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Old & New Testament Greek Lexical Dictionary
Strong's #4090 - πικρῶς
Adverb from G4089
bitterly: metaph., (cf. πικρὸν δάκρυον , Hom.), ἔκλαυσε Papyri, Matthew 26:75, Luke 22:62 (v. MM, xviii, s.v. παρακολουθέω ).†
Copyright © 1922 by G. Abbott-Smith, D.D., D.C.L.. T & T Clarke, London.
This adj. denoting the active exercise of evil is seen in BGU II. 372ii. 1 (A.D. 154) πονηρ ̣[ὸν κ ]α ̣[ὶ ] λῃσ [τ ]ρικὸν β [ίον, PSI V. 452.11 (iv/A.D.) πονηρὰ βουλευσαμέν [ου ]ς, and Syll 809 (= .3 1175).19 (iv/iii B.C.) ῥῆμα μοχθηρὸν ἢ πονηρὸν φθένγεσθαι. With the Lat. sepulchral formula ab hoc monumento dolus malus abesto, cf. BGU I. 326ii. 3 (A.D. 194) ταύτῃ τῇ διαθήκῃ δόλος πονηρὸς ἀπέστη (= ω). In the deed of divorce P Grenf II. 76.3 (A.D. 305–306) a couple are stated to have renounced their married life ἐκ τινὸς πονηροῦ δαίμονος, ";owing to some evil deity,"; and similarly P Lips I. 34.8 (c. A.D. 375). The word is joined with ἀσεβεῖς in Jos. Antt. xii. 252, xiii. 34.
For the original meaning of πονηρός, ";toilworn,"; ";laborious"; we may cite the description of Heracles, the type of the strenuous life—πονηρότατος καὶ ἄριστος (Hes. Fr. 43. 5).
Copyright © 1914, 1929, 1930 by James Hope Moulton and George Milligan. Hodder and Stoughton, London.
Derivative Copyright © 2015 by Allan Loder.
the Week of Proper 8 / Ordinary 13