Pentecost (7 weeks later) at the wheat harvest (Exodus 34:22 ), and (3) The feast of Tabernacles at the end of the year (October) during the fruit harvest. The seasons have not changed since that time. Between the reaping of the barley in April and the wheat in June, most of the other cereals are reaped. The grapes begin to ripen in August, but the gathering in for making wine and molasses (dibs ), and the storing of the dried figs and raisins, is at the end of September. Between the barley harvest in April and the wheat harvest, only a few showers fall, which are welcomed because they increase the yield of wheat (compare Amos 4:7 ). Samuel made use of the unusual occurrence of rain during the wheat harvest to strike fear into the hearts of the people (1 Samuel 12:17 ). Such an unusual storm of excessive violence visited Syria in 1912, and did much damage to the harvests, bringing fear to the superstitious farmers, who thought some greater disaster awaited them. From the wheat harvest until the fruit harvest no rain falls (2 Samuel 21:10; Jeremiah 5:24; compare Proverbs 26:1 ). The harvesters long for cool weather during the reaping season (compare Proverbs 25:13 ).
Many definite laws were instituted regarding the harvest. Gleaning was forbidden (Leviticus 19:9; Leviticus 23:22; Deuteronomy 24:19 ) (see GLEANING ). The first-fruits were required to be presented to Yahweh (Leviticus 23:10 ). In Syria the Christians still celebrate 'id er -rubb ("feast of the Lord"), at which time the owners of the vineyards bring their first bunches of grapes to the church. The children of Israel were enjoined to reap no harvest for which they had not labored (Leviticus 25:5 ). In Proverbs the harvesting of ants is mentioned as a lesson for the sluggard (Proverbs 6:8; Proverbs 10:5; Proverbs 20:4 ).
Figurative: A destroyed harvest typified devastation or affliction ( Job 5:5; Isaiah 16:9; Isaiah 17:11; Jeremiah 5:17; Jeremiah 50:16 ). The "time of harvest," in the Old Testament frequently meant the day of destruction (Jeremiah 51:33; Hosea 6:11; Joel 3:13 ). "Joy in harvest" typified great joy (Isaiah 9:3 ); "harvest of the Nile," an abundant harvest (Isaiah 23:3 ). "The harvest is past" meant that the appointed time was gone (Jeremiah 8:20 ). Yahweh chose the most promising time to cut off the wicked, namely, "when there is a cloud of dew in the heat of harvest" (Isaiah 18:4 , Isaiah 18:5 ). This occurrence of hot misty days just before the ripening of the grapes is still common. They are welcome because they are supposed to hasten the harvest. The Syrian farmers in some districts call it et -tabbakh el'ainib wa tı̂n ("the fireplace of the grapes and figs").
In the Gospels, Jesus frequently refers to the harvest of souls (Matthew 9:37 , Matthew 9:38 bis; Matthew 13:30 bis ,39; Mark 4:29; John 4:35 bis ). In explaining the parable of the Tares he said, "The harvest is the end of the world" (Matthew 13:39; compare Revelation 14:15 ). See also AGRICULTURE .
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Orr, James, M.A., D.D. General Editor. Entry for 'Harvest'. International Standard Bible Encyclopedia. https://www.studylight.org/encyclopedias/eng/isb/h/harvest.html. 1915.