Old & New Testament Greek Lexical Dictionary
Strong's #2288 - θάνατος
- the death of the body
- that separation (whether natural or violent) of the soul and the body by which the life on earth is ended
- with the implied idea of future misery in hell
- the power of death
- since the nether world, the abode of the dead, was conceived as being very dark, it is equivalent to the region of thickest darkness i.e. figuratively, a region enveloped in the darkness of ignorance and sin
- metaph., the loss of that life which alone is worthy of the name,
- the misery of the soul arising from sin, which begins on earth but lasts and increases after the death of the body in hell
- the miserable state of the wicked dead in hell
- in the widest sense, death comprising all the miseries arising from sin, as well physical death as the loss of a life consecrated to God and blessed in him on earth, to be followed by wretchedness in hell
[ θᾰ], ὁ, (θνῄσκω)
1. death, whether natural or violent, Hom., etc.; τῶν ὑπαλευάμενος θάνατον the death threatened by them, Od. 15.275; ὣς θάνον οἰκτίστῳ θανάτῳ 11.412; θάνατόνδε to death, Il. 16.693, 22.297; θανάτου τέλος, μοῖρα, A. Th. 906 (lyr.), Pers. 917 (anap.), etc.; θανάτου πέρι καὶ ζωᾶς for life and death, Pi. N. 9.29; θ. ἢ βίον φέρει S. Aj. 802; θάνατος μὲν τάδ' ἀκούειν Id. OC 529; θανάτῳ ἴσον πάθος Id. Aj. 215; ἐν ἀγχόναις θάνατον λαβεῖν E. Hel. 201; πόλεώς ἐστι θ., ἀνάστατον γενέσθαι it is its death, Lycurg. 61; γῆρας ζῶν θ. Secund. Sent. 12; θάνατον ἀποθνῄσκειν, τελευτᾶν, Plu. Crass. 25, D.H. 4.76.
2. in Law, death-penalty, θάνατον καταγνῶναί τινος to pass sentence of death on one, Th. 3.81; θανάτου δίκῃ κρίνεσθαι ib. 57; θανάτου κρίνειν X. Cyr. 1.2.14, Plb. 6.14.6; περὶ θανάτου διώκειν X. HG 7.3.6; πρὸς τοὺς ἐχθροὺς.. ἀγωνίσασθαι περὶ θ. D. 4.47; θ. τῆς ζημίας ἐπικειμένης the penalty is death, Isoc. 8.50; ellipt., παιδίον κεκος μημένον τὴν ἐπὶ θανάτῳ (sc. στολήν) Hdt. 1.109; τὴν ἐπὶ θ. προσαγαγεῖν τινα Luc. Alex. 44; but δῆσαί τινα τὴν ἐπὶ θανάτῳ (sc. δέσιν) Hdt. 3.119; τὴν ἐπὶ θανάτῳ ἔξοδον ποιεῖσθαι to go to execution, Id. 7.223; ἐπὶ θάνατον ἄγεσθαι Id. 3.14; τοῖς Ἀθηναίοις ἐπιτρέψαι περὶ σφῶν αὐτῶν πλὴν θανάτου for any penalty short of death, Th. 4.54; εὐθύνας εἶναι πλὴν φυγῆς καὶ θανάτου καὶ ἀτιμίας IG 12.39.73; εἰργόμενον θανάτου καὶ τοῦ ἀνάπηρον ποιῆσαι short of death or maiming, Aeschin. 1.183.
3. pl., θάνατοι kinds of death, Od. 12.341; the deaths of several persons, S. OT 1200, E. Heracl. 628 (both lyr.); poet., of one person, A. Ch. 53, S. OT 496, El. 206 (all lyr.); οὐχ ἑνός, οὐδὲ δυοῖν ἄξια θανάτοιν Pl. Lg. 908e; πολλῶν θ., οὐχ ἑνὸς ἄξιος D. 21.21, cf. 19.16, Ar. Pl. 483, D.H. 4.24; δεύτερος θ. *Revelation 2:11, cf. Plu. 2.942f; esp. of violent death, θ. αὐθένται A. Ag. 1572 (lyr.), cf. Th. 879 (lyr.); εἰς θανάτους ἰέναι Pl. R. 399b.
II as pr. n., Θάνατος Death, Ὕπνῳ.. κασιγνήτῳ Θανάτοιο Il. 14.231, cf. S. Aj. 854, Ph. 797, etc.; μόνος θεῶν γὰρ Θ. οὐ δώρων ἐρᾷ A. Fr. 161; ὃν [ἰὸν] τέκετο Θ. S. Tr. 834; character in E. Alc.
III corpse, θ. ἀτύμβευτος AP 9.439 (Crin.).
θάνατος , -ου , ὁ
1. of the death of the body, whether natural or violent: John 11:13, Philippians 2:27, Hebrews 7:23, al; opp. to ζωή , Romans 8:38, Philippians 1:20; of the death of Christ, Romans 5:10, Philippians 3:10, Hebrews 2:9; ῥυέσθαι (σώζειν ) ἐκ θ ., 2 Corinthians 1:10, Hebrews 5:7; περίλυπος ἕως θανάτου , Matthew 26:38, Mark 14:34; μέχρι (ἄχρι ) θ ., Philippians 2:8, Revelation 2:10; πληγὴ θανάτου , a deadly wound, Revelation 13:3; ἰδεῖν θάνατον , Luke 2:26, Hebrews 11:5; γεύεσθαι θανάτου , Mark 9:1; ἔνοχος θανάτου , Mark 14:64; θανάτῳ τελευτᾶν (Exodus 21:17, H4191), Mark 7:10; death personified, Romans 6:9, 1 Corinthians 15:26, Revelation 21:4; pl., of deadly perils, 2 Corinthians 11:23.
2. Of spiritual death: John 5:24; John 8:51, Romans 7:10, James 1:15; James 5:20, 1 John 3:14; 1 John 5:16, a.; of eternal death, Romans 1:32; Romans 7:5, al.;ὁ θ . ὁ δεύτερος , Revelation 2:11; Revelation 21:8 (cf. Cremer, 283 ff.; DB, iii, 114 ff.; DCG, i, 791 f.).
Copyright © 1922 by G. Abbott-Smith, D.D., D.C.L.. T & T Clarke, London.
For this common noun we may cite such passages as P Petr III. 36 (a).7 τ ]ὸν θάνατον ὑποκείμενον [ἐν ] τῆι φυλακῆι διὰ τὴν ἒνδειαν, P Tebt 1. 5.92 (B.C. 118) τοὺς δὲ παρὰ ταῦτα ποιοῦντας θαν [άτωι ζ ]ημιοῦσθαι, P Oxy III. 472.7 (c. A.D. 130) ἄλλοι πολλοὶ τὸν θάνατον τοῦ ζῆν προκρείναντες, ib. 11. 237viii. 36 (A.D. 186) ἡ δὲ κτῆσις μετὰ θάνατον τοῖς τέκνοις κεκράτηται, ";but the right of ownership after their death has been settled upon the children"; (Edd.). The well-known inscr. at the entrance of the inner court of the Temple at Jerusalem, threatening all who were not Jews with the penalty of death for entering, ends—ὃς δ᾽ ἂν ληφθῇ, ἑαυτῶι αἴτιος ἔσται διὰ τὸ ἐξακολουθεῖν θάνατον (OGIS 598.7, i/A.D.). In a Latin papyrus containing military accounts, P Fay 105iii. 24 (c. A.D. 180), opposite the name Turbon a letter θ has been inserted, implying, according to the editors, that he has died. The letter, they add, has the same signification on Roman gravestones, and also in a Latin list of soldiers in the Rainer Collection, where the name itself is crossed through : cf. Persius Sat. iv. 13 (";nigrum . . . theta";), Mart. vii. 37, and the line of Lucilius (?)—";O multum ante alias infelix littera Theta."; It was used by critics and grammarians to mark a locus conclamatus. In MGr the subst. survives, while θανατικό = ";plague,"; ";disease.";
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Derivative Copyright © 2015 by Allan Loder.
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