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Old & New Testament Greek Lexical Dictionary
Strong's #1401 - δοῦλος
- a slave, bondman, man of servile condition
- a slave
- metaph., one who gives himself up to another's will those whose service is used by Christ in extending and advancing his cause among men
- devoted to another to the disregard of one's own interests
- a servant, attendant
(A), Cret. δῶλος Leg.Gort. 1.1, al., ὁ: —
1. prop. born bondman or slave, opp. one made a slave, τὰ ἀνδράποδα πάντα καὶ δοῦλα καὶ ἐλεύθερα Th. 8.28, cf. E. IA 330: then, generally, bondman, slave, opp. δεσπότης (q. v.): not in Hom., who twice has fem. δούλη, ἡ, bondwoman, Il. 3.409, Od. 4.12, cf. A. Ag. 1326, X. Cyr. 5.1.4, Pl. R. 395e, etc.: freq. of Persians and other nations subject to a despot, Hdt., etc.; οὔ τινος δοῦλοι κέκληνται, of the Greeks, A. Pers. 242: metaph., χρημάτων δ. slaves to money, E. Hec. 865; so γνάθου δ. Id. Fr. 282.5; τῶν αἰεὶ ἀτόπων Th. 3.38; λιχνειῶν, λαγνειῶν, X. Oec. 1.22, cf. Mem. 1.3.11. II Adj. (not in A.), δοῦλος, η, ον, slavish, servile, subject, δ. πόλις S. OC 917, X. Mem. 4.2.29; γνώμαισι δούλαις S. Tr. 53; δ. ἔχειν βίον ib. 302; σῶμα δ., opp. νοῦς ἐλεύθερος, Id. Fr. 940; τοὺς τρόπους δούλους παρασχεῖν E. Supp. 877; δ. θάνατος, ζυγόν, πούς, Id. Or. 1170, Tr. 678, 507; δ. καὶ τυραννουμένη πόλις Pl. R. 577d; δ. ἡδοναί, = δουλοπρεπεῖς, ib. 587c, etc.: Comp. δουλότερος more enslaved, Αἴγυπτον δ. ποιεῖν Hdt. 7.7.
2. τὸ δ., = οἱ δοῦλοι, E. Ion 983, etc.; also, slavery, a slavish life, ib. 556 (troch.).
3. ancillary, δ. ἐπιστῆμαι Arist. Metaph. 996b11.
(B) · ἡ οἰκία ἢ τὴν ἐπὶ τὸ αὐτὸ συνέλευσιν τῶν γυναικῶν, Hsch.; cf. δωλοδομεῖς, δωλέννετος.
δοῦλος , -η , -ον ,
1. in bondage to, subject to: Romans 6:19.
2. As subst., ὁ , ἡ δ ., a slave;
(a) fem., ἡ δ ., a female slave, bondmaid (Cremer, 702; DB, iii, 215): Luke 1:38; Luke 1:48, Acts 2:18 (LXX);
(b) masc., ὁ δ ., a slave, bondman: Matthew 8:9; Matthew 18:23, al,; opp. to ἐλεύθερος , 1 Corinthians 7:22; 1 Corinthians 12:13, Galatians 3:28, Ephesians 6:8, Colossians 3:11, Revelation 6:15; Revelation 13:16; Revelation 19:18; opp. to κύριος , δεσπότης , οἰκοδεσπότης , Matthew 10:24; Matthew 13:27-28, Luke 12:46, John 15:15, Ephesians 6:5, Colossians 3:22; Colossians 4:1, al,; metaph., δ . Χριστοῦ , τοῦ Χρ ., Ἰησοῦ Χρ ., Romans 1:1, 1 Corinthians 7:22, Galatians 1:10, Ephesians 6:6, Philippians 1:1, Colossians 4:12, James 1:1, 2 Peter 1:1, Judges 1:1; δ . τ . θεοῦ , τ . κυρίου , Acts 16:17, 2 Timothy 2:24, Titus 1:1, 1 Peter 2:16, Revelation 7:3; Revelation 15:3; δ . πονηρός , ἀχρεῖος , κακός , Matthew 18:32; Matthew 24:48; Matthew 25:26; Matthew 25:30, Luke 17:10; Luke 19:22; δ . ἀμαρτίας , John 8:34, Romans 6:17; Romans 6:20; τ . φθορᾶς , 2 Peter 2:19.
Copyright © 1922 by G. Abbott-Smith, D.D., D.C.L.. T & T Clarke, London.
In Wilcken Ostr. i. p. 681 ff. there is a valuable account of the occupations which in the Graeco-Roman world were monopolized by slave labour. Among those that were not, the following classes, which are represented in the NT, are mentioned—ἁλιεύς, ἀμπελουργός, γεωργός, γραμματεύς, διδάσκαλος, ἔμπορος, ἐργάτης, ἰατρός, ναύκληρος, ποιμήν, τέκτων, τραπεζίτην, χαλκεύς. For the Pauline δοῦλος Χριστοῦ it is sufficient to refer to Deissmann’s well-known discussion (LAE, p. 323 ff.), in which the phrase is set in the light of old Greek custom, and especially of the right of manumission as evidenced by the Delphic inscriptions.
A further contrast is drawn later (p. 381) with the familiar title a ";slave of the Emperor,"; as in the Phrygian inscription, BCH xxviii. (1904) p. 195, Ἀγαθόποδι δούλῳ τοῦ κυρίου αὐτοκράτορος. Reference may also be made to Thackeray Gr. i. p. 8, where the growing tendency in the LXX renderings to emphasize the distance between God and man is shown by θεράπων giving place to οἰκέτης, this to παῖς, and this again to δοῦλος. The phrase of Matthew 25:30 is found in P Par 68B. .54 (Imperial) ἀχρείους δούλους. (See under ἀχρεῖος, where however Mt l.c. is accidentally overlooked). On Δοῦλα as a proper name, see Proleg. p. 48 n.1.
The adj. δουλικός, which is not found in the NT, is very common—BGU IV. 1058.12 (B.C. 13) δουλικὸν παιδίον, ib. I. 193.12 (A.D. 136) δουλικὸν ἔγγονον, P Tebt II. 407.5 (? A.D. 199) δουλικὰ σώμ [ατ ]α, etc. Δοῦλος, fem. δούλα, remains in MGr.
Copyright © 1914, 1929, 1930 by James Hope Moulton and George Milligan. Hodder and Stoughton, London.
Derivative Copyright © 2015 by Allan Loder.
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