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Bible Lexicons

Old & New Testament Greek Lexical Dictionary

Strong's #3997 - πένθος

strengthened from the alternate of (G3958)
Parts of Speech
Noun Neuter
  1. mourning
Hebrew Equivalent Words:
Strong #: 60 ‑ אֵבֶל (ay'‑bel);  205 ‑ אָוֶן (aw'‑ven);  3015 ‑ יָגוֹן (yaw‑gohn');  4553 ‑ מִסְפֵּד (mis‑pade');  8424 ‑ תּוּגָה (too‑gaw');  
Frequency Lists  
  1. Book
  2. Word
  3. Parsing
KJV (5)
NAS (5)
HCS (5)
BSB (5)
ESV (5)
WEB (4)
Verse Results
Liddell-Scott-Jones Definitions

πένθος, εος, τό,

grief, sorrow, Il. 11.658, etc.; τινος for one, Od. 18.324, etc.; π. ἄλαστον ἔχουσα Il. 24.105; π. λαγχάνειν S. Fr. 659; Τρῶας λάβε π. Il. 16.548, etc.; μέγα π. Ἀχαιίδα γαῖαν ἱκάνει 1.254, etc.; πένθεϊ δ' ἀτλήτῳ βεβολήατο πάντες 9.3; θυμὸς ἐτείρετο π. λυγρῷ 22.242, etc.

2. esp. of grief for the dead, mourning, τοκεῦσι γόον καὶ π. ἔθηκας 17.37; παιδὸς γάρ οἱ ἄλαστον ἐνὶ φρεσὶ π. ἔκειτο Od. 24.423; Σάρδεσι π. παρασχών A. Pers. 322; δμῳαῖς προθήσειν π. οἰκεῖον στένειν S. Ant. 1249; π. ποιήσασθαι make a public mourning, Hdt. 2.1; so π. προεθήκαντο Id. 6.21; π. τίθεται Id. 2.46; π. τινὸς κοινοῦσθαι E. Alc. 426; ἐν πένθει [εἶναι ] S. El. 290, 847 (lyr.); πολὺ π. ἦν κατὰ τὸ στράτευμα X. HG 4.5.10; π. λιπεῖν IG 3.1311; π. λύεσθαι, ἀποθέσθαι, Plu. Fab. 18, Alex. 75: in pl., Pi. I. 8(7).6, Fr. 154, A. Ch. 333 (lyr.), Pl. R. 395e, Arist. Rh. 1370b25, etc.

II unhappy event, misfortune, π. τινός one's illfortune, Hdt. 3.14; ἔτλαν π. οὐ φατόν Pi. I. 7(6).37.

III of a person, a misery, S. Aj. 615 (lyr.); π. ἔδωκε φέρειν, i. e. the body, Epigr.Gr. 228.6 (Ephesus). (Cf. πείσομαι from Πένθ-σομαι, fut. of πάσχω, pf. πείσονθα, Lith. kenčiù 'suffer', pa-kantà 'patience'; πενθ- is reduced to π ṇ θ- (παθ-) in αἰνο-παθής, etc.)

Abbott-Smith Manual Greek Lexicon of the New Testament

πένθος , -ους , τό ,

[in LXX chiefly for H60;]

mourning: James 4:9, Revelation 18:7-8; Revelation 21:4.†

Abbott-Smith Manual Greek Lexicon of the New Testament.
Copyright © 1922 by G. Abbott-Smith, D.D., D.C.L.. T & T Clarke, London.
Vocabulary of the Greek NT

";sell,"; c. acc. rei : P Par 59.4 (B.C. 159) (= UPZ i. p. 413) πέπρακα (cf. Matthew 13:46 : Blass Gr. § 59. 5) τὸ ὀθόνιον (δραχμὰς) φ ̄, P Oxy XIV. 1672.3 (A.D. 37–41) πεπράκαμεν χό (ας) λ ̄β ̄ ξένοις προσώποις, ";we sold 32 choes to some strangers,"; BGU IV. 1079.16 (A.D. 41) (= Selections, p. 39) παρὰ τάλαντόν σοι πέπρακα τὰ φο [ρτ ]ι ̣α μου, ";I have sold my wares for a talent,"; P Oxy II. 264.2 (A.D. 54) ὁμολογῶ πεπρακέναι σοι τὸν ὑπάρχοντά μοι ἱστὸν γερδι [ακόν, ";I agree that I have sold to you the weaver’s loom belonging to me,"; ib. IX. 1200.41 (A.D. 266) πέπρακα τὸ ἐπιβαλόν μοι ψειλὸν τόπον καὶ ἀπέσχον τὴν τειμὴν ὡς ἑπρόκειται, ";I have sold the free space falling to me and have received the price as aforesaid"; (Ed.).

Other exx. of the verb are P Hib I. 41.23 (c. B.C. 261) ἑπιμέλειαν δὲ ποίησαι ὅπως καὶ τὸ ὑπάρχον ἔλαιον δι᾽ αὐτοῦ ἥδη πραθῆι, ";be careful to see that the existing store of oil be now sold by him"; (Edd.), P Fay 131.5 (iii/iv A.D.) ποίησον αὐτὰς πραθῆναι ἐκ (δραχμῶν) ι ̄δ ̄, ";get them (artabae of barley) sold at 14 drachmae an artaba,"; and OGIS 484.16 (ii/A.D.) ὅσα μέντοι τῶν λεπτῶν ὀψαρίων σταθμῶι πιπρασκόμενα τιμᾶται ὑπὸ τῶν ἀγορανόμων. The verbal πρατέος is found in the Christian P Oxy XII. 1494.4 (early iv/A.D.) εἵν᾽ οὕτως θεοῦ θέλοντος τάχα τει πραταίον (l. τι πρατέον) γε ̣νηται, ";in order that, if God so wills, there may perhaps be something to sell"; (Edd.). The subst. πρᾶσις, ";a selling,"; occurs in P Eleph 14.25 (iii/B.C.), and πρατήριον, ";a market,"; in P Par 62iii. 15 (c. B.C. 170). For the compd. παραπιπράσκω (not in LS8) see Michel 809.5 (iii/B.C.) and P bibl univ Giss 2.24 (ii/B.C.), and cf. Herwerden Lex. s.v. παράπρασις.


The Vocabulary of the Greek New Testament.
Copyright © 1914, 1929, 1930 by James Hope Moulton and George Milligan. Hodder and Stoughton, London.
Derivative Copyright © 2015 by Allan Loder.
List of Word Forms
πένθει πενθος πένθος πένθους πενία πενίαν πενίας penthos pénthos
Old / New Testament Greek Lexical Dictionary developed by Jeff Garrison for Copyright 1999-2022. All Rights Reserved, Jeff Garrison, Gdansk, Poland.
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