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Old & New Testament Greek Lexical Dictionary
Strong's #1199 - δεσμόν
- a band or bond
pl. δεσμά h.Merc. 157, al., Thgn. 459, Hdt. 6.91, and so mostly in Trag., A. Pr. 513, etc., and Pl. Euthphr. 9a; but δεσμοί A. Pr. 525, E. Ba. 518, 634, usu. in Pl., as Lg. 793b, al.: both forms in Att. Inscrr., δεσμοί IG 2.678 B 48, δεσμά ib.791.31, the latter preferred by Thom. Mag. p.79R. (sg. δεσμόν SIG 246 ii 36 (Delph.), Att. acc. to Hsch.): (δέω A): —
1. band, bond, anything for tying and fastening, as halter, Il. 6.507; mooring-cable, Od. 13.100, etc.; door-latch, 21.241; yoke-strap, X. An. 3.5.10: metaph., any bond of union or connexion, Pl. Ti. 31c, etc.; of the vowels, Id. Sph. 253a; δεσμοὶ πολιτείας, of the laws, Id. Lg. 793b; εἰς τὰ δεσμοῦ for binding material, PTeb. 120.70 (i B. C.).
2. in pl. (never δεσμά in this sense), bonds, chains, ἐκ δεσμῶν λυθῆναι A. Pr. 509, 770; πρὶν ἂν ἐξ ἀγρίων δ. χαλάσῃ ib. 177; ἐν δεσμοῖσι S. Fr. 63; εἰς δεσμοὺς ἄγειν E. Ba. 518; δεσμοῖς Th. 7.82; ὁ ἐπὶ τῶν δ., = cross δεσμοφύλαξ, Luc. Tox. 29: in sg., collectively, bonds, imprisonment, δ. ἀχλυόεις Epigr. ap. Hdt. 5.77 (= IG 12.394); οὐδὲν ἄξιον δεσμοῦ Hdt. 3.145; ἐν. δ. S. Ant. 958; ἐν δημοσίῳ δ. δεθείς Pl. Lg. 864e; ἔδησεν ἑαυτὸν τιμησάμενος δεσμοῦ Lys. 6.21: metaph. of moral bondage, Porph. Abst. 1.38, al.
3. ligature, Arist. HA 495b13, al.
4. δ. ἄρθρου in Hp. Fract. 37 is expld. by Gal. adloc. as ankylosIsa
5. spell, charm, Iamb. Myst. 3.27.
II = cross δέσμη, Pap. in Philol. 80.341, Poll. 2.135, Eust. 862.27; ἀσπαράγου δ. BGU 1120.14 (i B. C.); δ. ἀργυρίου LXX Genesis 42:27; cf. δέσις 111.
δεσμός , -οῦ , ὁ
(< δέω ),
[in LXX chiefly for H631;]
a band, bond: metaph., Luke 13:16; ὁ δεσμὸς τ . γλώσοης , Mark 7:35 (for this expression in Papyri, v. Deiss., LAE, 306 ff.; of actual bonds, v. Ruth., Gr., 9). Pl., δεσμοί , Philippians 1:13; δεσμά (as also in cl.), Luke 8:29, Acts 16:26; Acts 20:23; gen., dat., Acts 23:29; Acts 26:29; Acts 26:31 Philippians 1:7; Philippians 1:14; Philippians 1:17, Colossians 4:18, 2 Timothy 2:9, Philemon 1:10, Hebrews 11:36, Judges 1:6; ἐν τοῖς δ . τοῦ εὐαγγελίου Philemon 1:13,†
Copyright © 1922 by G. Abbott-Smith, D.D., D.C.L.. T & T Clarke, London.
For the full force of ὁ δεσμὸς τῆς γλώσσης , ";the bond of the tongue,"; in Mark 7:35, reference may be made to Deissmann LAE, p. 306 ff., where it is shown that the expression has a ";technical"; meaning derived from the old belief that a man was ";bound"; by daemonic influences. The man was not merely made to speak, but daemonic fetters were broken, and Satan’s work undone. The plur. τὰ δεσμά , which in the NT is characteristic of the Lucan writings, would seem to be more literary than οἱ δεσμοί , the general LXX form : see Thackeray Gr. i. p. 154. According to Mayser Gr. p. 285 the neuter plur. is never found in the Ptolemaic papyri, nor can we supply any instance from a later period. In the Attic inscriptions both forms are found (see Meisterhans Gr. p. 143) with apparently no distinction of meaning, so that Cobet’s distinction (Mnemosyne, 1858, p. 74 ff.) that the neuter refers to actual bonds, the masculine to the imprisonment, cannot be maintained : cf. Kennedy on Philippians 1:13 in EGT. By origin, δεσμά should be collective and δεσμοί individualizing, which would be the very opposite of Cobet’s dictum; but usage may well have introduced a new differentia. A spell for loosing bonds (δυσμολύτον , sic) may be cited from P Leid Wvii. 30 (ii/iii A.D.) λυθήτω πᾶς δεσμώς , πᾶσα βία , ῥαγήτω πᾶς σίτηρω (i.e. σίδηρος ) κτλ . A curiously close parallel for Hebrews 11:36 ( . . . πεῖραν ἔλαβον , ἔτι δὲ δεσμῶν καὶ φυλακῆς ) occurs in Vettius Valens p. 68.17 δεσμῶν πεῖραν ἐπὶ χρόνον ἱκανὸν λαμβάνοντας , ἕως συμπληρώσωσι τοὺς χρόνους τοῦ ἀστέρος .
Copyright © 1914, 1929, 1930 by James Hope Moulton and George Milligan. Hodder and Stoughton, London.
Derivative Copyright © 2015 by Allan Loder.
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