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Old & New Testament Greek Lexical Dictionary Greek Lexicon
Strong's #1484 - ἔθνος
- a multitude (whether of men or of beasts) associated or living together
- a company, troop, swarm
- a multitude of individuals of the same nature or genus
- the human family
- a tribe, nation, people group
- in the OT, foreign nations not worshipping the true God, pagans, Gentiles
- Paul uses the term for Gentile Christians
ἔθνος, εος, τό:
(ϝέθνος, cf. Il. 2.87, 7.115, al.): -
1. number of people living together, company, body of men, ἑτάρων ἔ., ἔ. ἑταίρων, band of comrades, Il. 3.32, 7.115, etc.; ἔθνος λαῶν host of men, 13.495; of particular tribes, Αυκίων μέγα ἔ. 12.330; Ἀχαιῶν ἔ. 17.552: pl., ἔθνεα πεζῶν 11.724, cf. 2.91; ἔ. νεκρῶν Od. 10.526; of animals, ἔ. μελισσάων, ὀρνίθων, μυιάων, swarms, flocks, etc., Il. 2.87, 459, 469; ἔθνη θηρῶν S. Ph. 1147 (lyr.), Ant. 344; ἔ. ἀνέρων, γυναικῶν, Pi. O. 1.66, P. 4.252; ἔ. βρότεον, θνατόν, Id. N. 3.74, 11.42; ἔ. τόδε, of the Erinyes, A. Eu. 366 (lyr.).
2. after Hom., nation, people, τὸ Μηδικὸν ἔ. (γένος being a subdivision of ἔθνος) Hdt. 1.101; ἔ. ἠπειρογενές, μαχαιροφόρον, A. Pers. 43, 56 (anap.), etc.; τῶν μηδισάντων ἐθνέων τῶν Ἑλληνικῶν Hdt. 9.106. later, τὰ ἔ. foreign, barbarous nations, opp. Ἕλληνες, Arist. Pol. 1324b10; ἔ. νομάδων, of Bedawîn, LW 2203 (Syria); at Athens, athletic clubs of non-Athenians, IG 2.444, al.; in LXX, non-Jews, Psalms 2:1, al., cf. Acts 7:45; Gentiles, τῶν ἐθνῶν τε καὶ Ἰουδαίων ib. 14.5, etc.; used of Gentile Christians, Romans 15:27. at Rome, = provinciae, App. BC 2.13, Hdn. 1.2.1, PStrassb. 22.19 (iii A. D.), D.C. 36.41, etc.: so in sg., province, ὁ τυραννήσας τοῦ ἔθνους D.Chr. 43.11; ὁ ἡγούμενος τοῦ ἔθνους the governor of the province, POxy. 1020.5 (iii A. D.).
3. class of men, caste, tribe, τὸ Θετταλῶν.. πενεστικὸν ἔ. Pl. Lg. 776d; ἔθνος κηρυκικόν Id. Plt. 290b; οἶσθά τι ἔ. ἠλιθιώτερον ῥαψῳδῶν; X. Smp. 3.6; δημιουργικὸν ἔ. Pl. Grg. 455b, cf. Arist. Ath. 3; ἔ. βραχμάνων D.S. 17.102; τὰ ἱερὰ ἔ. the orders of priests, OGI 90.17 (ii B. C.); trade-associations or guilds, ἔθνη καὶ ἐργαστήρια PPetr. 3p.67 (iii B. C.), al.; class in respect to rank or station, οὐ πρὸς τοῦτο βλέποντες.. ὅπως.. ἕν τι ἔ. ἔσται διαφερόντως εὔδαιμον Pl. R. 420b, cf. 421c, D. 21.131.
4. sex, θῆλυ, ἄρρεν ἔ., X. Oec. 7.26.
5. part, member, Hp. Loc.Hom. 1. II of a single person, a relation, Pi. N. 5.43.
ἔθνος, ἔθνους, τό:
1. a multitude (whether of men or of beasts) associated or living together; a company, troop, swarm: ἔθνος ἑταίρων, ἔθνος Ἀχαιων, ἔθνος λαῶν, Homer, Iliad; ἔθνος μελισσαων, 2, 87; μυιαων ἐθνεα, ibid. 469.
2. "a multitude of individuals of the same nature or genus (τό ἔθνος τό θῆλυ ἤ ἀρρεν, Xenophon, oec. 7, 26): πᾶν ἔθνος ἀνθρώπων, the human race, Acts 17:26 (but this seems to belong under the next entry).
3. race, nation: Matthew 21:43; Acts 10:35, etc.; ἔθνος ἐπί ἔθνος, Matthew 24:7; Mark 13:8: οἱ ἄρχοντες, οἱ βασιλεῖς τῶν ἐθνῶν, Matthew 20:25; Luke 22:25; used (in the singular) of the Jewish people, Luke 7:5; Luke 23:2; John 11:48, 50-53; John 18:35; Acts 10:22; Acts 24:2 (
4. (τά ἔθνη, like הַגויִם in the O. T., foreign nations not worshipping the true God, pagans, Gentiles, (cf. Trench, § xcviii.): Matthew 4:15 (Γαλιλαία τῶν ἐθνῶν),
5. Paul uses τά ἔθνη even of Gentile Christians: Romans 11:13; Romans 15:27; Romans 16:4; Galatians 2:12 (opposite Galatians 2:13 to οἱ Ἰουδαῖοι, i. e. Jewish Christians), Galatians 2:14; Ephesians 3:1, cf. Ephesians 4:17 (Winers Grammar, § 59, 4 a.; Buttmann, 130 (114)).
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ἔθνος , -ους , τό ,
1. a multitude, a company, whether of beasts or men (Hom.).
2. a nation, people: Matthew 21:43; Matthew 24:7, Mark 13:8, Luke 22:25, Acts 10:35, al.; in sing., of the Jewish people, Luke 7:5; Luke 23:2, John 11:48; John 11:50-53; John 18:35, Acts 10:22; Acts 24:3; Acts 24:10; Acts 26:4; Acts 28:19.
3. In pl., as in OT, τὰ ἔ . (like Heb. H1471), the nations, as distinct from Israel, Gentiles: Matthew 4:15; Matthew 6:32, Acts 26:17, Romans 3:29; Romans 11:11; Romans 15:10, Galatians 2:8, al.; of Gentile Christians, Romans 11:13; Romans 15:27; Romans 16:4, Galatians 2:12; Galatians 2:14 Ephesians 3:1.
SYN.: λαός G2992 (v. DCG, ii, 229; Cremer, 226).
Copyright © 1922 by G. Abbott-Smith, D.D., D.C.L.. T & T Clarke, London.
Hicks in CR i. p. 42 f. has shown that ";Hellenic life found its normal type in the πόλις, and barbarians who lived κατὰ κώμας or in some less organised form were ἔθνη,"; and that similarly in the LXX and NT ἔθνος ";describes the pagan world, outside the Jewish Church,"; but occasionally stands for the λαός itself, as in Acts 10:22; Acts 24:17 al. In an Imperial rescript of A.D. 198–201 we have a good example of the word = ";province";—P Oxy VII. 1020.5 ο ̣̔ ἡγούμ [ενος ] τοῦ ἔθνους τὸν ἀγῶνα τῆς ἀφέσεως ἐκδικ [ήσει, ";the praefect of the province shall decide the suit for release"; (Ed.) : cf. P Strass I. 22.19 (iii/A.D.) διατάξεις εἰσὶν τῶν κυρίω ̣ν ̣ περὶ τῶν ἐν ̣ τοῖς ἔθνεσιν οἰκούντων, where the editor understands by ἔθνη, ";provinciae populi Romani,"; and the exx. from Greek writers of this usage in Magie p. 59, Archiv i. p. 66 : see also Deissmann Paul, p. 100. In the edict regarding the aurum coronarium, P Fay 20.11 (iv/A.D.) ἅπαντες ἐν ταῖς πόλεσιν ἁπάσαις ταῖς τε κατ᾽ Ἰταλίαν κα [ὶ ] ταῖς ἐν τοῖς ἄλλοις ἔθνεσιν, we may render ";all persons in all the cities throughout Italy and in the provinces besides,"; cf. .19, .20. In P Petr III. 59 (b).4 ἱερὰ ἔθνη are ";priestly associations or corporations"; : cf. P Tebt I. 6.24 (B.C. 140–39) τῶν κατὰ μέρος ἐθνῶν where the reference is to the different classes of priests as contrasted with the πλῆθος of them, P Tor I. 1ii. 24 (B.C. 116) τὸ ἔθνος (";hoc Collegium";) μεταγαγεῖν εἰς τὰ Μεμνονεῖα, and OGIS 90.17 (Rosetta stone—B.C. 196) ἐκ τῶν ἱερῶν ἐθνῶν, where Dittenberger defines ἔθνος as ";genus hominum communione victus, officii, condicionis civilis definitum,"; but cf. Otto Priester i. p. 77. See also P Ryl II. 65.3 (B.C. 67?) οἱ ἐκ τοῦ ἔθνους νεκροτ ̣[άφοι, ";the grave-diggers belonging to the association,"; and for a wider use of the term P Petr III. 32 (f ).2, where for εθινων the editor proposes to read ἐθνῶν (cf. versoii. 11) with reference to ";associations"; for trade purposes. MGr ἔθνος = ";nation,"; ";people.";
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