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Old & New Testament Greek Lexical Dictionary
Strong's #3524 - νηφάλεος
- sober, temperate
- abstaining from wine, either entirely or at least from its immoderate use
- of things free from all wine, as vessels, offerings
νηφᾰλ-έος, α, ον,
= νηφάλιος, Hdn.Gr. 2.908, al.; = σώφρων, Suid., cf. Max.Tyr. 9.3, Agath. 2.3, Sch. Il. 23.398 (Sup.).
Adv. -έως sanely, ξυντελέσαι δόμον Aret. SD 1.6.
νηφᾰλ-ιος, α, ον,
also ος, ον 1 Timothy 3:11, Plu. 2.657c: (νήφω): —
I of drink, unmixed with wine, ν. μειλίγματα offerings of water, milk, and honey to the Eumenides, A. Eu. 107; to the Muses and Nymphs, κρατὴρ νηφάλιος Plu. 2.156d; νηφάλιαι εὐχωλαί, θυσίαι, A.R. 4.712, Polem.Hist. 42; ν. βωμοί IG 2.1651 (iv B.C.); νηφάλια καὶ μελίσπονδα θύειν Plu. 2.464c, 672b; τῷ Διονύσῳ πολλάκις ν. θύομεν ib. 132e (prov. of a frugal meal); ν. σπείσω Κύπριδι AP 5.225 (Paul. Sil.); ν. ξύλα wood other than vine twigs, burned in sacrifices, esp. the twigs of the herb θύμος, Philoch. 31, Crates Hist. 5; ν. πόπανον with no wine in it, IG 3.77.18.
II sober, ν. μέθη Ph. 1.16, 2.447; βαθὺ ἡ σιγὴ καὶ νηφάλιον, ἡ δὲ μέθη λάλον Plu. 2.504a; of persons, 1 Timothy 3:2; 1 Timothy 3:11, Titus 2:2, J. AJ 13.12.2. Adv. -ίως, ν. ἔχειν Poll. 6.26.
(-λεος , Rec., in 1Ti, ll. c), -ον (in cl., -α , -ον ),
(< νήφω ),
1. in cl., of drink, not mixed with wine.
2. In later writers (Plut., al.), of persons, sober, temperate: 1 Timothy 3:2; 1 Timothy 3:11, Titus 2:2.†
Copyright © 1922 by G. Abbott-Smith, D.D., D.C.L.. T & T Clarke, London.
As illustrating the NT conception of the οἶκος πνευματικός and the οἶκος τοῦ θεοῦ Thieme (p. 31) refers not only to the place which ";the house of God"; had in Jewish religion, but also to the ";holy houses"; of Greek antiquity, as preparing the way for the Christian usage (1 Timothy 3:15, 1 Peter 4:17) : see e.g. Magn 94.3 (ii/B.C.), where a certain Εὔφημος Παυσανίου νεωκόρος is praised for his liberality—εἰς τ ]ὸ [ν οἶκ ]ον τ [ὸν ἱερόν, ib. 117.7 (1st half ii/A.D.) τῷ ἱερῷ οἴκῳ τῶν ἐν Κλίδωνι, and Syll 571 (=.3 987) .3, .25 (iv/B.C.), where mention is made of an οἶκος τεμένιος ἱερός in Chios. In Herodas i. 26 οἶκος τῆς θεοῦ refers to Aphrodite. From the fact that a tomb was often dedicated to a local deity, and hence became his ";temple"; or ";home,"; it is natural that οἶκος should be used in inscrr. in the sense of ";tomb,"; as at Cibyra BCH ii. (1878), p. 610 f., and Magnesia ib. xviii. (1894) p. 11 (cited in C. and B. i. p. 100 n..1) : also Kaibel 321.9 (after A.D. 171) καμάτου οἶκον. For οἶκος used in an astrological sense see P Lond 98 recto .1, al. (i/ii A.D.) (= I. p. 127 ff.). The subst. in its ordinary application to ";an inhabited house"; is found in such passages as P Oxy II. 294.10 (A.D. 22) (= Selections, p. 35) ὁ ἐμ [ὸς ] οἶκος ἠραύνητ [αι, ";my house has been searched,"; P Ryl II. 127.9 (A.D. 29) ἐπὶ τῆς θύρας οὗ καταγείνομαι οἴκου ἐν τῷ ἐποικίωι, ";at the door of the house which I inhabit in the farmstead"; (Edd.), and the magical incantation P Oxy VIII. 1152.5 (v/vi A.D.) βοήθι ἡμῖν καὶ τούτῳ οἴκῳ (for τούτῳ without article cf. Acts 24:21). See also the prepositional phrases—ἐν οἴκῳ, ";at home"; (1 Corinthians 11:34), P Lond 42.5 (B.C. 168) (= I. p. 30) οἱ ἐν οἴκωι πάντες, P Fay 115.12 (A.D. 101) : ἐξ οἴκου, ";out of the house,"; P Ryl II. 173 (a).11 (A.D. 99) : and ib. 76.10, .12 (late ii/A.D.) where κατ᾽ οἶκον, ";according to households,"; is contrasted with κατὰ πρόσωπον, ";according to individuals."; For a wide sense in which οἶκος is apparently equivalent to πόλις, see the note on P Oxy I. 126.4. For οἴκοθεν = ";suis impensis,"; cf. Syll 737 (=.3 1109).151 (before A.D. 178) παρεχέτω δὲ οἴκοθεν τὸ θερμόλυχνον. See further s.v. οἰκία.
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Derivative Copyright © 2015 by Allan Loder.
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