the Fifth Week of Lent
Old & New Testament Greek Lexical Dictionary Greek Lexicon
Strong's #2590 - καρπός
- the fruit of the trees, vines, of the fields
- the fruit of one's loins, i.e. his progeny, his posterity
- that which originates or comes from something, an effect, result
- work, act, deed
- advantage, profit, utility
- praises, which are presented to God as a thank offering
- to gather fruit (i.e. a reaped harvest) into life eternal (as into a granary), is used in fig. discourse of those who by their labours have fitted souls to obtain eternal life
1. fruit, in Hom. and Hes. (only in sg.), usu. of the fruits of the earth, corn, ἀρούρης κ. Il. 6.142; κ. δ' ἔφερε ζείδωρος ἄρουρα Hes. Op. 117; κ. Δήμητρος Hdt. 1.193, etc.; Δηοῦς Ar. Pl. 515; κ. ἀρούρης, also of wine, Il. 3.246; ἀμπέλινος κ. Hdt. 1.212; so κ. alone, Ar. Nu. 1119 (codd. and Sch.); but of corn, opp. Βάκχιον νᾶμα, Id. Ec. 14; καρποῦ ξυγκομιδή harvest, Th. 3.15; κ. λωτοῖο, κρανείης, Od. 9.94, 10.242; μελιηδέα κ., of grapes, Il. 18.568; κ. ἐλαίας Pi. N. 10.35; τὸν ἐπέτειον κ. the crops of the year, Pi. P. 470b: generally, produce, κ. ὑγρός, of honey, Porph. Abst. 2.20; also κ. εὐανθὴς μήλων, of wool, Opp. H. 2.22: pl., καρπῶν ἐστερήθητε διξῶν robbed of two years' produce, Hdt. 8.142; καρπῶν ἀτελεῖς Id. 6.46; κ. ὑγροὶ καὶ ξηροί produce of trees and fields, X. Oec. 5.20; ξύλινοι, σιτικοὶ κ., Str. 5.4.2; of fruits offered in sacrifice, BMus.Inscr. 975.7 (Amathus), cf. κάρπωσις 11; also of taxes paid in kind, opp. Χρυσικά, PHib. 1.47.5 (iii B.C.), al.
2. seed, X. Oec. 16.12; defined as seed with seed-vessel, Thphr. HP 1.2.1.
3. of children, Δῖοι κ. offspring of Zeus, E. Ion 922 (lyr.).
II returns, profits, οἱ κ. οἱ ἐκ τῶν ἀγελῶν γενόμενοι X. Cyr. 1.1.2; τῶν ἀνηλωμένων.. τοὺς κ. Isaiah 5:29.
III of actions, fruit, profit, εἰ κ. ἔσται θεσφάτοισι Λοξίου if his oracles shall bear fruit, i.e. be fulfilled, A. Th. 618; γλώσσης ματαίας κ., i. e. curses, Id. Eu. 831 codd.; ὁμιλίας κακῆς κάκιον οὐδέν, κ. οὐ κομιστέος Id. Th. 600; οὐκ ἐξάγουσι καρπὸν οἱ ψευδεῖς λόγοι S. Fr. 834, cf. Pl. Phdr. 260d: freq. in Pi., κ. ἐπέων οὐ κατέφθινε, i. e. poesy, I. 8(7).50; κ. φρενῶν wisdom, P. 2.74; κ. φρενός, of his own ode, O. 7.8; ἥβας κ., of the bloom of youth, ib. 6.58, P. 9.109; later, reward, profit, ἐπιτηδευμάτων Epicur. Sent.Vat. 27; ὅπου ὁ κίνδυνος μέγας, καὶ ὁ κ. Diog.Oen. 27; κ. νίκης Hdn. 8.3.6: freq. in NT, κ. εἰρηνικὸς δικαιοσύνης Hebrews 12:11, etc. (Cf. Lat. carpo, Engl. harvest.)
(B), ὁ, wrist, Il. 24.671, Od. 24.398, Hp. Fract. 3, Arist. HA 494a2, etc.; ἐπὶ καρπῷ Χερός E. Ion 1009; καρποὶ Χειρῶν ib. 891, cf. X. Cyr. 6.4.2. (Perh. cf. ONorse huerfa 'turn round'.)
καρπός, καρποῦ, ὁ (cf. Latincarpo; A-S. hearf-est (harvest i. e. the ingathering of crops); Curtius, § 42); Hebrew פְּרִי; from Homer down; fruit;
1. properly: the fruit of trees, Matthew 12:33; Matthew 21:19; Mark 11:14; Luke 6:44; Luke 13:6f; of vines, Matthew 21:34; Mark 12:2; Luke 20:10; 1 Corinthians 9:7; of the fields, Luke 12:17; Mark 4:29; 2 Timothy 2:6; (James 5:7); βλαστάνειν, James 5:18; ποιεῖν, to bear fruit (after the Hebrew פְּרִי עָשָׂה (see ποιέω, I. 1 e.)), Matthew 3:10; Matthew 7:17-19; Matthew 13:26; Luke 3:9; Luke 11:43; Luke 8:8; Luke 13:9; Revelation 22:2; διδόναι, Matthew 13:8; Mark 4:7f; φέρειν, Matthew 7:18 T WH; John 12:24; John 15:2, 4f; (trop. John 15:8, 16); ἀποδιδόναι, to yield fruit, Revelation 22:2; to render (pay) the fruit, Matthew 21:41; by a Hebraism, ὁ καρπός τῆς κοιλίας, i. e. the unborn child, Luke 1:42 (בֶּטֶן פְּרִי, Deuteronomy 28:4, where the Sept. τά ἔκγονα τῆς κοιλίας); τῆς ὀσφύος the fruit of one's loins, i. e. his progeny, his posterity, Acts 2:30 (Genesis 30:2; Psalm 126:3
2. Metaphorically, that which originates or comes from something; an effect, result;
a. equivalent to ἔργον, work, act, deed: with the genitive of the author, τοῦ πνεύματος, Galatians 5:22; τοῦ φωτός, Ephesians 5:9 (Rec. τοῦ πνεύματος); τῆς δικαιοσύνης, Philippians 1:11 (cf.
b. below); of Christian charity, i. e. benefit, Romans 15:28; καρπόν πολύν φέρειν, to accomplish much (for the propagation of Christianity and its furtherance in the souls of men), John 15:8, 16; used of men's deeds as exponents of their hearts (cf. Winer's Grammar, 372 (348)), Matthew 7:16, 20; ἀγαθοί, James 3:17; καρποί τῆς βασιλείας τοῦ Θεοῦ, deeds required for the attainment of salvation in the kingdom of God, Matthew 21:43; ποιεῖν καρπούς ἀξίους τῆς μετανοίας, to exhibit deeds agreeing with a change of heart, Matthew 3:8; Luke 3:8 (cf. ἄξια τῆς μετανοίας ἔργα πράσσειν, Acts 26:20), b. advantage, profit, utility: Philippians 1:22; Philippians 4:17; ἔχειν καρπόν, to get fruit, Romans 1:13; Romans 6:21f; τῆς δικαιοσύνης, benefit arising from righteousness (others make it genitive of apposition, Winer's Grammar, § 59, 8 a.), Hebrews 12:11; which consists in righteousness (genitive of apposition), James 3:18 (cf. Philippians 1:11 in a. above, and Meyer ad loc.; Proverbs 11:30; Amos 6:12).
c. by a Hebraism οἱ καρποί τῶν χειλέων, praises, which are presented to God as a thank-offering: Hebrews 13:15 (Hosea 14:2; Proverbs 12:14; Proverbs 29:49
d. συνάγειν καρπόν εἰς ζωήν αἰώνιον, to gather fruit (i. e. a reaped harvest) into life eternal (as into a granary), is used in figurative discourse of those who by their labors have fitted souls to obtain eternal life, John 4:36.
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καρπός , -οῦ , ὁ ,
[in LXX chiefly for H6529;]
fruit: of trees, Matthew 12:33; Matthew 21:19, Mark 11:14, Luke 6:44; Luke 13:6-7; of vines, Matthew 21:34, Mark 12:2, Luke 20:10, 1 Corinthians 9:7; of fields, Mark 4:29, Luke 12:17, 2 Timothy 2:6, James 5:7; βλαστάνειν , James 5:18; ποιεῖν (cf. Heb. H6529 H6213), Matthew 3:10; Matthew 7:17-19; Matthew 13:26, Luke 3:9; Luke 6:43; Luke 8:8; Luke 13:9, Revelation 22:2; διδόναι , Matthew 13:8, Mark 4:7-8; φέρειν , Matthew 7:18, John 12:24; John 15:2; John 15:4-5; John 15:8; John 15:16; ἀποδιδόναι , Matthew 21:41, Revelation 22:2; ὁ κ . τ . κοιλίας (H990 H6529, Deuteronomy 28:4), Luke 1:42; τ . ὀσφύος (Genesis 30:2, al.), Acts 2:30.
(a) of works, deeds: Matthew 3:8; Matthew 7:16; Matthew 7:20; Matthew 21:43, Luke 3:8, John 15:3; John 15:16; τ . πνεύματος , Galatians 5:22; τ . φωτός , Ephesians 5:9; τ . δικαιοσύνης , Philippians 1:11; σφραγίζεσθαι τὸν κ . (Deiss., BS, 238 f.), Romans 15:28; κ . ἀγαθοί , James 3:17;
(b) of advantage, profit: Philippians 1:22; Philippians 4:17; ἔχειν , Romans 1:13; Romans 6:21-22. συνάγειν , John 4:36; κ . τ . δικαιοσύνης , Hebrews 12:11, James 3:18; of praise, καρπὸν χειλέων (Hosea 14:2, al.; cf. Æsch., Eum., 830): Hebrews 13:15.†
Copyright © 1922 by G. Abbott-Smith, D.D., D.C.L.. T & T Clarke, London.
καρπός is common in the sense of ";fruit,"; ";produce"; of the land generally, e.g. P Eleph 14.15 (Ptol.) τῆς δὲ γῆς κυριεύσει καὶ τῶν καρπῶν (A.D. 54–67), or, more particularly, of an oliveyard, P Ryl II. 130.10 (A.D. 31) ἐτρύλησαν ἐκ τῶν καρπῶν οὐκ ὀλίλην ἐλᾶν, or of a vineyard, P Fay 127.6 (ii/iii A.D.) τοῦ καρποῦ τοῦ ἀμπελῶνος. The phrase ξυλί [νων κ ]αρπῶν is used in OGIS 55.14 (iii/B.C.) with reference to tree-fruits, such as apples, etc.; see Dittenberger’s note ad l. and cf. PSI V. 528.16 (iii/B.C.) περὶ τοῦ καρποῦ τοῦ ξυλικοῦ, apparently the tax ξυλίνων καρπῶν. Another ex. of the sing. is P Oxy XIV. 1632.10 (A.D. 353) καρπο ̣, ν φύ (= οί)νικος χωρίων σου δύο, ";the date-crop of your two estates"; (Edd.). For the metaphorical usage Rouffiac (p. 51) cites Priene112.14 (after B.C. 84) συνιδὼν δὲ ὅτι μόνη μεγίστους ἀποδίδωσιν ἡ ἀρετὴι καρποὺς καὶ χάριτας : cf. James 3:17 f., al. We have no example of καρπός = ";profit,"; ";credit,"; as in Philippians 4:17 (";the interest which is accruing to your credit,"; Moule CGT ad l.), but, as showing how easily this sense might arise, we may quote the corresponding use of καρπεία in P Petr III. 53 (P).5 (iii/B.C.) π ]ρὸς τὰς καρπείας ἃς. . . . ἡμᾶς κομίζεσθαι ἐκ τοῦ [ἱ ]εροῦ, ";with respect to the profits which we should obtain from the temple"; (Edd.) : cf. also καρπίζομαι in P Ryl II. 119.26 (A.D. 54–67) μέχρι νῦν καρπίζεται τὴν αὐτὴν ὑποθήκην ἀφ᾽ ἧς ἀπηνέγκατο εἰς λόγον ἀργυ (ρίου) (ταλάντων) ε ̄, ";he continues up to the present to enjoy the mortgage aforesaid by which he has profited to the extent of 5 talents"; (Edd.). For the adj. κάρπιμος see Kaibel 1039.15 s.v. θερίζω.
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Old / New Testament Greek Lexical Dictionary developed by Jeff Garrison for StudyLight.org.
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