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Old & New Testament Greek Lexical Dictionary Greek Lexicon
Strong's #991 - βλέπω
- to see, discern, of the bodily eye
- with the bodily eye: to be possessed of sight, have the power of seeing
- perceive by the use of the eyes: to see, look descry
- to turn the eyes to anything: to look at, look upon, gaze at
- to perceive by the senses, to feel
- to discover by use, to know by experience
- metaph. to see with the mind's eye
- to have (the power of) understanding
- to discern mentally, observe, perceive, discover, understand
- to turn the thoughts or direct the mind to a thing, to consider, contemplate, to look at, to weigh carefully, examine
- in a geographical sense of places, mountains, buildings, etc. turning towards any quarter, as it were, facing it
Sol. 11.8, etc.: impf. ἔβλεπον Batr. 67: fut. βλέψομαι D. 25.98, Dor. inf. βλεψεῖσθαι IG 4.951.75 (Epid.), later βλέψω LXX Isaiah 6:9, Aristid. 2.46J., etc.: aor. ἔβλεψα (v. infr.): pf. βέβλεφα (ἀπο-) Antip.Stoic. 3.254 (codd. Stob.); βέβλοφα (ἐμ-) PLond. 1.42.21 (ii A. D.): — Pass., aor. ἐβλέφθην (προς-) Plu. 2.68of: pf. βέβλεμμαι to be supplied in Ath. 10.409c, cf. Eust. 1401.16: —
I chiefly in pres. and aor. Act. in early writers: Med. (exc. fut.) and Pass. only late: — see, have the power of sight (dist. fr. ὁρῶ perceive, be aware of, cf. Plot. 6.7.37), opp. τυφλός εἰμι, S. OT 302, cf. 348, OC 73, Ar. Pl. 15, etc.; βλέποντες ἔβλεπον μάτην A. Pr. 447; βλέποντας ἀθλιωτάτους Alex. 234; μὴ βλέπων ὁ μάντις ᾖ lest he see too clearly, S. OT 747; ὁ βλέπων the seer, Hebraism in LXX 1 Kings 9:9; ὀλίγον βλέπων short- sighted, POxy. 39.9 (i A. D.).
1. look, βλέφ' ὧδε S. Tr. 402; ἐπὶ ἐμοί Id. Aj. 345 (s. v.l.); εἴς τι A. Pers. 802; ἐπί τι Th. 7.71; εἰς τὰ τούτων πρόσωπα D. 18.283; πῶς βλέπων; with what face? S. Ph. 110; ὄμμασιν ποίοις β.; Id. OT 1371; β. ἅμα πρόσσω καὶ ὀπίσσω Pl. Cra. 428d: with Adv., φιλοφρόνως, ἐχθρῶς β. πρός τινας, X. Mem. 3.10.4, Smp. 4.58: freq. folld. by noun in acc., φόβον β. look terror, i. e. to look terrible, Θυιὰς ὣς φόβον βλέπων A. Th. 498; Com., ἔβλεψε νᾶπυ looked mustard, Ar. Eq. 631; ἀνδρεῖον.. καὶ βλέποντ' ὀρίγανον Id. Ra. 603; βλεπόντων κάρδαμα Id. V. 455; πυρρίχην βλέπων looking like a war-dancer, Id. Av. 1169; αἴκειαν βλέπων looking like one disgraced, ib. 1671; σκύτη β., of a slave, Eup. 282, Ar. V. 643; β. ἀπιστίαν Eup. 309: also folld. by Adj., μέγα β. dub. in Semon. 19; φθονερὰ β. Pi. N. 4.39; γλίσχρον β. Euphro 10.16, cf. Men. Epit. 479, Jul. Caes. 309c: by inf., ἁρπάζειν β. Men. Epit. 181; ὀρχεῖσθαι μόνον β. Alex. 97: by part. neut., τί πεφροντικὸς βλέπεις; E. Alc. 773.
2. β. ἐς look to, rely on, εἰς ἔργον οὐδὲν γιγνόμενον βλέπετε Sol. 11.8; ἐς θεούς S. Ant. 923; οὐκέτ' ἐστὶν εἰς ὅ τι βλέπω Id. Aj. 514; ἔς σε δὴ βλέπω, ὅπως.. in the hope that.., Id. El. 954: metaph. also, have regard to, ἡ πολιτεία β. εἰς πλοῦτον Arist. Pol. 1293b14; of aspects, οἰκίαι πρὸς μεσημβρίαν βλέπουσαι.., X. Mem. 3.8.9; πέτρα βλέπουσα πρὸς νότον Str. 4.1.4; κάτω γὰρ οἱ ὀδόντες βλέπουσι Arist. HA 502a1; ὅταν τὸ οὖθαρ βλέπῃ κάτω ib. 523a2.
3. look longingly, expect, propose, c. inf., Ar. Ach. 376, V. 847.
4. look to a thing, beware, ἀπό τινος Mark 8:15; τι Philippians 3:2 : c. acc. pers., β. ἑαυτούς Mark 13:9; βλέπε σα(υ)τὸν ἀπὸ τῶν Ἰουδαίων BGU 1079.24 (i A. D.); β. ἵνα.. 1 Corinthians 16:10; β. ἑαυτοὺς ἵνα μὴ.. 2 John 8:1-59; βλέπετε τί ἀκούετε Mark 4:24.
1. see, behold, c. acc., S. Aj. 1042, etc.; ἐξ αὑτοῦ βλεπόμενον self- evident, S.E. M. 1.184; τὰ βλεπόμενα the visible universe, LXX Wi. 13.7.
2. ζῇ τε καὶ β. φάος sees the light of day, A. Pers. 299, cf. E. Hel. 60; νόστιμον β. φάος A. Pers. 261; βλέποντα νῦν μὲν ὄρθ' ἔπειτα δὲ σκότον (i. e. being blind) S. OT 419: hence, without φάος, to be alive, ζῶντα καὶ βλέποντα A. Ag. 677; βλέποντα κἀμπνέοντα S. Ph. 883, cf. 1349, Aj. 962; of things, ἀληθῆ καὶ βλέποντα actually existing, A. Ch. 844.
3. look for, μεῖζόν τι β. Pl. Chrm. 172c.
4. Astrol. of signs equidistant from the tropical points, to be in aspect, β. ἄλληλα Ptol. Tetr. 36, Heph.Astr. 1.9. (βλέφαρα occurs in Hom., but not βλέπω exc. in Batr. l.c.)
βλέπω; (imperfect ἔβλεπον); future βλεψω; 1 aorist ἔβλεψα; (present passive βλέπομαι); the Sept. for רָאָה, פָּנָה, חָזָה, הִבִּיט; in Greek writings from Aeschylus down; to see, discern:
1. With the bodily eye;
a. to be possessed of sight, have the power of seeing, opposed to τυφλός: Matthew 12:22; Matthew 13:16; Matthew 15:31; John 9:7, 15, 19, 25; Acts 9:9; Romans 11:8, 10; Revelation 3:18, etc. (Sophocles Oed. Col. 73; Aristophanes Plutarch, 15; Xenophon, mem. 1, 3, 4; Aelian v. h. 6, 12, etc. Exodus 4:11; Exodus 23:8, etc. Tobit 11:15). τό βλέπειν sight, the power of seeing, Luke 7:21 (G L T Tr WH omit τό).
b. to perceive by the use of the eyes, to see, look, descry; α. absolutely: βλεπόντων αὐτῶν while they were looking, Acts 1:9; (
c. to turn the eyes to anything, to look at, look upon, gaze at: γυναῖκα, Matthew 5:28; εἰς τί or τινα (Winer's Grammar, § 33 g.), Luke 9:62; John 13:22; Acts 3:4; εἰς τόν οὐρανόν, Acts 1:11 T Tr WH; in the sense of looking into (i. e. in order to read), βιβλίον, Revelation 5:3f.
d. universally, to perceive by the senses, to feel: τόν ἄνεμον ἰσχυρόν (T WH omit ἰσχυρόν), Matthew 14:30 (κτυπον δέδορκα, Aeschylus sept. 104).
e. to discover by use, to know by experience: τί, Romans 7:23; followed by ὅτι, 2 Corinthians 7:8; by attract. τό θηρίον, ὅτι κτλ., Revelation 17:8; ὑπέρ ὁ βλέπει με for ὑπέρ τοῦτο, ὁ βλέπει με ὄντα, lest he think me greater than on personal knowledge he finds me to be, 2 Corinthians 12:6.
2. metaphorically, to see with the mind's eye;
b. to discern mentally, observe, perceive, discover, understand; absolutely: δἰ ἐσόπτρου, 1 Corinthians 13:12; of the omniscient God βλέπων ἐν τῷ κρύπτω seeing in secret, where man sees nothing, Matthew 6:4, 6, 18 (here L T Tr WH βλέπων ἐν τῷ κρυφαίῳ); ἐγγίζουσαν τήν ἡμέραν, Hebrews 10:25 (from certain external signs); Ἰησοῦν ... ἐστεφανωμένον, we see (from his resurrection and from the effects and witness of the Holy Spirit) Jesus crowned, Hebrews 2:9; followed by ὅτι, Hebrews 3:19; James 2:22.
c. to turn the thoughts or direct the mind to a thing, to consider, contemplate, look to; absolutely βλέπετε take heed: Mark 13:23, 33; with an accusative of the thing or person, 1 Corinthians 1:26; 1 Corinthians 10:18; 2 Corinthians 10:7; Philippians 3:2; Colossians 2:5; followed by πῶς with indicative (Winers Grammar, 300 (282); Buttmann, 255 (219)), Luke 8:18; 1 Corinthians 3:10; Ephesians 5:15; to weigh carefully, examine, followed by the interrogative τί with indicative Mark 4:24; εἰς πρόσωπον τίνος, to look at i. e. have regard to one's external condition — used of those who are influenced by partiality: Matthew 22:16; Mark 12:14. By a use not found in Greek authors ἑαυτόν βλέπειν to look to oneself (equivalent tosibi cavere): Mark 13:9; followed by ἵνα μή (cf. Buttmann, 242 (209)), 2 John 1:8; βλέπειν ἀπό τίνος (equivalent tosibi cavere ab aliquo) to beware of one (Winers Grammar, 223 (209), cf. 39 (38); Buttmann, 242 (209), cf. 323 (278)), Mark 8:15; Mark 12:38; look to in the sense of providing, taking care: followed by ἵνα, 1 Corinthians 16:10; followed by μή with subjunctive aorist, Matthew 24:4; Mark 13:5; Luke 21:8; Acts 13:40; 1 Corinthians 8:9 (μήπως); 1 Corinthians 10:12; Galatians 5:15; Hebrews 12:25; followed by μή with future indicative, Colossians 2:8; Hebrews 3:12. The Greeks say ὁρᾶν μή (cf. Winers Grammar, 503 (468f); Buttmann, 242f (209)).
3. in a geographical sense, like Latinspecto (English look), of places, mountains, buildings, etc., turned toward any quarter, as it were facing it: followed by κατά with the accusative, Acts 27:12 (cf. Buttmann, D. American edition under the word
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1. of bodily sight;
(a) to see, have sight (opp. to τυφλὸς εἶναι ): Matthew 12:22, John 9:7, Acts 9:9, Romans 11:8, Revelation 3:18, al.;
(b) to perceive, look (at), see: absol., Acts 1:9; c. acc, Matthew 7:3, Mark 5:31, Luke 6:41, John 1:29, al.; ἅραμα , Acts 12:9; γυναῖκα , Matthew 5:28; βιβλίον , Revelation 5:3-4; τ . βλεπόμενα , 2 Corinthians 4:18.
2. Metaph., of mental vision;
(a) to see, perceive, discern: absol., Matthew 13:13, Luke 8:10; δι᾽ ἐσόπτρου , 1 Corinthians 13:12; c. acc, Hebrews 2:9; Hebrews 10:25; seq. ὅτι , Hebrews 3:19, James 2:22;
(b) to consider, look to, take heed: absol., Mark 13:23; Mark 13:33; c. acc, 1 Corinthians 1:26, al.; seq. πῶς , c. indic., Luke 8:18, 1 Corinthians 3:10, Ephesians 5:15; seq. τί , c. indic., Mark 4:24; seq. εἰς -πρόσωπον , of partiality, Matthew 22:16, Mark 12:14. Colloq. (for ex. from Papyri, v. Deiss., LAE, 122; M, Pr., 107; MM, Exp., x; Milligan, NTD, 50), β . ἑαυτόν : Mark 13:9; seq. ἵνα μή , 2 John 1:8; β . ἀπό , Mark 8:15; Mark 12:38; seq. μή (cl. ὁρᾶν μή ), c. fut. indic., Colossians 2:8, Hebrews 3:12; id. c. aor. subj., Matthew 24:4, Mark 13:5.
3. Of situation and direction (Lat. specto), to look, face (towards), places, etc. (seq. πρός , Xen, Hell., vii, 1, 17; Ezekiel 40:23-24): seq. κατά , c. acc, Acts 27:12 (cf. ἀνα -, ἀπο -, δια -, ἐμ -, ἐπι -, περ -, προ -βλέπω ), v. DCG, i, 446; ii, 596.
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The papyri have added a perfect to the paradigm of this verb : it proves to have been βέβλοφα (P Lond 42.21—B.C. 168) (= Witkowski.2, p. 63) (see under ἐμβλέπω ). It is hard to believe that a form so correct historically, and so distant from any obvious analogy, can be anything but a genuine survival, even if it does meet us only in a woman’s letter from Ptolemaic Egypt. If this inference is justifiable, the word has a moral for the argument from silence. Βλέπω has primarily the physical sense, as distinguished from ὁρῶ (cf. our cognate ware) : this is well seen in ἀναβλέπω = recover sight. Usage bears this out. Thus P Par 44.6 (B.C. 153) (= Witkowski.2, p. 83) has βλέπω Μενέδημον κατατρέχοντά με coming after ἐγὼ γὰρ ἐνύπνια ὁρῶ πονηρά . So in P Hal I. 8.4 (B.C. 232) a man is incapacitated—διὰ τὸ μὴ βλέπειν τὰς νύκτας , and in P Oxy I. 39.9 (A.D. 52) ὀλίγον βλέπων = ";shortsighted."; An interesting instance of the word is afforded by P Giss I. 17.10 (time of Hadrian) where a slave writes to her master ἀποθνήσκομεν ὅτι οὐ βλέπομέν σε καθ᾽ ἡμέραν (cf. 1 Corinthians 15:31). Closely parallel with phraseology in Gospel healings of the blind is one of the cases from the Asclepieum, Syll 802.77 (Epidaurus, (iii/B.C.) : the blind man sleeping in the temple saw a vision (ὄψις ) of the god opening his eyelids and pouring in a φάρμακον —when day broke β (λ )έπων ἀμφοῖν ἐξῆλθε . P Oxy. II. 298.33 (i/A.D.) ὁ Ἀνουβᾶς αὐ [τὸ ]ν οὐχ ἡδέως [β ]λέπει , ";A. looks upon him with no friendly eye,"; may serve as a transition to the more metaphorical use of βλέπω , as in P Oxy II. 259.32 (A.D. 23) βλέπε με πῶς με ἡ μήτηρ ἡ ̣μ ̣ῶ ̣ν ̣ [ἔ ]σ ̣φαξε χάριν τοῦ χειρογράφου , P Lond 964.9 (ii/iii A.D.) (= III. p. 212) βλέπε μὴ ἐπιλάθῃ οὐδέν , and P Oxy IX. 1220.22 (iii/A.D.) οὐδὲν βλέπω φαύλου παρ᾽ ἐμοί , ";I see nothing bad in my behaviour"; (Ed.). The meaning ";beware,"; implied in some of these passages, is extended to a personal reflexive object in BGU IV. 1079.24 (A.D. 41) (= Selections, p. 40) is ὡς ἂν πάντες καὶ σὺ βλέπε σατὸν ἀπὸ τῶν Ἰουδαίων , ";like everybody else, you too must beware of the Jews,"; which is a rather neat confutation of those who would detect ";Hebraism"; in Mark 8:15 and the like. For the geographical sense, the ";aspect"; of a building, etc. (as Acts 27:12), cf P Leid Wi. 6 (ii/iii A.D.), ἔστω δὲ ἡ θύρα πρὸς δυσμὰς βλέπουσα , PSI III. 175.14 (A.D. 462) συμπόσιον βλέπον ἐπὶ ν ̣ότον , etc. Finally, for β . virtually = εὑρίσκω a in Romans 7:23 (cf. v. 21), see P Fay 111.16 (A.D. 95–6) ὡς ἐὰν βλέπῃς [τ ]ὴν τιμὴν παντὸς ἀγόρασον , ";however you find the price, be sure to buy"; (Edd.).
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