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Kitto's Popular Cyclopedia of Biblial Literature
Gil´ead. 1. A group of mountains connected with Lebanon by means of Mount Hermon. It begins not far from the latter, and extends southward to the sources of the brooks Jabbok and Arnon, thus enclosing the whole eastern part of the land beyong the Jordan (; ). According to Michaelis, this mountain, which gave its name to the country so called, must be situated beyond the region sketched in our maps, and somewhere about the Euphrates.
2. (a) The name of a large district beyond the Jordan, continually mentioned in the Scriptures in contradistinction to, or apart from, Bashan (;;;;;; ), though, to judge from its geographical position (as given; ), it must have comprised the entire possessions of the two tribes of Gad and Reuben, and even the southern part of Manasseh (;; ). The cities Ramoth, Jabosh, and Jazer, are usually designated as lying in Gilead.
This region was distinguished for its rich pastures () and aromatic simples; from which latter different sorts of balsam were prepared—facts confirmed by modern travelers, with the addition that the whole region is covered with groups of limestone mountains, intersected by fertile valleys.
The name Gilead continued to be used, in a general and geographical sense, even after the exile.
Kitto, John, ed. Entry for 'Gilead'. "Kitto's Popular Cyclopedia of Biblial Literature". https://www.studylight.org/encyclopedias/eng/kbe/g/gilead.html.