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Old & New Testament Greek Lexical Dictionary
Strong's #1131 - γυμνός
- unclad, without clothing, the naked body
- ill clad
- clad in undergarments only (the outer garments or cloak being laid aside)
- of the soul, whose garment is the body, stripped of the body, without a body
- naked, i.e. open, lay bare
- only, mere, bare, i.e. mere grain not the plant itself
γυμνός, ή, όν,
1. naked, unclad, γ. περ ἐών Od. 6.136, etc.; τὰ γ. Thphr. Char. 4.4: Comp., Ἴρου γυμνότερος Procop.Gaz. 122; γυμνὸν στάδιον, opp. ὁπλιτοδρόμος, Pi. P. 11.49.
2. unarmed, οὐδ' ὑπέμεινε Πάτροκλον, γυμνόν περ ἐόντ' ἐν δηϊοτῆτι Il. 16.815, etc.; γυμνὰ τὰ νῶτα παρέχειν Plu. Fab. 11; τὰ γυμνά parts not covered by armour, exposed parts, Th. 3.23, X. HG 4.4.12; esp. right side (the left being covered by the shields), Th. 5.10.71.
3. of things bare, γ. τόξον an uncovered bow,i.e. taken out of the case, Od. 11.607; γ.ὀϊστός 21.417; γ. μάχαιραι Theoc. 22.146; ξίφος A.R. 1.1254; γ. τῇ κεφαλῇ Pl. Phdr. 243b.
4. c.gen., stripped of a thing, κολεοῦ γ. φάσγανον Pi. N. 1.52, cf. X. Ages. 2.14; κᾶπος [δένδρων] γ. Pi. O. 3.24; γ. ὀστράκων A. Fr. 337; γ. προπομπῶν Id. Pers. 1036 (lyr.); (but also γ. τῶν ἀριστείων ἄτερ S. Aj. 464): in Prose, γ. ὅπλων Hdt. 2.141 (v.l.); ἡ ψυχὴ γ. τοῦ σώματος Pl. Cra. 403b, cf. R. 577b, Grg. 523d: Comp. ἀνδριάντων -ότερος D.Chr. 34.3.
5. lightly clad, i.e. in the undergarment only, Hes. Op. 391, Ar. Nu. 498, Pl. R. 474a, Luc. Herm. 23; μικροῦ γ. ἐν τῷ χιτωνίσκῳ D. 21.216; of horses, without harness, Arr. Cyn. 24.3.
6. of facts, naked, bald, γυμνῶν τῶν πραγμάτων θεωρουμένων D.S. 1.76; γ. τὸ ἔργον διηγήσασθαι Luc. Tox. 42; γυμνοτέροις χρήσασθαι τοῖς ὀνόμασιν Ph. 1.5; γ. χρῆσθαι τῇ μιμήσει Demetr. Eloc. 112. Adv. -ῶς baldly, Sch. A. Pers. 740.
7. destitute, PSI 6.605.4 (iii B.C.), etc.
8. bare, mere, κόκκος 1 Corinthians 15:37.
9. beardless, A.R. 2.707.
10. scalped, Archil. 161.
11. γυμνή· ἄνηβος, Hsch.
12. prov. of impossibilities, γυμνῷ φυλακὴν ἐπιτάττεις Pherecr. 144, Philem. 12. (Akin to Skt. nagnás, Lat. nâdus, etc.; cf. λυγνός.)
γυμνός , -ή , -όν ,
[in LXX chiefly for H6174;]
naked, without clothing, and sometimes (as freq. in cl.) scantily or poorly clad (Isaiah 20:2 ff., Tobit 1:16 2 Maccabees 11:12): Matthew 25:36; Matthew 25:38; Matthew 25:43-44, Mark 14:52, John 21:7, Acts 19:16, James 2:15 Revelation 3:17; Revelation 16:15; Revelation 17:16; as subst., τὸ γ ., the naked body, Mark 14:51. Metaph., of things exposed, Hebrews 4:13; of the soul without a body (Plat., Crat., c., 20, and cf. Deiss., LAE, 293), 2 Corinthians 5:3; of seed, bare, 1 Corinthians 15:37 (Cremer, 168).†
Copyright © 1922 by G. Abbott-Smith, D.D., D.C.L.. T & T Clarke, London.
The familiar sense of γυμνός = ";with only the χιτών "; comes out well in P Magd 6.7 (iii/B.C.) ὡς ἤμην γυμνὸς ὑπ᾽ αὐ [τῶν : the complainant had been stripped of his ἱμάτιον . On the other hand, the literal sense of ";naked"; is required in P Fay 12.20 (c. B.C. 103). Here the complainant reports a similar robbery of a ἱμάτιον , which he ultimately got back from the pawnbroker for 2700 drachmae of copper (= 45 silver dr., say 33 s.). The thieves went off with it ἐ ]ξέντες γυμνόν . He meanwhile got away μετ᾽ ἐνδύματος supplied by his friends (ὑπὸ τῶν γνωρίμων ), which at least implies that he could not have done without the ἔνδυμα . (Note the substitution of this more general word, that used of the Wedding Garment in the parable (Matthew 22:11 f.), where also it is a ἱμάτιον .) It may be noted that both our citations illustrate Luke’s form of the Logion (6.29), in which the assailant snatches the outer garment; the climax in Matthew 5:40 gets a little emphasis from the high price which our papyrus shows a ἱμάτιον could fetch. But we are not deterred by Harnack from pleading out of these documents for the originality of Luke, whose version obviously describes a common form of robbery. The Matthaean form may possibly be assimilated to the OT language about taking a man’s garment as a pledge. Another instance where γ . may well have its literal force is afforded by the well-known letter of the prodigal son to his mother, BGU III. 846.9 (ii/A.D.) (= Selections, p. 94) αἴγραψά σοι ὅτι γυμνός εἰμει , ";I wrote you that I hadn’t any clothes."; Cf. for the verb P Oxy VI. 903.7 (iv/A.D.), where a woman accuses her husband of applying fire to her daughters—γυμνώσας αὐ [τὰ ]ς παντελῶς , ";having stripped them quite naked";; and for the compound, P Magd 24.7 (B.C. 217) ὥστε καὶ ἀπογυμνωθῆναί μου τὸ στῆθος , as the result of a certain woman’s ἐπισπασαμένη τῆς ἀ [ναβολῆς τοῦ ἱματίου ] according to Wilcken’s restoration (Archiv vi. p. 274). The verb is used metaphorically in a difficult papyrus letter printed from Mélanges Chatelain in Preisigke 4317 (c. A.D. 200) : l. .25 (best taken as beginning a sentence) has γεγύμνωμαι καὶ ὕβρισμαι (-μαι repeated) παρὰ πάντων τῶν συνπολιτῶν . The adj. is MGr, and has the corresponding verb γυμνώνω .
Copyright © 1914, 1929, 1930 by James Hope Moulton and George Milligan. Hodder and Stoughton, London.
Derivative Copyright © 2015 by Allan Loder.
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