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Old & New Testament Greek Lexical DictionaryGreek Lexicon

Strong's #4089 - πικρός

perhaps from (G4078) (through the idea of piercing)
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  1. bitter
  2. metaph. harsh, virulent
Hebrew Equivalent Words:
Strong #: 4751 ‑ מַר (mar, maw‑raw');  4843 ‑ מָרַר (maw‑rar');  7218 ‑ רֹאשׁ (roshe);  
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Liddell-Scott-Jones Definitions

πικρός, ά, όν,

poet. also ός, όν Od. 4.406:

prop. pointed, sharp, keen, ὀϊστός Il. 4.118, al.; βέλεμνα 22.206; γλωχίς S. Tr. 681: metaph., γλώσσης πικροῖς κέντροισι E. HF 1288 . II generally, sharp to the sense:

1 of taste, pungent, ῥίζα Il. 11.846; ἅλμη Od. 5.323; δάκρυον (v.l. for πυκνόν ) 4.153; of salt water, opp. γλυκύς, Hdt. 4.52, cf. 7.35; ἁλμυρὸς καὶ π . Pl. Lg. 705a; πριγλία π . PCair.Zen. 82.8 (iii B.C.); ἀπ' ὄμφακος πικρᾶς A. Ag. 970; ὑγρότης π ., opp. ὀξεῖα, Meno Iatr. 5.13; also of smell, pungent, Od. 4.406; πικρὸν ὀδωδώς Alciphr. 3.59 . (This sense prevails in the derived and compd. words.)

2. of feeling, sharp, keen, ὠδῖνες Il. 11.271, S. Tr. 41 .

3. of sound, piercing, shrill, οἰμωγά Id. Ph. 189 (lyr.); φθόγγος Id. OC 1610; γόοι, ὄδυρμα, E. Ph. 883, Tr. 1227 (lyr.); πικροτάτη ὄψ Ar. Pax 805 (lyr.).

III metaph.,

1 of things, bitter, esp. of what yields pain instead of expected pleasure, freq. in threats, μὴ τάχα πικρὴν Αἴγυπτον καὶ Κύπρον ἵκηαι (v.l. ἴδηαι ) Od. 17.448, cf. Ar. Av. 1045, Th. 883 (lyr.), E. Med. 399, IA 955, Ba. 357, Cyc. 589; π. Σίγειον κατηγόμην S. Ph. 355; τὸ πὰρ δίκαν γλυκὺ πικροτάτα μένει τελευτά Pi. I. 7(6).48, cf. A. Ag. 745 (lyr.); τιμωρία, ἀγῶνες, Id. Pers. 473, S. Aj. 1239; δύαι, χεῖμα, A. Pr. 180 (lyr.), Ag. 198 (lyr.); πικρότερ' ἀχέων Id. Supp. 875 (lyr.); λόγοι E. Hel. 481; πικροτάτου χρυσοῦ φύλαξ Id. Hec. 772; τὸ δὴ λεγόμενον γλυκὺ πικρῷ μεμειγμένον Pl. Phlb. 46c; ἔχει τι τὸ π. τῆς γεωργίας γλυκύ Men. 795: c. inf., μὴ λίαν πικρὸν εἰπεῖν ᾖ D. 1.26 .

2. so of persons, prob. in Sapph. Supp. 4.1 ( Comp. ); γλυκὺν ὧδε φίλοις ἐχθροῖσι δὲ π. Sol. 13.5, cf. Thgn. 301, A. Ch. 234, Eu. 152 (lyr.), etc.; ἔς τινας Hdt. 1.123: abs., A. Pr. 739, Th 940(lyr.); π. θεοῖς hateful to them, S. Ph. 254; π. πολίταις E. Med. 224, cf. Supp. 1222; ἐμοὶ π. τέθνηκεν ἢ κείνοις γλυκύς his death is matter of sorrow to me, S. Aj. 966; δαίμων π ., of untimely death (Lat. acerbus), IG 3.1338.

3. embittered, angry, πικρὰ ὄρνις S. Ant. 423 .

4. relentless, οὐδὲν πικρότερον τῆς ἀνάγκης Antipho 2.2.4; spiteful, mean, vindictive, βάσκανον καὶ πικρὸν καὶ κακόηθες οὐδέν ἐστι πολίτευμα ἐμόν D. 18.108; π. καὶ συκοφάντης Id. 25.45, cf. Arist. Rh. 1368b21, EN 1126a19: in Com. of old men, σκυθρός, π., φειδωλός Men. 10, cf. 825, 843, Georg.Fr. 3 . Adv. -ρῶς pedantically, D.H. Lys. 6; with rigid accuracy, Apollon.Cit. 3, Plu. 2.659f. Adv. -ρῶς harshly, bitterly, vindictively, A. Pr. 197, S. OC 990; π. ἐξετάσαι D. 2.27, 18.265; π. ἔχειν τισί, πρός τινας, Id. 10.54, Ephesians 3:10; π. φέρειν τι E. Ion 610, cf. Andr. 190; ἔκλαυσε π. Ev.Matthew 26:75 : Comp. -ότερον Men. Mon. 659, etc.: Sup. -ότατα Plb. 1.72.3 . [ in Hom. and Ep.; freq. in Trag., as A. Pers. 473, Ag. 970, S. Aj. 500, E. Hec. 772, and in Theoc. 8.74: ι therefore is not long by nature as in μικρός .]

Thayer's Expanded Definition

πικρός, πικρά, πικρόν (from the root meaning 'to cut,' 'prick'; Vanicek, 534; Curtius, § 100; Fick 1:145), from Homer down, the Sept. for מַר; bitter: properly, James 3:11 (opposed to τό γλυκύ); metaphorically, harsh, virulent, James 3:14.

Thayer's Expanded Greek Definition, Electronic Database.
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Abbott-Smith Manual Greek Lexicon of the New Testament

πικρός , - , -όν

(poët. in cl.),

[in LXX chiefly for H4751;]

1. sharp, pointed.

2. sharp to the senses; of taste, bitter: opp. to γλυκύ , James 3:11; metaph., harsh, bitter: James 3:14.

Abbott-Smith Manual Greek Lexicon of the New Testament.
Copyright © 1922 by G. Abbott-Smith, D.D., D.C.L.. T & T Clarke, London.
Vocabulary of the Greek NT

πονηρία is used in connexion with disease in P Tebt II. 272.8 (medical—late ii/A.D.) οὐ διὰ. . πονηρίαν καὶ σ ̣υν [άρ ]τ ̣ησιν τῶν νόσων, ";not because of the malignity or complication of the diseases"; (Edd.) : cf. OGIS 519.10 (c. A.D. 245) πάντων. . . ἤρεμον καὶ γαληνὸν τὸν βίον δια [γόντων, πο ]νηρίας καὶ διασεισμῶν πε [π ]αυμένων. In the vi/A.D. amulet, BGU III. 954.24 (= Selections, p. 134) the phrase in the Lord’s Prayer is cited as—ῥῦ [σαι ἡ ]μᾶς ἀπὸ τῆς πο [ν ]ηρ [ίας, which some may be tempted to quote in support of the AV of Matthew 6:13.

The compound μειζοπονηρία (= μισοπονηρία) occurs in P Ryl II. 113.33 (A.D. 133) τοῦ οὖν πράγματος δεομένου τῆς σῆς μειζοπονηρίας, ";since therefore the case requires the exercise of your hatred of wrongdoers"; (Edd.).


The Vocabulary of the Greek New Testament.
Copyright © 1914, 1929, 1930 by James Hope Moulton and George Milligan. Hodder and Stoughton, London.
Derivative Copyright © 2015 by Allan Loder.
List of Word Forms
πικρά πικράν πικρον πικρόν πικρὸν πικρός πικροτέρον πικρότερον πικρώ pikron pikrón pikròn
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