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Old & New Testament Greek Lexical Dictionary Greek Lexicon
Strong's #1100 - γλῶσσα
- the tongue, a member of the body, an organ of speech
- a tongue
- the language or dialect used by a particular people distinct from that of other nations
Ion. γλάσσα, Herod. 3.84, al., SIG 1002.7 (Milet.), Schwyzer 692 (Chios), Att. γλῶττα, ης, ἡ,
1. tongue, Od. 3.332, etc. γ. λάρυγγος, = cross γλωττίς, larynx, Gal. UP 7.13.
2. tongue, as the organ of speech, γλώσσης χάριν through love of talking, Hes. Op. 709, A. Ch. 266; γλώσσῃ ματαίᾳ Id. Pr. 331, cf. Eu. 830; γλώσσης ἀκρατής Id. Pr. 884 (lyr.); μεγάλης γ. κόμποι S. Ant. 128; γλώσσῃ δεινός, θρασύς, Id. OC 806, Aj. 1142; ἡ γ. ὀμώμοχ' ἡ δὲ φρὴν ἀνώμοτος E. Hipp. 612: with Preps., ἀπὸ γλώσσης by frankness of speech, Thgn. 63; φθέγγεσθαι Pi. O. 6.13 (but ἀπὸ γ. ληίσσεται, opp. χερσὶ βίῃ, of fraud opp. violence, Hes. Op. 322); also, by word of mouth, Hdt. 1.123, Th. 7.10, Arr. An. 2.14.1; τῷ νῷ θ' ὁμοίως κἀπὸ τῆς γ. λέγω S. OC 936; τὰ γλώσσης ἄπο, i.e. our words, E. Ba. 1049; ἀπὸ γ. φράσω by heart, opp. γράμμασιν, Cratin. 122; οὐκ ἀπὸ γλώσσης not from mere word of mouth, but after full argument, A. Ag. 813; μὴ διὰ γλώσσης without using the tongue, E. Supp. 112; ἐν ὄμμασιν.. δεδορκὼς κοὐ κατὰ γλῶσσαν κλύων S. Tr. 747: — phrases: πᾶσαν γλῶτταν βασάνιζε try every art of tongue, Ar. V. 547; πᾶσαν ἱέναι γλῶσσαν let loose one's whole tongue, speak withoutrestraint, S. El. 596; πολλὴν γ. ἐγχέας μάτην Id. Fr. 929; κακὰ γ. slander, Pi. P. 4.283: pl., ἐν κερτομίοις γλώσσαις, i.e. with blasphemies, S. Ant. 962 (lyr.), cf. Aj. 199 (lyr.): βοῦς, κ ῇς ἐπὶ γλώσσῃ, v. cross βοῦς, κλείς.
3. of persons, one who is all tongue, speaker, of Pericles, μεγίστη γ. τῶν Ἑλληνίδων Cratin. 293, cf. Ar. Fr. 629 (s. v. l.).
4. ἡ γ. τοῦ ταμιείου the advocacy of the fiscus, Philostr. VS 2.29.
II language, ἄλλη δ' ἄλλων γ. μεμιγμένη Od. 19.175, cf. Il. 2.804; γλῶσσαν ἱέναι
1. speak a language or dialect, Hdt. 1.57; γ. Ἑλληνίδα, Δωρίδα ἱέναι, Id. 9.16, Th. 3.112, cf. A. Pers. 406, Ch. 564; γλῶσσαν νομίζειν Hdt. 1.142, 4.183; γλώσσῃ χρῆσθαι Id. 4.109; κατὰ τὴν ἀρχαίαν γ. Arist. Rh. 1357b10; dialect, ἡ Ἀττικὴ γ. Demetr. Eloc. 177; but also Δωρὶς διάλεκτος μία ὑφ' ἥν εἰσι γ. πολλαί Tryph. ap. Sch.D.T. p.320 H.
2. obsolete or foreign word, which needs explanation, Arist. Rh. 1410b12, Po. 1457b4, Plu. 2.406f: hence Γλῶσσαι, title of works by Philemon and others.
3. people speaking a distinct language, LX X. Ju. 3.8 (pl.), interpol. in Scyl. 15.
III anything shaped like the tongue (cf. γλῶσσαι ὡσεὶ πυρός Acts 2:3).
1 in Music, rced or tongue of a pipe, Aeschin. 3.229, Arist. HA 565a24, Thphr. HP 4.11.4, etc.
2. tongue or thong of leather, shoe-latchet, Pl.Com. 51, Aeschin.Socr. 57.
3. tongue of land, App. Pun. 121, cf. 95.
4. ingot, γ. χρυσῆ LXX John 7:21.
5. marking on the liver, in divination, Hsch. (γλῶσσα from γλωχ - y[acaron], cf. γλώξ, γλωχίς; γλάσσα from Γλᾰχ - y[acaron], weak grade of same root.)
γλῶσσα, γλωσης, ἡ (from Homer down), the tongue;
1. the tongue, a member of the body, the organ of speech: Mark 7:33, 35; Luke 1:64; Luke 16:24; 1 Corinthians 14:9; James 1:26; James 3:5, 6, 8; 1 Peter 3:10; 1 John 3:18; (Revelation 16:10). By a poetic and rhetorical usage, especially Hebraistic, that member of the body which is chiefly engaged in some act has ascribed to it what belongs to the man; the tongue is so used in Acts 2:26 (ἠγαλλιάσατο ἡ γλῶσσα μου); Romans 3:13; Romans 14:11; Philippians 2:11 (the tongue of every man); of the little tongue-like flames symbolizing the gift of foreign tongues, in Acts 2:3.
2. a tongue, i. e. the language used by a particular people in distinction from that of other nations: Acts 2:11; hence, in later Jewish usage (Isaiah 66:18; Daniel 3:4; Daniel 5:19 Theod.;
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γλῶσσα , -ης , ἡ ,
[in LXX chiefly for H3956;]
1. the tongue, as the organ of speech: Mark 7:33; Mark 7:31 Luke 1:64; Luke 16:24, Acts 2:26 (LXX), Romans 3:13 (LXX) Romans 14:11 (LXX), 1 Corinthians 14:9, Philippians 2:11, James 1:26; James 3:5-8, 1 Peter 3:10 (LXX), 1 John 3:18, Revelation 16:10; of a tongue-like object, Acts 2:3
2. a tongue, language: Acts 2:11; joined with φυλή , λαός , ἔθνος , freq. in pl., Revelation 5:9; Revelation 7:9; Revelation 10:11; Revelation 11:9; Revelation 13:7; Revelation 14:6; Revelation 17:15; λαλεῖν ἑτέραις γ ., Acts 2:4; γ . λαλεῖν καιναῖς , WH, txt. (RV, mg., omit καιναῖς , Mark 16:17; λαλεῖν γλώσσαις , γλώσσῃ (v. ICC, ll c.; DB, iv, 793 ff.), Mark 16:17, WH, txt., R, mg., Acts 10:46; Acts 19:6, 1 Corinthians 12:30; 1 Corinthians 13:1; 1 Corinthians 14:2-6; 1 Corinthians 14:13; 1 Corinthians 14:18; 1 Corinthians 14:23; 1 Corinthians 14:27; 1 Corinthians 14:39; γλῶσσαι (= λόγοι ἐν γλώσσῃ , 1 Corinthians 14:19), 1 Corinthians 13:8; 1 Corinthians 14:22; γένη γλωσσῶν , 1 Corinthians 12:10; 1 Corinthians 12:28; προσεύχεσθαι γλώσσῃ , 1 Corinthians 14:14; γλῶσσαν ἔχειν , 1 Corinthians 14:26 (Cremer, 163, 679).†
Copyright © 1922 by G. Abbott-Smith, D.D., D.C.L.. T & T Clarke, London.
Most of the occurrences of this noun, which retains both form and meaning in MGr, need no particular comment. P Oxy I. 138 (A.D. 183 or 215) saepe, the monthly meat bill of a cook, tells us that ";tongue"; was a favourite article of diet; so also the numerous passages in inscrr. where in the ritual of sacrifice the victim’s tongue is mentioned as a special perquisite. The word figures prominently in magical documents. P Lond 124.31 (iv/v A.D.) (= I. p. 122) βάλλε εἰς αὐτὸ γλῶσσαν βαθράκου shows the frog’s tongue playing the same part as ";tongue of dog"; in the witches’ spell in Macbeth : so also ib. 46.294 (iv/A.D.) (= I. p. 74). There are many curses which ";bind"; the tongue of their object : thus Syll 808 (Corcyra) Σιλανοῦ τὸν νόον καὶ τὰν γλῶσσαν τουτεῖ καταγράφω —Silanus himself and three witnesses who enabled him to win a suit are cursed with this leaden tablet in mind and tongue. So ib. 809 (Piraeus, iv/iii B.C.) begins Μικίωνα ἐγὼ ἔλαβον καὶ κατ ̣έδησα τὰς χεῖρας καὶ τοὺς πόδας καὶ τὴν γλῶσσαν καὶ τὴν ψυχήν . καὶ εἴ τι μέλλειε (l. μέλλει —a confusion with aor. opt.) ὑπὲρ Φίλωνος ῥῆμα μοχθηρὸν φθένγεσθαι , ἡ γλῶσσα αὐτοῦ μόλυβδος γένοιτο , καὶ κέντ [η ]σον α [ὐτ ]οῦ τὴν γλῶσσαν —the changes on these formulae are rung in the rest of the document. Deissmann, LAE, p. 306 ff., refers to thirty of Wünsch’s Attic defixiones where the tongue is ";bound"; or ";cursed."; He shows that this was supposed to produce dumbness, and interprets Mark 7:35 as release from what was believed to be a daemonic ";binding.";
Thumb, Gr. Dial. p. 22, points out that grammarians used γλῶσσα not only for ";language"; but also for ";local peculiarities of speech"; : thus Δωρὶς γὰρ διάλεκτος μία ὑφ᾽ ἥν εἰσι γλῶσσαι πολλαί , ";sub-dialects."; This leaves us free, if we choose, to reduce very considerably the abnormality of the ";tongues,"; which need not always have been foreign languages as Acts 2:4 (cf. Acts 2:6 ff.). We find it applied to a real foreign language in P Giss I. 99.9 (B.C. 80–79) ὕμνοι μὲν ἄι [δονται ] γλώτ ̣τῃ ξενικῇ : the ττ goes with ταῖν στήλαιν and other recherché archaisms to show that the piece is not tainted with vernacular!
The tongue of slander appears in P Lond 122.34 (iv/A.D.) (= I. p. 117) διάσωσόν μου πάνδοτε εἰς τὸν αἰῶνα ἀπὸ φαρμάκων καὶ δολίων καὶ βασκοσύνην πάσης καὶ γλωττῶν πονηρῶν —Milton’s ";evil tongues.";
Copyright © 1914, 1929, 1930 by James Hope Moulton and George Milligan. Hodder and Stoughton, London.
Derivative Copyright © 2015 by Allan Loder.