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Old & New Testament Greek Lexical Dictionary
Strong's #3777 - οὔτε
- neither, and not
Adv., (οὐ, τε)
I joining neg. clauses, as τε joins posit., but rare in the simple sense and not, Il. 22.265 (v.l.), Hdt. 3.155 (v.l.); οὔτε γὰρ ἐκείνους διδόναι, Lat. neque enim, Id. 1.3 (prob. f.l. for οὐδὲ); and occasionally in later writers, Arist. Ph. 208a8, Luc. Par. 27, 53, etc.
1. mostly repeated, οὔτε.., οὔτε.. neither.., nor.., Lat. neque.., neque.., Hom., etc. — Hom. freq. joins another Particle with the first or second οὔτε, as οὔτ' ἂρ.., οὔτε.. ; οὔτ' ἂρ.., οὔτ' ἂρ.. ; οὔτ' ἄρ τε.., οὔτ' ἄρα.. Il. 5.89; οὔτ' οὖν, v. οὖν 1; οὔτε.. οὖν.., οὔτ' ἄρα.. 20.7; οὔτ' ἄρ.., οὔτε τι.., or οὔτε τι.., οὔτε.., 1.115, Od. 1.202; so too οὔτε.., οὔτε μὴν.. X. Cyr. 4.3.12; οὔτε.., οὔτ' αὖ.., v. infr. 3.
2. freq. used to divide up a general negation into two or more parts, ὡς δ' ἐν ὀνείρῳ οὐ δύναται φεύγοντα διώκειν, οὔτ' ἂρ ὁ τὸν δύναται ὑποφεύγειν οὔθ' ὁ διώκειν Il. 22.200; thrice repeated, οὔ μοι Τρώων.. μέλει ἄλγος.., οὔτ' αὐτῆς Ἑκάβης οὔτε Πριάμοιο ἄνακτος οὔτε κασιγνήτων 6.450; οὐκ ἔπειθεν οὔτε τοὺς στρατηγοὺς οὔτε τοὺς στρατιώτας Th. 4.4: without a neg. preceding, Il. 1.490, 2.202, etc.
3. within one of the two clauses distd. by οὔτε a subordinate part may be introduced by οὐδέ, οὔτε γὰρ ἐκ σκίλλης ῥόδα φύεται οὐδ' ὑάκινθος (οὐθ' codd.), οὐ δέ ποτ' ἐκ δούλης τέκνον ἐλευθέριον Thgn. 537; οὔτε.. ἀπέφηνεν οὐδὲ παρέσχηται μάρτυρας, οὔτ' αὖ τὸν ἀριθμὸν.. ἐπανέφερεν D. 27.49: sts. after several clauses distd. by οὔτε the last is introduced emphat. by οὐδέ, οὔτε φάρμακα οὔτε καύσεις οὔτε τομαὶ οὐδ' αὖ ἐπῳδαί nor yet incantations, Pl. R. 426b, cf. 499b (so μηδέ after clauses with μήτε, μήτε παιδεία μήτε δικαστήρια μήτε νόμοι μηδὲ ἀνάγκη μηδεμία Id. Prt. 327d); so οὐδέ (μηδέ) may sts. follow a single οὔτε (μήτε), οὐδέ ποτέ σφιν οὔτε τι πημανθῆναι ἔπι δέος, οὐδ' ἀπολέσθαι neither to suffer misery, nor yet to die, v. l. in Od. 8.563, cf. Pi. P. 8.83, I. 2.44, S. OC 1139, 1141 (s.v.l.), 1297 (cj.), Pl. Revelation 19:1-21 d: in many of these places, however, the readings vary, and editors have altered οὐδέ into οὔτε; but this cannot be done in some cases, as οὔτ' ἂν ὑπό γε ἑνὸς.. πάθοι, ἴσως δ' οὐδὲ ὑπὸ πλεόνων Id. La. 182b: so when οὔτε is folld. by οὐδὲ μέν, Od. 13.207; by οὐδὲ μήν, X. Cyr. 4.5.27; οὐδ' αὖ, v. supr. — But οὔτε (μήτε) cannot be used simply answering to οὐδέ (μηδέ), v. μηδέ A. 2.
4. οὔτε may be folld. by a Posit. clause with τε, οὔτ' αὐτὸς κτενέει, ἀπό τ' ἄλλους πάντας ἐρύξει he both will not kill and will defend, Il. 24.156, cf. A. Pr. 246, 262, Hdt. 5.49, X. An. 7.7.48, etc.: sts. the neg. is added after the τε, οὔτ' ὦν.. καρπὸν ἔδωκαν ἄρουραι, δένδρεά τ' οὐκ ἐθέλει.. φέρειν Pi. N. 11.40, cf. S. Ant. 763, E. Hipp. 302; κυάμους δὲ οὔτε τι μάλα σπείρουσι, τούς τε γενομένους οὔτε τρώγουσι οὔτε ἕψοντες πατέονται Hdt. 2.37: the combination οὔτε.., καί.. is dub. in E. IT 591, but is found in later writers, as Luc. DMeretr. 2.4, Chor.in RPhil. 1877.218.
5. οὔτε is freq., by anacoluthon, folld. not by a second οὔτε, but by some other Particle, as by οὐδέ, v. supr. 3; by δέ alone, Il. 24.368, Hdt. 1.108, Pl. R. 388e, X. An. 6.3.16. in Poets, οὐ sts. follows without any conjunctive Particle, οὐκ ἦν ἀλέξημ' οὐδὲν οὔτε βρώσιμον, οὐ χριστόν, οὔτε πιστόν A. Pr. 479; οὔτε πλινθυφεῖς δόμους.. ᾖσαν, οὐ ξυλουργίαν ib. 450, cf. Theoc. 15.139 sq.; οὔτε βλάστας.. πατρός, οὐ μητρὸς εἶχον S. OC 972, cf. Ant. 249, E. Or. 41: so also in the Prose of Hdt., ἐς ποταμὸν οὔτε ἐνουρέουσι οὔτε ἐμπτύουσι, οὐ χεῖρας ἐναπονίζονται, οὐδέ.. 1.138. in Poets also οὔτε is sts. replaced by οὐ, οὐ νιφετὸς οὔτ' ἂρ χειμὼν πολὺς οὔτε ποτ' ὄμβρος Od. 4.566; οὐ γὰρ ἂν εἰδείης ἀνδρὸς νόον οὔτε γυναικός Thgn. 125 (dub. l.), cf. Il. 1.115, Od. 9.136, A. Pers. 588 (lyr., s. v.l.), etc. the former οὔτε is sts. omitted, ναυσὶ δ' οὔτε πεζὸς ἰών Pi. P. 10.29; νόσοι δ' οὔτε γῆρας ib. 41; Πάρις γὰρ οὔτε συντελὴς πόλις A. Ag. 532, cf. Ch. 294; and v. μήτε 2.
6. when οὔτε and μήτε correspond, each retains its proper sense, ἀναιδὴς οὔτ' εἰμὶ μήτε γενοίμην neither am I shameless, nor may I become so, D. 8.68, cf. Aeschin. 3.128.
negative particle, related to μήτε as οὐ to μή ,
and not, neither, nor: οὐδεὶς . . . οὔτε , Revelation 5:4; οὐδὲ . . . οὔτε , Galatians 1:12; οὔτε . . . καί , John 4:11; after a question with μή interrog., James 3:12; οὔτε . . . οὔτε , neither . . . nor, Matthew 6:20, Mark 12:25, John 4:21, Acts 15:10, Romans 8:38-39, Galatians 5:6, al.
Copyright © 1922 by G. Abbott-Smith, D.D., D.C.L.. T & T Clarke, London.
This important verb is used with various nuances of meaning which are closely related, and raise some interesting points of NT interpretation.
(1) Thus in the v.l. παρακολουθήσει for ἀκολουθήσει in [Mk] 16.17 the literal meaning ";accompany,"; ";follow closely"; passes into the meaning ";result,"; as may be illustrated by PSI III. 168.24 (B.C. 118) where it is stated that owing to the breaking down of a dyke οὐ κατὰ μικρὸν ἐλάττωμα παρακολουθεῖν τοῖς βασιλικοῖς : cf. P Rein 1815 (B.C. 108) ὧν χάριν οὐκ ὀλί [γα ] μοι βλάβη δι᾽ αὐτὸν παρηκολούθησεν, similarly ib. 19.12 (B.C. 108) and BGU IV. 1123.12 (time of Augustus), P Strass I. 22.20 (iii/A.D.) ἂν ἀ ̣λ ̣λαχόσε νομὴ παρακολουθήσῃ ἔχοντός τινος ἀφορμήν, P Lond 113. 1.48 (vi/A.D.) (= I. p. 202) ἐδέησεν ταύτην τὴν ἔγγραφον ὁμολογίαν τῆς διαλύσεως μεταξὺ αὐτῶν παρακολουθῆσαι, and P Oxy VI. 942.5 (vi/vii A.D.) πάνυ δὲ ἡμᾶς ἀήδισεν ἡ ἀδελφική σου λαμπρ (ότης) μηδὲν ἡμῖν σημάνασα τῶν παρακολουθησάντων, ";we were much displeased with your brotherly excellency for not explaining to us any of the consequences"; (Edd.). See also P Tebt I. 28.2 (c. B.C. 14) τῶν παρηκολουθηκότων ἐμποδι [σμῶν τῆ ]ς ̣ καθ᾽ [ἡμᾶς ] ἀσχολία [ς, ";the hindrances placed in the way of the performance of our work"; (Edd.).
(2) In Luke 1:3 the word is often understood = ";investigate,"; as pointing to the evangelist’s careful research into the facts he describes. And for this meaning we thought (Exp. VII. x. p. 286 f.) that we had found a good ex. in P Par 46.19 (= UPZ i. p. 338) (B.C. 152) where Apollonius appeals to his brother Ptolemaeus to examine personally into his grievance against a third party : νομίζω γὰρ μάλιστα τῶν ἄλλων παρακολουθήσαντά σε τῆι ἀληθείαι πικρότερον προσενεχθήσεσθ᾽ αὐτῶι, ";for I think that you above all others when you have investigated the truth will deal more severely with him."; But Cadbury in an elaborate article (Exp VIII. xxiv. p. 406), to which we are much indebted, points out that ";Apollonius is not appealing for investigation, but is asking Ptolemaeus to summon the offending person to trial,"; adding that he will summon no other than Ptolemaeus as witness, seeing that of all concerned he is most ";cognizant of the truth of the case."; The verb, that is, ";refers not to future inquiry but to past first-hand knowledge,"; a sense which, as Cadbury points out, may be further illustrated by such passages as PSI IV. 411.3 (iii/B.C.) ὅπως οὖν παρακολουθῶν καὶ σὺ πρὸς ταῦτα ἐξαγάγηις τοὺς λόγους γέγραφά σοι, and P Lond 23.56 (B.C. 158-7) (= UPZ i. p. 154) τῆς πρὸς Σώστρατον γραμματέα γεγραμένης ἐπιστολῆς τἀντίγραφον ὑποτετάχαμεν, ὅπως παρακολλουθῆς. Add also OGIS 335.14 (ii/i B.C.), where there are unfortunately many gaps—ὅτι οὐ [κ ἐ ]ν τῶι παρόν [τι κα ]ιρῶι μόνον οὐδ [ὲ. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .] αὐτῶν, [ἀλλὰ ] ἐκ παλαιῶ [ν χρ ]όνων π [α ]ρηκο [λούθησαν ἧι. . . . . . . . . . . .εἰς τὸν ἡμέτερον δ ]ῆμον ἔχ [ο ]υσι προθυμίαι, and the subst. in M. Anton. iii 1 where we are exhorted to ";press forward,"; διὰ τὸ τὴν ἐννόησιν τῶν πραγμάτων καὶ τὴν παρακολούθησιν προαπολήγειν, ";because our insight into facts and our close touch of them is gradually ceasing even before we die"; (Haines).
In view then of these passages we seem to be justified in understanding that Luke comes before us in his Preface not as one ";having investigated"; all his facts afresh, but as one ";having acquired familiarity"; with them, ";having become cognizant"; of them, for long (ἄνωθεν), and having so kept in touch with them, that his witness is practically contemporary witness.
In addition to Cadbury’s Exp art. reference should be made to his ";Commentary on the Preface of Luke"; in Appendix C to The Beginnings of Christianity (edited by Jackson and Lake), Vol. ii. (1922), p. 489 ff., and to the useful list of articles and monographs dealing with the Preface, which will be found there.
(3) If then we are justified in taking παρακολουθέω in Luke 1:3 in the sense ";am familiar with,"; may not this help us in the two passages in the Pastoral Epp., 1 Timothy 4:6, 2 Timothy 3:10, in which it occurs? In these the verb is usually taken as = ";follow"; a standard or rule of conduct, but with this there should at least be associated the prior idea of familiarity with the facts or truths, which lead to the conduct spoken of. In this connexion the following citations may prove helpful—P Tebt I. 6.10 (B.C. 140–139) ὅπως παρακο [λουθήσας τῆι μεγίστηι σπο ]υδῆι μηθὲν φροντίδος παραλι ̣π ̣η ̣[ις (with reference to an ordinance previously referred to), Syll 664 (= .3718).9 (B.C. 98–7) ἐμφανίζου [σιν παρ ]ηκολουθηκέναι αὐτὰς τοῖς ὑπ [ὸ τοῦ ] δήμου ἐψηφισμέ [νοις πε ]ρὶ τούτων πᾶσι, ib. 652 (= .3 885).32 (c. A.D. 220) οἵ τε ἔφ [ηβοι ] παρακολουθοῦντας τῆι περὶ τὸ θεῖον τῆς πόλεω [ς ] θεραπείαι, and c. acc. ib. 790 (= .3 1157).90 (c. B.C. 100?) ὅπως πα [ρα ]κολ [ουθῶσι οἱ παραγινόμενο ]ι πάντες τὰ δεδογμένα, and OGIS 257.17 (B.C. 125–96) ὅπως δὲ καὶ σὺ τὰ συγχωρηθέντα παρα ]κολουθῇς, καλῶς ἔχειν [ἐκρίναμεν ἐπιστεῖλαί σοι (with Dittenberger’s note). This meaning of παρακολουθέω is very common in Hellenistic philosophical writing, e.g. Epict. i. 7. 33, ii. 24. 19, both times c. dat. : cf. also 2 Maccabees 9:27 v.l.
Copyright © 1914, 1929, 1930 by James Hope Moulton and George Milligan. Hodder and Stoughton, London.
Derivative Copyright © 2015 by Allan Loder.
the Week of Proper 24 / Ordinary 29