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Bible Lexicons

Old & New Testament Greek Lexical DictionaryGreek Lexicon

Strong's #4350 - προσκόπτω

Root Word (Etymology)
from (G4314) and (G2875)
Parts of Speech
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  1. to strike against
    1. of those who strike against a stone or other obstacle in the path, to stumble
    2. to strike one's foot against a stone
      1. i.e. to meet with some harm;
    3. to rush upon, beat against
    4. to be made to stumble by a thing
      1. i.e. metaph. to be induced to sin
Hebrew Equivalent Words:
Strong #: 3782 ‑ כָּשַׁל (kaw‑shal');  5062 ‑ נָגַף (naw‑gaf');  7293 ‑ רַהַב (rah'‑hab);  
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Matthew 2
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Romans 2
1 Peter 1
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Matthew 3
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CSB (8)
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BSB (8)
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WEB (8)
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Liddell-Scott-Jones Definitions


strike one thing against another, πρὸς λίθον τὸν πόδα LXX Psalms 90:12(91).12; π. τὸν δάκτυλόν που Ar. V. 275 (lyr). intr., stumble or strike against, τινι X. Eq. 7.6, Alex. 81, Arist. Pr. 882b18, GC 326a27, etc.; π. τῷ ὀφθαλμῷ (sc. ῥίζῃ κυάμου ) Thphr. HP 4.8.8; of liquid, to be checked by striking against, c. dat., Plu. Lyc. 9; πνεῦμα προσκόπτον broken, interrupted breathing, Hp. Aph. 4.68 .

2. π. τῷ ἄξονι encounter friction at . ., Arist. Mech. 852a32 .

II metaph., = cross προσκρούω 111, offend, Posidipp. 36; τοῖς πολλοῖς Plb. 5.49.5; οὐ μόνον δυσαρεστήσειν ἀλλὰ καὶ προσκόπτειν ἔμελλε προφανῶς, of an open breach, Id. 7.5.6 .

2. take offence at, ἵνα μή μοι προσκόψῃς PCair.Zen. 463.11 (iii B.C.); τῇ βαρύτητί τινος Plb. 1.31.7, cf. Carneisc. Herc. 1027.14; θεοὺς -κόψαντάς τισι D.S. 13.59; of things, π. τῷ ζῆν to be disgusted with life, Id. 4.61: Pass., δῆμος π. αὐτῷ διά τι being offended with him, App. BC 2.27, cf. Phld. Piet. 30, M.Ant. 9.3 .

Thayer's Expanded Definition

προσκόπτω; 1 aorist προσεκοψα; to strike against (cf. πρός, IV. 4): absolutely of those who strike against a stone or other obstacle in the path, to stumble, John 11:9, 10; πρός λίθον τόν πόδα, to strike the foot against a stone, i. e. (dropping the figure) to meet with some harm, Matthew 4:6; Luke 4:11 (from Psalm 90:12 ()); to rush upon, beat against, οἱ ἄνεμοι τῇ οἰκία, Matthew 7:27 (L marginal reading προσερρηξαν, see προσρήγνυμι). ἐν τίνι, to be made to stumble by a thing, i. e. metaphorically, to be induced to sin, Romans 14:21 (cf. Winers Grammar, 583 (542); Buttmann, § 151, 23 d.). Since we are angry with an obstacle in our path which we have struck and hurt our foot against, one is tropically said προσκόπτειν, to stumble at, a person or thing which highly displeases him; thus the Jews are said προσκόψαι τῷ λίθῳ τοῦ προσκόμματος, i. e. to have recoiled from Jesus as one who failed to meet their ideas of the Messiah (see πρόσκομμα), Romans 9:32; the enemies of Christianity are said προσκόμματος ... τῷ λόγῳ, 1 Peter 2:8 (some (cf. R. V. marginal reading) take προσκόμματος here absolutely, and make τῷ λόγῳ depend on ἀπειθοῦντες, which see in a.). (Examples of this and other figurative uses of the word by Polybius, Diodorus, M. Antoninus are cited by Passow (Liddell and Scott), under the word and Fritzsche, Ep. ad Romans, ii., p. 362f.)

Thayer's Expanded Greek Definition, Electronic Database.
Copyright © 2002, 2003, 2006, 2011 by Biblesoft, Inc.
All rights rserved. Used by permission. BibleSoft.com
Abbott-Smith Manual Greek Lexicon of the New Testament

προσ -κόπτω ,

[in LXX for H5062, H3782 ni., etc.;]

1. trans., to strike (e.g. hand or foot) against: c. acc seq. πρός , fig., Matthew 4:6, Luke 4:11, (LXX)

2. Intrans., to stumble: absol. (Tobit 11:9, Proverbs 3:23), John 11:9-10; of wind, to rush against, beat upon: c. dat, Matthew 7:27. Metaph., in late writers,

(a) to offend (Polyb.);

(b) to take offence at, stumble at: seq. ἐν , Romans 14:21; c. dat., τ . λόγῳ , 1 Peter 2:8; τ . λίθῳ τ . προσκόμματος , Romans 9:32.†

Abbott-Smith Manual Greek Lexicon of the New Testament.
Copyright © 1922 by G. Abbott-Smith, D.D., D.C.L.. T & T Clarke, London.
Vocabulary of the Greek NT


literally ";red as fire"; (cf. 4Ki. 3:22 [MT 2 Kings 3:22]), is applied in the milder sense of ";ruddy"; to a witness to a will, P Petr I. 13 (2).12 (B.C. 237). In P Leid Wvii. 46 (ii/iii A.D.) we have ποίσον (= ποίησον) ὑπποπόταμω (= ο)ν ἐκ κηροῦ πυρροῦ, and in P Oxy VI. 922.8 (vi/vii A.D.) ὑπὲρ τοῦ πυρροῦ ἵππου (cf. Revelation 6:4. The double ρρ is preserved in the LXX and NT as in the papyri, cf. BGU II. 468.8 (A.D. 150) καμήλου ἄρρενος πυρροῦ, and see Mayser Gr. p. 221. It may be noted that πυρ (ρ)ός and πυρ (ρ)άζω drop a ρ in Matthew 16:2 C and late uncials, Revelation 6:4 APO46, 12.3 CO46 : see Moulton Gr. ii. p. 101.

For the form πυρράκης, as in 1 Kings 16:12 [MT 1 Samuel 16:12], cf. P Petr I. 14.30 (B.C. 237), and see Mayser Gr. p. 455; and for πυρρόχρους cf. P Ryl II. 134.16 (A.D. 34) ὗς τοκὰς ἐπίτοκος πυρρόχρους, ";a brood-sow about to litter, tawny-coloured"; (Edd).


According to the critical text Πύρρος is named in Acts 20:4 as the father of Sopater of Beroea. The name is by no means rare in the papyri, and is spelt both with double and single ρ : e.g. P Oxy I. 47.3 (late i/A.D.) ὑπὸ Πύρρου τοῦ ἀσχολημένο (υ), and ib, 43 rectov. 9 (A.D. 295) Πύρῳ ὀπτίωνι : other exx. in Preisigke Namenbuch.


The Vocabulary of the Greek New Testament.
Copyright © 1914, 1929, 1930 by James Hope Moulton and George Milligan. Hodder and Stoughton, London.
Derivative Copyright © 2015 by Allan Loder.
List of Word Forms
προσεκοψαν προσέκοψαν προσκοπτει προσκόπτει προσκόπτονται προσκόπτουσι προσκοπτουσιν προσκόπτουσιν προσκόψαι προσκόψει προσκόψη προσκοψης προσκόψης προσκόψῃς προσκρούσει prosekopsan prosékopsan proskópseis proskópsēis proskopses proskopsēs proskoptei proskóptei proskoptousin proskóptousin
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