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Bible Lexicons

Old & New Testament Greek Lexical DictionaryGreek Lexicon

Strong's #2560 - κακῶς

Root Word (Etymology)
from (G2556)
Parts of Speech
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  1. miserable, to be ill
  2. improperly, wrongly
  3. to speak ill of, revile, one
Hebrew Equivalent Words:
Strong #: 779 ‑ אָרַר (aw‑rar');  2470 ‑ חָלָה (khaw‑law');  7043 ‑ קָלַל (kaw‑lal');  
Frequency Lists
Verse Results
KJV (16)
Matthew 7
Mark 4
Luke 2
John 1
Acts 1
James 1
NAS (13)
Matthew 5
Mark 2
Luke 2
John 1
Acts 1
James 2
HCS (16)
Matthew 7
Mark 4
Luke 2
John 1
Acts 1
James 1
BSB (16)
Matthew 7
Mark 4
Luke 2
John 1
Acts 1
James 1
ESV (14)
Matthew 5
Mark 4
Luke 2
John 1
Acts 1
James 1
WEB (15)
Matthew 6
Mark 4
Luke 2
John 1
Acts 1
James 1
Liddell-Scott-Jones Definitions


[], εως, ἡ, (κᾰκόω)


1. ill-treatment, τοῦ ἡγεμόνος X. An. 4.6.3, cf. Stud.Pal. 1.8.10 (V A.D.); oppression, τοῦ λαοῦ LXX Exodus 3:7.

2. esp. in Law, ill-usage, of persons by their natural protectors, ὁ τῆς κ. νόμος Lys. 13.91, cf. Isa 8.32, D. 10.40, etc.; γραφὴ κακώσεως Id. 58.32, Men. 328; κ. γονέων, ὀρφανῶν, ἐπικλήρου, οἴκου ὀρφανικοῦ, Arist. Ath. 56.6; τοκέων κ. Lycurg. 147; also κ. ἐπαρχίας misgovernment, of the Rom. actio repetundarum, Plu. Caes. 4.

II suffering, distress, Th. 2.43; πληρωμάτων Id. 7.4; αἰκίαι σωμάτων καὶ κακώσεις Arist. Rh. 1386a8, cf. 1385a24; of the effects of disease, Hp. VM 17: pl., Id. Aër. 19; αἱ τᾶς σαρκὸς τακομένας κακώσιες Ti.Locr. 102c, cf. Phld. Mort. 21, Sor. 1.31.

Thayer's Expanded Definition

κακῶς (κακός), adverb (from Homer on down), badly, ill, i. e.

a. (in a physical sense) miserably: ἔχειν, to be ill, sick (see ἔχω, II. a.), Matthew 4:24; Matthew 8:16; Matthew 9:12; Matthew 14:35; (Matthew 17:15 L Tr text WH text); Mark (Mark 1:32, 34); ; (Mark 6:55); Luke 5:31; Luke 7:2, etc.; πάσχειν, Matthew 17:15 (R G T Tr marginal reading WH marginal reading); δαιμονίζεσθαι, Matthew 15:22; κακούς κακῶς ἀπολέσει, Matthew 21:41, on this combination of words with verbs of destroying, perishing, etc., which is frequent in Greek writings also, cf. Kuinoel at the passage; Winers Grammar, § 68, 1.

b. (morally) improperly, wrongly: John 18:23; κακῶς εἰπεῖν τινα, to speak ill of, revile, one, Acts 23:5; with bad intent, αἰτεῖσθαι, James 4:3.

Thayer's Expanded Greek Definition, Electronic Database.
Copyright © 2002, 2003, 2006, 2011 by Biblesoft, Inc.
All rights rserved. Used by permission. BibleSoft.com
Abbott-Smith Manual Greek Lexicon of the New Testament


(< κακός ),


[in LXX: Wisdom of Solomon 18:19, 4 Maccabees 6:17.al.; κ . εἰπεῖν , ἐρεῖν (H779, H7043 pi.), Exodus 22:28 (27), Leviticus 19:14, Isaiah 8:21; κ . ἔχειν (H2470, Ezekiel 34:4, al.;]

badly, ill;

(a) in physical sense: κ . ἔχειν , to be ill, Matthew 4:24; Matthew 8:16; Matthew 9:12; Matthew 14:35; Matthew 17:15, Mark 1:32; Mark 1:34; Mark 2:17; Mark 6:55; Mark 5:31; Mark 7:2; πάσχειν , Matthew 17:15 (WH, mg.); δαιμονίζεσθαι , Matthew 15:22; κακοὺς κ . ἀπολέσει (as freq. in cl., v. LS, s.v.; MM, Exp., xv), evil that they are, he will evilly, etc., Matthew 21:41;

(b) in moral sense, wrongly (1 Maccabees 7:42, 4Mac, l.c., al.): κ . λαλεῖν , John 18:23; είπεῖν , c. acc pers., Acts 23:5; αἰτεῖσθαι , James 4:8,†

Abbott-Smith Manual Greek Lexicon of the New Testament.
Copyright © 1922 by G. Abbott-Smith, D.D., D.C.L.. T & T Clarke, London.
Vocabulary of the Greek NT

For the phrase κακῶς ἔχειν, as in Matthew 4:24 etc., cf. P Oxy VI. 935.15 (iii/A.D.) ἔμελλον. . ἀναβῆναι. . ἐπε [ὶ οἱ παρὰ ] Σαραπίω [νος ] εἶπον ̣ [κακ ]ῶς ἔχειν α ̣[ ]τ ̣[όν, ";I intended to come up since Sarapion’s friends said that he was ill"; (Edd.), ib. 938.5 (iii/iv A.D.) τῶν οὖν κτηνῶν κακῶς ἐχόντων, ";since, then, the oxen are in a bad way."; The combination κακοὺς κακῶς ἀπολέσει αὐτούς in Matthew 21:41 sounds rather literary, but cf. ὁ τούτων τι ποιῶν κακὸς κακῇ ἐξωλείᾳ ἀπόλοιτο in Syll 584.5 f., which Michel doubtfully assigns to i/B.C. The inscr. is from Smyrna, apparently from a temple of Atargatis, whose sacred fishes are protected by this portentous curse : he who injures them is to die, ἰχθυόβρωτος γενόμενος (cf. the formation of the adj. σκωληκόβρωτος, Acts 12:23). It seems clear that the collocation κακοὺς κακῶς ἀπολέσθαι, starting as a literary phrase, had been perpetuated in common parlance, like our stock quotations from Shakespeare. Cf. also the inscr. from the Roman catacomb of Priscilla, Kaibel 734.7 f.—

ὅ ποτε πλούσιος περὶ τέκνα νῦν κακὸν κακῶς

τηρῶν ὡς Τάνταλος κολάζομαι.

For other exx. of the adverb see P Petr II. 19(2).3 (Ptol. ) ἔρρειμαι γὰρ κακῶς διακείμενος ἀπ᾽ ἐκείνου, P Oxy X. 1346 (ii/A.D. ?) ἐν τῇ (?)] πόλει γέγναπ ̣τ ̣α ̣ι ̣ καὶ κακῶς ἐγνάφη, ib. I. 34 versoiii. 12 (A.D. 127) διὰ ἀπειθίαν κ [ακ ]ῶς ἀφορμὴν ζητοῦντας ἁμαρτημάτω [ν ] τειμωρήσομαι, where Brinkmann (see Kuhring Praep. p. 41 n..3) suggests κ [ακ ]ῶς for the editors’ κ [αὶ ] ὡς, and ib. 40.8 (ii/iii A.D.) τάχα κακῶς αὐτοὺς ἐθεράπευσας, of possible wrong medical treatment.


The Vocabulary of the Greek New Testament.
Copyright © 1914, 1929, 1930 by James Hope Moulton and George Milligan. Hodder and Stoughton, London.
Derivative Copyright © 2015 by Allan Loder.
List of Word Forms
κακως κακώς κακῶς kakos kakôs kakōs kakō̂s
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