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Old & New Testament Greek Lexical Dictionary Greek Lexicon
Strong's #846 - αὐτός
- himself, herself, themselves, itself
- he, she, it
- the same
(Cret. ἀϝτός GDI 4976, al.), αὐτή, αὐτό (also αὐτόν Leg.Gort. 3.4, al.), reflexive Pron., self: —
I in oblique cases used for the personal Pron., him, her, it: — with Art., ὁ αὐτός, ἡ αὐτή, τὸ αὐτό (also ταὐτόν), etc., the very one, the same. I self, myself, thyself, etc., acc. to the person of the Verb: freq. joined with ἐγώ, σύ, etc. (v. infr. 10),
1 one's true self, the soul, not the body, Od. 11.602; reversely, body, not soul, Il. 1.4; oneself, as opp. others who are less prominent, as king to subject, 6.18; Zeus to other gods, 8.4; bird to young, 2.317; man to wife and children, Od. 14.265; warrior to horses, Il. 2.466, or to weapons, 1.47; shepherd to herd, Od. 9.167, cf. Il. 1.51; Trojans to allies, 11.220; seamen to ships, 7.338: generally, whole to parts, ib. 474; so later ἡ σίδη καὶ αὐτὴ καὶ τὰ φύλλα Thphr. HP 4.10.7, cf. X. Ath. 1.19, Pl. Grg. 511e, etc.; αὐτή τε Μανδάνη καὶ τὸν υἱὸν ἔχουσα X. Cyr. 1.3.1; αὐ. τε καὶ τὰ ποιήματα βουλόμενος ἐπιδεῖξαι Pl. R. 398a: abs., the Master, as in the Pythag. phrase Αὐτὸς ἔφα, Lat. Ipse dixit; so τίς οὗτος.. ; — Αὐτός, i.e. Socrates, Ar. Nu. 218; ἀναβόησον Αὐτόν ib. 219; ἀνοιγέτω τις δώματ'· Αὐτὸς ἔρχεται the Master, Id. Fr. 268, cf. Pl. Prt. 314d, Thphr. Char. 2.4, Men. Sam. 41: αὐ. ἀϋτεῖ Theoc. 24.50: neut., αὐτὸ σημανεῖ the result will show, E. Ph. 623; αὐτὸ δηλώσει D. 19.157; αὐτὰ δηλοῖ Pl. Prt. 329b; αὐτὸ διδάξει ib. 324a; esp. αὐτὸ δείξει Cratin. 177, Pl. Hp.Ma. 288b, cf. Tht. 200e; in full, τάχ' αὐτὸ δείξει τοὔργον S. Fr. 388; τοὔργον τάχ' αὐτὸ δείξει Ar. Lys. 375; redupl., αὐτός θ' ὁ χρήσας αὐτὸς ἦν ὁ μαρτυρῶν A. Eu. 798; of things, the very, ὑπὸ λόφον αὐτόν, i.e. just, exactly under.., Il. 13.615; πρὸς αὐταῖς ταῖς θύραις close by the door, Lys. 12.12; αὐτὸ τὸ δέον the very thing needed, X. An. 4.7.7; αὐτὸ ὃ μάλιστα ἔδει ῥηθῆναι Pl. R. 362d; αὐτὸ τὸ περίορθρον the point of dawn, Th. 2.3; αὐτὰ τὰ ἐναντία the very opposite, X. Mem. 4.5.7; αὐτὰ τὰ χρήσιμα καὶ ἀναγκαῖα D.H. Th. 23; even, οὔ μοι μέλει ἄλγος οὔτ' αὐτῆς Ἑκάβης Il. 6.451; εἴ περ ἂν αὐταὶ Μοῦσαι ἀείδοιεν 2.597. — In these senses αὐτός in Prose either precedes both the Art. and Subst., or follows both, e.g. αὐτὸς ὁ υἱός or ὁ υἱὸς αὐτός. The Art. is sts. omitted with proper names, or Nouns denoting individuals, αὐτὸς Μένων X. An. 2.1.5; αὐτὸς βασιλεύς ib. 1.7.11.
2. of oneself, of one's own accord, ἀλλά τις αὐ. ἴτω Il. 17.254; σπεύδοντα καὶ αὐτὸν ὀτρύνεις 8.293; καταπαύσομεν· οἱ δὲ καὶ αὐτοὶ παυέσθων Od. 2.168; ἥξει γὰρ αὐτά S. OT 341; also, in person, τῶν πραγμάτων ὑμῖν.. αὐτοῖς ἀντιληπτέον D. 1.2.
3. by oneself or itself, alone, αὐτός περ ἐών although alone, Il. 8.99; αὐτὸς ἐγείναο παῖδ', i.e. without a mother, 5.880, cf. Hes. Th. 924; ἀνακομισθῆναι αὐτὸν ἐς Φάληρον by himself, Hdt. 5.85; αὐτοὶ γάρ ἐσμεν we are by ourselves, i.e. among friends, Ar. Ach. 504, cf. Th. 472, Pl. Prm. 137b, Herod. 6.70, Plu. 2.755c, Luc. DDeor. 10.2; αὐτοῖς τοῖς ἀνδράσι.. ἢ καὶ τοῖς ἄλλοις X. An. 2.3.7; ἄνευ τοῦ σίτου τὸ ὄψον αὐτὸ ἐσθίειν Id. Mem. 3.14.3; τὸν τρίβωνα ὃν αὐτὸν φορεῖ Thphr. Char. 22.13 (prob.); αὐτὰ γὰρ ἔστιν ταῦτα these and no others, Emp. 21.13, al.: strengthd., αὐτὸς κτήσατο οἶος himself alone, Od. 14.450; αὐτὸς μόνος, v. μόνος II; αὐτὸς καθ' αὑτόν, v. ἑαυτοῦ.
4. in Philosophy, by or in itself, of an abstract concept or idea, δίκαιον αὐτό Pl. Phd. 65d; αὐτὸ τὸ ἕν Id. Prm. 143a, al., cf. Arist. Metaph. 997b8: neut., αὐτό is freq. in this sense, attached to Nouns of all genders, οὐκ αὐτὸ δικαιοσύνην ἐπαινοῦντες ἀλλὰ τὰς ἀπ' αὐτῆς εὐδοκιμήσεις Pl. R. 363a; less freq. with Art., τί ποτ' ἐστὶν αὐτὸ ἡ ἀρετή Id. Prt. 360e; more fully, εἰ αὐτὸ τοῦτο πατέρα ἠρώτων, ἆρα ὁ πατήρ ἐστι πατήρ τινος, ἢ οὔ; Id. Smp. 199d; ἀδελφός, αὐτὸ τοῦτο ὅπερ ἔστιν the ideal, abstract brother, ibid.e: later, in compos., αὐτοαγαθόν, αὐτοάνθρωπος, etc. (q. v.), cf. Arist. Metaph. 1040b33; less freq. agreeing with the Subst., ἵνα αὐτὴ δικαιοσύνη πρὸς ἀδικίαν αὐτὴν κριθείη Pl. R. 612c, etc.; doubled, ἐκ τῆς εἰκόνος μανθάνειν αὐτήν τε αὐτήν, εἰ καλῶς εἴκασται its very self, Id. Cra. 439a.
5. in dat. with Subst., in one, together, ἀνόρουσεν αὐτῇ σὺν φόρμιγγι he sprang up lyre in hand, Il. 9.194; αὐτῇ σὺν πήληκι κάρη helmet and all, 14.498, cf. Od. 13.118; αὐτῷ σὺν ἄγγει E. Ion 32, cf. Hipp. 1213; also without σύν, αὐτῇ κεν γαίῃ ἐρύσαι Il. 8.24: so freq. in Prose and Poetry, αὐτοῖς ἀνδράσι men and all, Hdt. 6.93; αὐτοῖσι συμμάχοισι allies and all, A. Pr. 223 (lyr.); αὐτοῖς μελάθροις διακναιομένους E. Med. 164: with Art., αὐτοῖσι τοῖσι ἱματίοισι ἀπ' ὦν ἔβαψε ἑωυτόν Hdt. 2.47; αὐτοῖσι τοῖς πόρπαξι Ar. Eq. 849, etc.; αὐτοῖς τοῖς ἵπποις κατακρημνισθῆναι X. Cyr. 1.4.7.
6. added to ordinal Numbers, e.g. πέμπτος αὐτός himself the fifth, i. e. himself with four others, Th. 1.46, cf. 8.35, X. HG 2.2.17, Revelation 17:11, etc.: — αὐτός always being the chief person.
7. freq. coupled with οὗτος, τοῦτ' αὐτό ἐστι τὸ ζητηθέν Pl. Plt. 267c, etc.; αὐτὸ τοῦτο μόνον Id. Grg. 500b; also λεγόντων ἄλλο μὲν οὐδέν.. αὐτὰ δὲ τάδε Th. 1.139; πόλεις ἄλλας τε καὶ αὐτὸ τοῦτο τὸ Βυζάντιον X. An. 7.1.27; ταῦτα ἥκω αὐτὰ ἵνα.. Pl. Prt. 310e.
8. καὶ αὐτός himself too, Od. 7.73, 14.45, X. An. 5.5.9, etc.
9. repeated in apodosi for emphasis, αὐτὸς ἐπαγγειλάμενος σώσειν.. αὐτὸς ἀπώλεσεν Lys. 12.68, cf. A. Fr. 350, X. An. 3.2.4.
10. in connexion with the person. Pron., ἐγὼν αὐτός Od. 2.194; σέθεν αὐτοῦ Il. 23.312; νωΐτερον αὐτῶν 15.39 (always divisim in Hom.); folld. by an enclit. Pron., αὐτόν μιν Od. 4.244; so αὐτὸν γάρ σε δεῖ Προμηθέως A. Pr. 86; also αὐτὸς ἔγωγε Pl. Phd. 59b, etc.: — after Hom. in the oblique cases αὐτός coalesces with the Pron., ἐμαυτοῦ, σεαυτοῦ (these not in Alc. or Sapph., A.D. Pron. 80.10 sqq.), ἑαυτοῦ, etc. (q. v.). with person. Pron. omitted, αὐτός.. ἧσθαι λιλαίομαι, for ἐγὼ αὐτός, Il. 13.252; αὐτὸν ἐλέησον, for ἐμὲ αὐτόν, 24.503; αὐτῶν γὰρ ἀπωλόμεθ' ἀφραδίῃσιν Od. 10.27; in 2.33 οἱ αὐτῷ is simply a strengthd. form of οἱ; and so in Att., when σὲ αὐτόν, ἐμοὶ αὐτῷ, etc., are read divisim, they are emphatic, not reflexive; in this case αὐτός generally precedes the person. Pron., cf. X. Cyr. 6.2.25 with 6.1.14. with the reflexive ἑαυτοῦ, αὑτοῦ, etc., to add force and definiteness, αὐτὸς καθ' αὑτοῦ A. Th. 406; αὐτοὶ ὑφ' αὑτῶν ib. 194; αὐτοὶ καθ' αὑτούς X. Mem. 3.5.4; αὐτὸ καθ' αὑτό Pl. Tht. 201e; sts. between the Art. and reflex. Pron., τοῖς αὐτὸς αὑτοῦ πήμασιν βαρύνεται A. Ag. 836, cf. Pr. 762; τούς γ' αὐτὸς αὑτοῦ πολεμίους S. Aj. 1132: also κατ' αὐτὺ (Boeot. for αὐτοὶ) αὐτῶν IG 7.3172.121 (Orchom. Boeot.). αὐτοῦ, αὐτῶν with possess. Pron., πατρὸς κλέος ἠδ' ἐμὸν αὐτοῦ Il. 6.446; θρῆνον.. ἐμὸν τὸν αὐτῆς A. Ag. 1323; ἐχθρὸς ὢν τοῖς σοῖσιν αὐτοῦ S. OT 416; τοῖς οἷσιν αὐτοῦ ib. 1248; αὐτῶν σφετέρῃσιν ἀτασθαλίῃσιν Od. 1.7; τοῖς ἡμετέροις αὐτῶν φίλοις X. An. 7.1.29. αὐτὸς ἑαυτοῦ with Comp. and Sup. Adj., αὐτὸς ἑωυτοῦ ῥέει πολλῷ ὑποδεέστερος Hdt. 2.25; τῇ εὐρυτάτη ἐστὶ αὐτὴ ἑωυτῆς Id. 1.203.
11. αὐτός for ὁ αὐτός, the same, Il. 12.225, Od. 8.107, 16.138, Pi. N. 5.1 (never in Trag.), and in later Prose, αὐταῖς ταῖς ἡμέραις IG 14.966 (ii A. D.), cf. Luke 23:12.
12. Comp. αὐτότερος Epich. 5: Sup. αὐτότατος his very self, Ar. Pl. 83: neut. pl. αὐτότατα dub. in Phld. Piet. 80. Adv., Comp. αὐτοτέρως Gal. 18(2).431.
II he, she, it, for the simple Pron. of 3 pers., only in oblique cases (exc. in later Gk., Luke 4:15, etc.), and rarely first in a sentence, Pl. La. 194e, and later, Ephesians 2:10, etc.: rare in , Il. 12.204 (where Hdn. treated it as enclitic), and mostly emphatic, ib. 14.457, Od. 16.388; so in Trag., E. Hel. 421: in Prose, to recall a Noun used earlier in the sentence, ἐγὼ μὲν οὖν βασιλέα.. οὐκ οἶδα ὅ τι δεῖ αὐτὸν ὀμόσαι X. An. 2.4.7; πειράσομαι τῷ πάππῳ.. συμμαχεῖν αὐτῷ Id. Cyr. 1.3.15; ἄνδρα δὴ.. εἰ ἀφίκοιτο εἰς τὴν πόλιν, προσκυνοῖμεν ἂν αὐτόν Pl. R. 398a; after a Relative, ὅς κε θεοῖς ἐπιπείθηται.. ἔκλυον αὐτοῦ Il. 1.218; οὓς μὴ εὕρισκον, κενοτάφιον αὐτοῖς ἐποίησαν X. An. 6. 4.9, cf. 1.9.29; esp. where a second Verb requires a change of case in the Pron., οἳ ἂν ἐξελεγχθῶσι.. ὡς προδότας αὐτοὺς ὄντας τιμωρηθῆναι Id. An. 2.5.27; ἐκεῖνοι οἷς οὐκ ἐχαρίζονθ' οἱ λέγοντες οὐδ' ἐφίλουν αὐτούς D. 3.24; in subdivisions, ὅσοι.. οἱ μὲν αὐτῶν.. X. Cyr. 1.1.1, cf. Pl. Chrm. 168e; later, pleonastically after a Relative, ὧν ὁ μὲν αὐτῶν Call. Epigr. 43, cf. Luke 3:16, Revelation 7:2, etc.: in S. Ph. 316 αὐτοῖς is emphatic 'in their own persons'.
III with Art. ὁ αὐτός, ἡ αὐτή, τὸ αὐτό, and Att. contr. αὑτός, αὑτή, ταὐτό and ταὐτόν (as required by the metre, cf. S. OT 734 with 325, and in Prose to avoid hiatus): gen. ταὐτοῦ, dat. ταὐτῷ, pl. neut. ταὐτά; Ion. ὡυτός, τὠυτό: —
1. the very one, the same, rare in Hom., Il. 6.391, Od. 7.55, 326; ὁ αὐ. εἰμι τῇ γνώμῃ Th. 3.38, cf. 5.75; ἐπὶ τὸ αὐ. αἱ γνῶμαι ἔφερον Id. 1.79: c. dat., to denote sameness or agreement, esp. in Prose, τὠυτὸ ἂν ὑμῖν ἐπρήσσομεν Hdt. 4.119; τὸν αὐτὸν χῶρον ἐκλιπὼν ἐμοί A. Ch. 543; ὁ αὐτὸς τῷ λίθῳ the same as the stone, Pl. Euthd. 298a; ἐν ταὐτῷ εἶναί τινι to be in the place with.., X. An. 3.1.27; προσίεσθαί τινα ἐς ταὐτὸ ἑαυτῷ to have a person meet one, ib. 30, cf. A. Ch. 210; κατὰ ταὐτὰ τῷ Νείλῳ Hdt. 2.20; τῇ αὐτῇ.. καί Id. 4.109; τὴν αὐτὴν διάνοιαν καὶ κατ' ἐκείνην ἡλικίαν Isoc. 5.83; ὁ αὐτός.. ὥσπερ Pl. Phd. 86a; ἐς ταὐτὸν ἀλλήλοις face to face, Jul. Or. 2.5a0.
2. in later Greek, the said, the above-named, Ἡρώδης ὁ αὐ. PLille 23.8 (iii B. C.), etc. Adverbial phrases:
1 αὐτὸ μόνον simply, merely, Ph. 2.252, etc.; αὐ. μόνον ἐργάτης Luc. Somn. 9; αὐ. μόνον τὸ ὄνομα τῆς φωνῆς A.D. Synt. 22.20.
2. αὐτό as Adv., = ἄρτι, Epigr.Gr. 540.1 (Thrace).
3. αὐτὸ τοῦτο as Adv., PGrenf. 1.114 (ii B. C.), 2 Peter 1:5; τῆς αὐτὸ τοῦτο κινουμένης σφαίρας Iamb. Comm.Math. 17.
4. with Preps., ἐπὶ τὸ αὐτό added together, making a total, PLond. 2.196.37 (ii A. D.); κατὰ τὸ αὐτό together, at the same time, Acts 14:1, etc.; but κατ' αὐτό just then, Hdn. 1.12.3.
1 of or by oneself, self-.., as in αὐτοδίδακτος, αὐτογνώμων, αὐτόματος: and so, independently, as in αὐτοκράτωρ, αὐτόνομος.
2. hence, as a second self, very.., bodily, as with proper names, Αὐτοθαΐς.
3. in the abstract, the ideal, v. supr. 1.4.
4. precisely, as in αὐτόδεκα.
5. rarely with reflex. sense of ἀλλήλων, as in αὐτοκτονέω.
6. in one piece with, together with, as in αὐτόκωπος, αὐτοχείλης, αὐτόπρεμνος, αὐτόρριζος.
7. by itself: hence, only, as in αὐτόξυλος, αὐτόποκος. — For αὐτοῦ, αὐτῶς, etc., v. the respective Arts.
αὐτός, αὐτῇ, αὐτό, pronoun ("derived from the particle αὖ with the added force of a demonstrative pronoun. In itself it signifies nothing more than again, applied to what has either been previously mentioned or, when the whole discourse is looked at, must necessarily be supplied." Klotz ad Devar. ii., p. 219; (see Vanicek, p. 268)). It is used by the Biblical writings both of the O. T. and of the N. T. far more frequently than the other pronouns; and in this very frequent and almost inordinate use of it, they deviate greatly from secular authors; cf. Buttmann, § 127, 9. (On classic usage cf. Hermann, Opuscc. i. 308ff, of which dissertation a summary is given in his edition of Viger, pp. 732-736.)
I. self, as used (in all persons, genders, numbers) to distinguish a person or thing from or contrast it with another, or to give him (it) emphatic prominence.
1. When used to express Opposition or Distinction, it is added a. to the subjects implied in the verb, the personal pronouns ἐγώ, ἡμεῖς, σύ, etc., being omitted: Luke 5:37 (αὐτός ἐκχυθήσεται the wine, as opposed to the skins); Luke 22:71 (αὐτοί γάρ ἠκούσαμεν we ourselves, opposed to witnesses whose testimony could have been taken); John 2:25 (αὐτός ἐγίνωσκεν, opposed to testimony he might have called for); John 4:42 (we ourselves, not thou only); John 9:21 (T Tr WH omit); Acts 18:15 (ὄψεσθε αὐτοί); Acts 20:34; Acts 22:19; 1 Thessalonians 1:9, etc.; with a negative added, 'he does not himself do this or that,' i. e. he leaves it to others: Luke 6:42 (αὐτός, viz., thou, οὐ βλέπων); Luke 11:46 (αὐτοί, viz., ye, οὐ προσψαύετε),
b. it is added to subjects expressed, whether to pronouns personal or demonstrative, or to nouns proper or common: John 3:28 (αὐτοί ὑμεῖς ye yourselves bear witness, not only have I affirmed); Acts 20:30 (ἐξ ὑμῶν αὐτῶν from among your own selves, not only from other quarters); Romans 15:14 (καί αὐτός ἐγώ I of myself also, not only assured by report, cf.
c. it is used to distinguish one not only from his companions, disciples, servants — as Mark 2:25 (αὐτός καί οἱ μετ' αὐτοῦ); John 2:12; John 4:53; John 18:1 — but also from things done by him or belonging to him, as John 7:4 (τί ποιεῖ καί ζητεῖ αὐτός (L Tr marginal reading WH marginal reading αὐτό)); 1 Corinthians 3:15 (τίνος τό ἔργον κατακαήσεται, αὐτός δέ σωθήσεται); Luke 24:15 (αὐτός (ὁ) Ἰησοῦς, Jesus himself in person, opposed to their previous conversation about him).
d. self to the exclusion of others, i. e. he etc. alone, by oneself: Mark 6:31 (ὑμεῖς αὐτοί ye alone, unattended by any of the people; cf. Fritzsche at the passage); John 14:11 (διά τά ἔργα αὐτά (WH marginal reading αὐτοῦ)); Romans 7:25 (αὐτός ἐγώ I alone, unaided by the Spirit of Christ; cf. Romans 8:2); 2 Corinthians 12:13 (αὐτός ἐγώ, unlike the other preachers of the gospel); Revelation 19:12; cf. Herm. ad Vig., p. 733 iii.; Matth. § 467, 5; Kühner, § 468 Anm. 2; (Jelf, § 656, 3); with the addition of μόνος (as often in Attic writings): John 6:15.
e. self not prompted or influenced by another, i. e. of oneself of one's own accord: John 16:27 (so even Homer, Iliad 17, 254; and among Attic writings especially Xenophon). 2. When it gives Prominence, it answers a. to our emphatic he, she, it: Matthew 1:21 (αὐτός σώσει HE and no other); Matthew 5:4-10 (αὐτοί);
b. it points out some one as chief, leader, master of the rest (often so in Greek, as in the well-known phrase of the Pythagoreans, αὐτός ἔφα (cf. Winer's Grammar, § 22, 3, 4 and, p. 150 (142))): of Christ, Matthew 8:24; Mark 4:38; Mark 6:47; Mark 8:29; Luke 5:16; Luke 9:51; Luke 10:38; of God, Luke 6:35; Hebrews 13:5; 1 John 4:19 (not Lachmann).
c. it answers to our very, just, exactly (German eben,gerade): Romans 9:3 (αὐτός ἐγώ I myself, the very man who seems to be inimical to the Israelites); 2 Corinthians 10:1 (I myself, who bore myself lowly in your presence, as ye said); αὐτά τά ἔργα, John 5:36; often in Luke ἐν αὐτῇ τῇ ἡμέρα or ὥρα, αὐτῷ τῷ καιρῷ, in that very day, hour, season: Luke 2:38; Luke 10:21; Luke 12:12; Luke 13:1, 31; Luke 20:19; Luke 23:12; Luke 24:13, 33; Acts 16:18. In the writings of Paul αὐτό τοῦτο this very thing: Galatians 2:10; 2 Corinthians 7:11; Philippians 1:6; εἰς αὐτό τοῦτο for this very purpose, on this very account: Romans 9:17; Romans 13:6; 2 Corinthians 5:5; Ephesians 6:22; Colossians 4:8; and in the same sense (for this very thing) the simple accusative (as in Attic, cf. Matth. § 470, 7; Kühner, 2:267 Anm. 6; Winer's Grammar, § 21 N. 2) τοῦτο αὐτό, 2 Corinthians 2:3 (but see Meyer at the passage), and αὐτό τοῦτο, 2 Peter 1:5 (Lachmann reads here αὐτοί).
d. even, Latinvel,adeo (in Homer; cf. Herm. ad Vig., p. 733 ii.): καί αὐτῇ ἡ κτίσις, Romans 8:21; οὐδέ ἡ φύσις αὐτῇ, 1 Corinthians 11:14; καί (Tr omits; L WH brackets καί) αὐτός ὁ υἱός, 1 Corinthians 15:28; καί αὐτῇ Σάρρα even Sarah herself, although a feeble old woman, Hebrews 11:11 (yet WH marginal reading reads the dative αὐτῇ Σάρρα; see καταβολή, 1).
II. αὐτός has the force of a simple personal pronoun of the third person, answering to our unemphatic he, she, it; and that 1. as in classic Greek, in the oblique cases, him, her, it, them, etc.: numberless instances — as in the genitive absolute, e. g. αὐτοῦ ἐλθόντος, λαλήσαντος, etc.; or in the accusative with infinitive, εἰς τό εἶναι αὐτούς ἀναπολογήτους, Romans 1:20; or after prepositions, ἐξ αὐτοῦ, ἐν αὐτῷ, etc.; or where it indicates the possessor, ὁ πατήρ αὐτοῦ; or a person as the (direct or indirect) object of an active verb, as ἐπιδώσει αὐτῷ, Matthew 7:9; ἀσπάσασθε αὐτήν, Matthew 10:12; ἀφείς αὐτούς, Matthew 26:44; ἦν διανεύων αὐτοῖς, Luke 1:22; οὐκ εἴα αὐτά λαλεῖν, Luke 4:41; ἡ σκοτία αὐτό οὐ κατέλαβε, John 1:5. But see αὑτοῦ below. 2. Contrary to Greek usage, in the N. T. even in the nominative it is put for a simple personal pronoun of the third person, where the Greeks say οὗτος or ὁ δέ, or use no pronoun at all. This has been convincingly shown by Buttmann, 107ff (93ff); and yet some of the examples adduced by him are not decisive, but either must be or can be referred to the usage illustrated under I. 1; — those in which αὐτός is used of Christ, apparently to I. 1 b. But, in my opinion, the question is settled even by the following: αὐτός, Matthew 14:2; Mark 14:15; Luke 1:22; Luke 15:14; so too in the Sept. (cf. Thiersch, De Pentat. vers. Alex., p. 98); Sir. 49:7; Tobit 6:11; αὐτοί, Mark 2:8 (οὕτως αὐτοί διαλογίζονται in Griesbach); Luke 9:36; Luke 14:1; Luke 22:23; αὐτό, Luke 11:14 (Tr marginal reading WH omits; Tr text brackets). Whether αὐτῇ and αὐταί also are so used, is doubtful; cf. Buttmann, 109 (95).
3. Sometimes in the oblique cases the pronoun is omitted, being evident from the context: Mark 6:5 (ἐπιθείς, namely, αὐτοῖς); John 3:34 (δίδωσι, namely, αὐτῷ); John 10:29 (δέδωκέ μοι, namely, αὐτούς); Acts 13:3 (ἀπέλυσαν, namely, αὐτούς); Revelation 18:21 (ἔβαλεν, namely, αὐτόν), etc.
4. Not infrequently αὐτός in the oblique cases is added to the verb, although the case belonging to this very verb has preceded: Matthew 8:1 (Καταβάντι δέ αὐτῷ (L Tr WH genitive absolutely) ἀπό τόν ὄρους ἠκολούθησαν αὐτῷ); Matthew 4:16; Matthew 5:40; Matthew 8:23, 28 (R G);
5. By a Hebraism αὐτός is used redundantly in relative sentences: ἧς εἴχετο θυγάτριον αὐτῆς, Mark 7:25; οὗ τῷ μώλωπι αὐτοῦ, 1 Peter 2:24 (R G T, but Tr marginal reading brackets αὐτοῦ); especially in the Apocalypse: ἥν οὐδείς δύναται κλεῖσαι αὐτήν, Revelation 3:8 (according to the true text); οἷς ἐδόθη αὐτοῖς, Revelation 7:2; add Revelation 7:9; Revelation 13:12; Revelation 17:9; far more often in the Sept.; rare in Greek writings (from Callimachus (
6. Very often αὐτός is used rather laxly, where the subject or the object to which it must be referred is not expressly indicated, but must be gathered especially from some preceding name of a province or city, or from the context: Matthew 4:23 (περιῆγεν τήν Γαλιλαίαν διδάσκων ἐν ταῖς συναγωγαῖς αὐτῶν, i. e. of the Galilaeans); Acts 8:5 (Σαμαρείας ἐκήρυσσεν αὐτοῖς, i. e. τοῖς Σαμαρείταις); Acts 20:2 (αὐτούς, i. e. the inhabitants τῶν μερῶν ἐκείνων); 2 Corinthians 2:13 (αὐτοῖς, i. e. the Christians of Troas); Matthew 19:2 (ὄχλοι πολλοί καί ἐθεράπευσεν αὐτούς, i. e. their sick); 1 Peter 3:14 (φόβον αὐτῶν, i. e. of those who may be able κακῶσαι you, 1 Peter 3:13); Luke 23:51 (τῇ βουλή αὐτῶν, i. e. of those with whom he had been a βουλευτής); Hebrews 8:8 (αὐτοῖς (L T WH Tr marginal reading αὐτούς; see μέμφομαι) i. e. τοῖς ἔχουσι τήν διαθήκην τήν προωτην); Luke 2:22 (τοῦ καθαρισμοῦ αὐτῶν. of the purification prescribed by the law of Moses to women in child-bed); John 8:44 (ψεύστης ἐστιν καί ὁ πατήρ αὐτοῦ, i. e. of the liar; cf. Baumg.-Crusius and Meyer at the passage). By this rather careless use of the pronoun it camo about that at length αὐτοί alone might be used for ἄνθρωποι: Matthew 8:4; Mark 1:44; Luke 5:14, 17 (here T WH Tr marginal reading αὐτόν); cf. Winers Grammar, § 22, 3; Buttmann, § 127, 8. 7. Sometimes, in relative sentences consisting of several members, the second member is not joined to the first by the relative ὅς, but by a loose connection proceeds with καί αὐτός; as, Luke 17:31; Acts 3:13 (By ὅν ὑμεῖς παρεδώκατε καί ἠρνήσασθε αὐτόν (L T WH omit; Tr brackets αὐτόν)); 1 Corinthians 8:6 (ἐξ οὗ τά πάντα καί ἡμεῖς εἰς αὐτόν, for καί εἰς ὅν ἡμεῖς); 2 Peter 2:3. This is the usage likewise of Greek as well as of Hebrew; cf. Winers Grammar, 149 (141); (Buttmann, 283 (243)); Bernhardy (1829), p. 304.
III. ὁ αὐτός, ἡ αὐτῇ, τό αὐτό, with the article, the same;
1. without a noun: ὁ αὐτός, immutable, Hebrews 1:12; Hebrews 13:8 (Thucydides 2, 61); τό αὐτό: — ποιεῖν, Matthew 5:46 (R G T WH text, 47 L T Tr WH); Luke 6:33; λέγειν, to profess the same opinion, 1 Corinthians 1:10; ὀνειδίζειν, not in the same manner but reproached him with the same, cast on him the same reproach, Matthew 27:44 (ὀνειδίζειν τοιαῦτα, Sophocles Oed. Col. 1002). τά αὐτά: Acts 15:27; Romans 2:1; Ephesians 6:9. ἐπί τό αὐτό (Rec.st passim ἐπιτοαυτό) (Hesychius ὁμοῦ, ἐπί τόν αὐτόν τόπον), to the same place, in the same place: Matthew 22:34; Acts 1:15; Acts 2:1; 1 Corinthians 11:20; 1 Corinthians 14:23 (Psalm 2:2; 2 Samuel 2:13; 3Macc. 3:1; Susanna 14); together: Luke 17:35; Acts 3:1 (L T Tr WH join it to Acts 2; 1 Corinthians 7:5); κατά τό αὐτό (Vulg. simul), together: Acts 14:1 (for יַחַד, Exodus 26:24; 1 Kings 3:18; examples from Greek writings are given by Kypke, Observations, ii., p. 69ff). Like adjective of equality ὁ αὐτός is followed by the dative: ἕν καί τό αὐτό τῇ ἐξυρημένῃ, 1 Corinthians 11:5 (Wis. 18:11; 4 Macc. 8:5; 10:2, 13; and often in Greek writings, cf. Winer's Grammar, 150 (141)).
2. With a noun added: Matthew 26:44; Mark 14:39 (τόν αὐτόν λόγον); Luke 6:38 (R G L marginal reading) (τῷ αὐτῷ μέτρῳ); Philippians 1:30; 1 Corinthians 1:10 (ἐν τῷ αὐτῷ νοι<); 1 Corinthians 12:4 (τό δέ αὐτό πνεῦμα), etc. τά αὐτά (with the force of a substantive: the same kind) τῶν παθημάτων, 1 Peter 5:9. (Cf. ταῦτα.)
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αὐτός , -ή , -ό ,
determinative prop., in late Gk. much more freq. than in cl. (WM, 178 f.; Jannaris, HUG, § 1399).
1. Emphatic (so always in nom. exc. when preceded by the art., v. infr., iii);
(1) self (ipse), expressing opposition, distinction, exclusion, etc., αὐ . ἑκχυθήσεται , Luke 5:37; αὐ . ἐγινώσκεν , John 2:25; αὐ . ὑμεις , John 3:28; καὶ αὐ . ἐγώ , Romans 15:14; αὐ . Ἰησοῦς , John 2:24; αὐ . καὶ οἱ μετ᾽ αντού , Mark 2:25; ὑμεῖς αὐ ., Mark 6:31; esp. (as freq. in cl.) αὐ . ὁ , Matthew 3:4, Mark 6:17, John 16:27, 1 Thessalonians 3:11, al.; in late Gk., sometimes weakened, ἐν αὐτῇ τ . ὥρᾳ , in that hour, Luke 10:21 (M, Pr., 91; MM, s.v.);
(2) emphatic, he, she, it (M, Pr., 86; Bl., § 48, 1, 2, 7), Matthew 1:21; Matthew 12:50, Luke 6:35, al.; pointing to some one as master (cl.), Matthew 8:24, Mark 4:38, al.; αὐ ., καὶ αὐ . = οὗτος , ὁ δε (Bl., § 48, 1), Matthew 14:2, Mark 14:15; Mark 14:44, Luke 1:22; Luke 2:28, al.
2. In oblique cases (cl.), for the simple prop. of 3rd pers., he, she, it, Matthew 7:9; Matthew 10:12; Matthew 26:44, al.; with ptcp. in gen. absol., Matthew 9:18, Mark 13:1, al. (for irreg. constructions, v. Bl., § 74, 5); pleonastically after the relative (cf. Heb. לוֺ . . . H834; WM, 184 ff.; Bl., § 50, 4; MM, s.v.), Mark 7:25, Revelation 3:8; Revelation 7:2, al.; in constr. ad sensum, without proper subject expressly indicated, Matthew 4:23, Acts 8:5, 2 Corinthians 2:13, al.; gen. αὐτοῦ = ἐκείνου , Romans 11:11, 1 Thessalonians 2:19, Titus 3:5, Hebrews 2:4.
3. ὁ , ἡ , τὸ αὐ ., the same: Hebrews 1:12; Hebrews 13:8; τὸ αὐ ., ποιεῖν , Matthew 5:46-47 al.; φρονεῖν , Romans 12:16; Romans 15:5, Philippians 2:2, al.; τὰ αὐ ., Acts 15:27, Romans 2:1, al.; κατὰ τὸ (τὰ ) αὐ . (MM, s.v.), Acts 14:1, Luke 6:23, al.; ἐπὶ τὸ αὐ ., together (MM, s.v.), Matthew 22:34, Acts 1:15, al.; ἓν κ . τὸ αὐ ., 1 Corinthians 11:5; 1 Corinthians 12:11; c. dat. (cl.), 1 Corinthians 11:5; with a noun, λόγος , Mark 14:39; μέτρος , Philippians 1:30; πνεῦμα , 1 Corinthians 12:4.
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The weakening of the old distinction between αὐτὸς ὁ and ὁ αὐτός , especially in Luke, is noted in Proleg. p. 91, and paralleled from Hellenistic. We may add (cf. Einleitung p. 145 f.) Syll 807.1 (ii/A.D.) αὐταῖς ταῖς ἡμέραις , where Dittenberger remarks ";expectaveris ταῖς αὐταῖς ,"; OG1S 383.14 (Antiochus of Commagene, i/B.C.) τὴν αὐτήν τε κρίσιν , for which Ditt. desiderates ταύτην τὴν κρίσιν , P Hib I. 39.6 (B.C. 265) αὐτὸς Ὧρος ";the said H.,"; P Lille I. 23.8 (B.C. 221) οὗ μ [ισ ]θωτὴς Ἡρώδ [ης ] ὁ αὐτός ";ce même H.,"; P Oxy VI. 892.3 (A.D. 338) τῆς αὐτῆς πόλεως , ib. VIII. 1119.8 (A.D. 254) τοῦ αὐτοῦ ἀμφοδογραμματέως ";the said a."; : all these seem to be practically identical, with αὐτός differing little from ἐκεῖνος . The combination αὐτὸ τοῦτο may be illustrated by P Grenf I. 1.14 (literary, ii/B.C.) ";for this reason"; (Ed.) as in 2 Peter 1:5, P Ryl II. 77.39 (A.D. 192) καὶ αὐτὰ ταῦτα ἀσφαλίσομαι ";I will certify these very facts"; (Edd.), P Oxy VIII. 1119.11 (see above) ὑπὲρ τοῦ μὴ καὶ τὸν νυνεὶ φύλαρχον δοκεῖν ἀγνοεῖν αὐτὰ ταῦτα [. . .
For the phrase ἐπὶ τὸ αὐτό = ";together,"; as apparently in Luke 17:35, see P Tebt I. 14.20 (B.C. 114), where the ";total"; value of certain property is one talent of copper—ἀξίας ἐπὶ τὸ αὐτὸ χα (λκοῦ ) (ταλάντου ) α ̄ : cf. II. 319.9 (A.D. 248) ἐπὶ τὸ αὐτὸ (ἄρουραι ) ι ̄ε ̄, ";a total of 15 arourae,"; 336.10 (c. A.D. 190), al. This arithmetical use may be applied in Acts 2:47, if we may render ";was daily heaping up the total of . . ."; Κατὰ τὸ αὐτό with the same meaning, as in Acts 14:1, may be illustrated from the early marriage contract P Eleph 1.5 (B.C. 311–10) (= Selections p. 2) εἶναι δὲ ἡμᾶς κατὰ ταὐτό , ";and that we should live together."; In P Eleph 2.6 (B.C. 285–4) κατὰ ταὐτά = ";in the same way."; Vettius Valens, p. 57.28, uses τὸ δ᾽ αὐτό to express the same meaning (ὡσαύτως ).
On the redundant use of unemphatic αὐτός (in oblique cases) see Proleg. p. 84 f. We might add that possessive αὐτοῦ (like ἐμοῦ , etc.) becomes emphatic when placed between art. and noun : e.g. BGU IV. 1098.36 (c. B.C. 17) ἄνευ τῆς αὐτο [ῦ ] γ ̣ν ̣[ώ ]μης , and so ib. 1126.12 (B.C. 8). On the extent to which αὐτός (in oblique cases again) may have enlarged its functions at the expense of ἑαυτοῦ see next article. In MGr it is the personal pronoun ";he"; etc., or means ";this.";
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