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Old & New Testament Greek Lexical Dictionary
Strong's #5385 - φιλοσοφία
- love of wisdom
- used either of zeal for or skill in any art or science, any branch of knowledge. Used once in the NT of the theology, or rather theosophy, of certain Jewish Christian ascetics, which busied itself with refined and speculative enquiries into the nature and classes of angels, into the ritual of the Mosaic law and the regulations of Jewish tradition respecting practical life
love of knowledge, pursuit there of, speculation, Isoc. 12.209, Pl. Phd. 61a, Grg. 484c, al.; ἡ φ. κτῆσις ἐπιστήμης Id. Euthd. 288d; defined as ἄσκησις ἐπιτηδείου τέχνης, Stoic. in Placit. 1 Prooem. 2.
2. systematic, methodical treatment of a subject, ἐμπειρίᾳ μέτιθι καὶ φιλοσοφίᾳ Isoc. 2.35; ἡ περὶ τὰς ἔριδας φ. scientific treatment of argumentation, Id. 10.6; ἡ περὶ τοὺς λόγους φ. the study of oratory, Id. 4.10: pl., οἱ ἐν ταῖς φ. πολὺν χρόνον διατρίψαντες Pl. Tht. 172c; τέχναι καὶ φ. Isoc. 10.67.
3. philosophy, Id. 11.22, Pl. Def. 414b, etc.; ἱστορία φ. ἐστὶν ἐκ παραδειγμάτων D.H. Rh. 11.2: — Isoc. usu. prefixes the Art., 2.51, 5.84, 7.45 (but cf. 2.35 supr.); sts. also in Pl. and Arist., as Pl. Grg. 482a, Arist. Metaph. 993b20, EN 1177a25, and so later, διὰ τῆς φ. καὶ κενῆς ἀπάτης Colossians 2:8; but more freq. without Art., τοῖς ἐν φιλοσοφίᾳ ζῶσιν Pl. Phd. 68c, al., cf. Arist. Pol. 1341b28, al. (cf. Πλάτων καὶ φ. Plu. 2.176d); exc. when an Adj. or some qualifying word is added to ἡ θεία φ. Pl. Phdr. 239b; ἐκείνου τῇ φ. Id. Ly. 213d; ἡ περὶ τὰ ἀνθρώπεια φ. Arist. EN 1181b15; ἡ τῶν Ἰταλικῶν φ. Id. Metaph. 987a31 (and pl., αἱ εἰρημέναι φ. ib. 29); so later ἡ Ἰωνικὴ φ. D.L. 1.122; ἡ δογματική, Ἀκαδημαϊκή, σκεπτικὴ φ. S.E. P. 1.4, etc.; ὁ Ἐμπεδοκλῆς ἐν ἀρχῇ τῆς φ. Plu. 2.607c, etc.; esp. ἡ πρώτη φ. metaphysic, Arist. Metaph. 1026a24, cf. 18.
** Φιλο -σοφία , -ας , ἡ
(< φιλόσοφος ),
[in LXX: 4 Maccabees 1:1; 4 Maccabees 5:10; 4 Maccabees 5:22; 4 Maccabees 7:9; 4 Maccabees 7:21 *;]
the love and pursuit of wisdom; hence, philosophy, investigation of truth and nature: of the so-called philosophy of false teachers, Colossians 2:8 (v. Lft., ICC, in l).†
Copyright © 1922 by G. Abbott-Smith, D.D., D.C.L.. T & T Clarke, London.
The utmost we can attempt with this important word is to illustrate some of its meanings from our sources with the view of showing how readily it lent itself to the deeper Christian implications involved in its NT use.
1. ";grace,"; ";graciousness"; : OGIS 383.9 (Commagene rescript—mid. i/B.C.) ἔργα χάριτος ἰδίας : cf Luk. 4:22.
2. ";favour"; : P Leid Di. 11 (B.C. 162–161) (= I. p. 25, UPZ i. p. 231) περὶ μὲν οὖν τούτων δοῖ σοι ὁ Σάραπις καὶ ἡ Ἶσις ἐπαφροδισί [α ]ν χάριν μορφὴν πρὸς τὸν βασιλέα καὶ τὴν βασίλισσαν, similarly ib. K.10 (c. B.C. 99) (=1. p. 52), P Lips I. 104.14 (ii/i B.C.) χάριν σοι ἔχω ἐφ᾽ αἷς γράφεις ἐπι [σ ]τολαῖς, and ib..24 BGU I. 19i. 21 (A.D. 135) ἠξίου προσφυγεῖν τῇ χάριτι τοῦ θεοῦ ἐπιφανεστάτου Αὐτοκράτορος, ib. IV. 1085.5 (time of Marcus) κατὰ τὴν χάριν τοῦ θεοῦ Αἰλ [ί ]ου Ἀντων [ε ]ίνου δύνονται ἔχειν τὸν τάφον, P Grenf II. 68.4 (A.D. 247) ὁμολογῶ χαρίζεσθ [αι ] σοὶ χάριτι ἀναφαιρέτῳ καὶ ἀμετανοήτῳ, P Oxy XIV. 1664.12 (iii/A.D.) τὰς γὰρ ἐντολάς σου ἥδιστα ἔχων ὡς χάριτας λήμψομαι, ";for I shall be most pleased to accept your commands as favours"; (Edd.), and P Fay 136.8 (iv/A.D.) (= Ghedini p. 242) in which the writer summons those whom he is addressing to return to their homes πρὸ τοῦ τις ὑμᾶς ἐνέγκῃ · καὶ οὐκ ἔστιν οὐκέτι ἐν ὑμῖν χάρις, ";before some one compels them, and there is no longer favour extended to them"; : cf. Luk. 1:30; Luk. 2:52, Act. 2:47, al.
3. ";thanks,"; ";gratitude"; : P Oxy VII. 1021.18 (A.D. 54) διὸ πάντες ὀφείλομεν. . . θεοῖς πᾶσι ε ̣ι ̣̓δ ̣ε ̣ναι χάριτας, ";therefore ought we all to give thanks to all the gods,"; notification of the accession of Nero, BGU II. 596.13 (A.D. 84) τοῦτ [ο ̣] οὖν ποιήσας ̣ ἔσῃ μοι μεγάλην χάριταν (= -ιτα), P Oxy VI. 963 (ii/iii A.D.) χάριν δέ σοι οἶδα, μῆτερ, ἐπὶ τῇ σπουδῇ τοῦ καθεδραρίο ̣υ (";stool";), ἐκομισάμην γὰρ αὐτό, and the constantly recurring χάρις τοῖς θεοῖς, as in P Petr I. 29.2 (iii/B.C.) (= Witkowski.2, p. 30) χάρις τοῖς θε <ο >ῖς πολλή, εἰ ὑγιαίνεις, P Hib I. 79.6 (c. B.C. 260) εἰ ἔρρωσαι. . . εἴ <η > ἂν ὡς ἐγὼ θέλω καὶ τοῖς θεοῖς πολλὴ χά [ρι ]ς, ";if you are well, it would be as I wish, and much gratitude would be due to the gods"; (Edd.), BGU III. 843.6 (i/ii A.D.) χάρις τοῖς θεοῖς ἱκάμ [ην εἰς ] Ἀλεξανδρίαν, P Fay 124.16 (ii/A.D.) τοῖ [ς ] θ ̣[εο ]ῖ [ς ] ε ̣̓σ ̣τ ̣[ι ]ν ̣ χ ̣άρις ὅτι οὐδεμία ἐστὶν πρόλημψις ἡμεῖν γεγενημένη, ";thank heaven, there is no preconceived principle on our part"; (Edd.), PSI I. 94.6 (ii/A.D.) θεοῖς δὲ χάρις ὅτι ἤρεσε καὶ τῷ παιδὶ ἡ ποδίς, καὶ προσεδρεύει ἰς τὰ μαθήματα, P Giss I. 17.6 (time of Hadrian) (= Chrest. I. p. 566) χάρις τοῖς θεοῖς πᾶσι ὅτι σε διαφυλάσσουσι ἀπρόσκοπον, and the Christian P Oxy VI. 939.6 (iv/A.D.), where a servant writes to his master regarding the illness of his mistress, εἴη διὰ παντὸς ἡμᾶς χάριτας ὁμο [λογοῦντα ]ς διατελεῖν ὅτι ἡμῖν ἵλεως ἐγένετο. . διασώσας ἡμῖν [τὴν ἡμῶν ] κύριαν, ";may it be granted us to continue for ever to acknowledge our thanks to Him because He was gracious to us by preserving for us our mistress"; (Edd.) : cf. Luk. 17:9, Rom. 6:17, 1Ti. 1:12, 2Ti. 1:3, Heb. 12:28, al. See also Epict. iv. iv. 7 τότε καὶ ἐγὼ ἡμάρτανον νῦν δ᾽ οὐκέτι, χάρις τῷ Θεῷ, ";then I too was faulty, but, thanks to God, not now"; (cited by Sharp, p. 10), and for the χάρις ascribed to the Emperors, cf. Syll 365 (=.3 798).7 ff. (A.D. 37) τῆς ἀθανάτου χάριτος. . . θεῶν δὲ χάριτες τούτῳ διαφέρουσιν ἀνθρωπίνων διαδοχῶν, ᾧ ἢ νυκτὸς ἥλιος καὶ τὸ ἄφθαρτον θνητῆς φύσεως –said Caligula! Other exx. are cited by Wendland in ZNTW v. (1904), p. 345 n.2.
4. We may note one or two prepositional phrases—P Par 63 (B.C. 164) (= P Petr III. p. 22) διὰ χάρειν, ";through favouritism"; (Mahaffy), BGU IV. 1135.16 (B.C.10) κα ]τ ̣ὰ χάριν ̣, P Oxy XIV. 1672.6 (A.D. 37–41) μετὰ χάριτος, with reference to a profitable sale of wine, almost = μετὰ χαρᾶς, ";with joy"; (see Olsson, p. 78), ib. IX. 1188.5 (A.D. 13) στοχα (σάμενος) τ ̣οῦ μηδ (ὲν) ἀγνοηθῆναι μηδὲ πρὸς χά (ριν) οἰκονομηθ (ῆναι), ";making it your aim that nothing be concealed or done by favour"; (Ed.).
5. The favourite Pauline greeting χάρις καὶ εἰρήνη may have been suggested by the union of the ordinary Greek and Hebrew forms of salutation, but both are deepened and spiritualized, χαίρειν (cf. Act. 15:23; Act. 23:26, Jas. 1:1) giving place to χάρις, and εἰρήνη (cf. Ezr. 4:17, Dan. 4:1) pointing to the harmony restored between God and man (cf. Joh. 14:27). See further Hort 1 Pet. p. 25 f., and the discussion on the Apostolic Greeting by F. Zimmer in Luthardt’s Zeitschrift 1886, p. 443 ff.
Reference should be made to the Note ";On the meanings of χάρις and χαριτοῦν "; in Robinson Eph. p. 221 ff., and to the exhaustive monograph ";Charis. Ein Beitrag zur Geschichte des ältesten Christentums"; by G. P. von Wetter (Leipzig, 1913).
Copyright © 1914, 1929, 1930 by James Hope Moulton and George Milligan. Hodder and Stoughton, London.
Derivative Copyright © 2015 by Allan Loder.
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