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Old Testament Hebrew Lexical Dictionary
Strong's #4910 - מָשַׁל
1) to rule, have dominion, reign
1a) (Qal) to rule, have dominion
1b1) to cause to rule
1b2) to exercise dominion
V) lsm (מסהל MShL) - I. Rule: II. Compare:To compare one thing to another in the sense of a rule of measurement, often a proverb or parable. KJV (97): (vf: Paal, Niphal, Hiphil, Hitpael, Piel, Participle) rule, ruler, reign, dominion, governor, power, like, proverb, speak, use, become, compare, utter - Strongs: H4910 (מָשַׁל), H4911 (מָשַׁל)
Jeff Benner, Ancient Hebrew Research Center Used by permission of the author.
מָשַׁל fut. יִמְשֹׂל.
(1) to make like, to assimilate (Arab. مشل Aram. ܡܬܠܰ id.) see Niph. Hiph. and the noun מָשָׁל similitude, parable, etc. hence
(a) to put forth a parable, Ezekiel 24:3.
(b) to use a proverb, Ezekiel 12:23, 17:2 18:2, Ezekiel 18:3.
(c) to sing a song of derision, Joel 2:17. Part. משְׁלִים poets, Numbers 21:27.
(2) to rule, to have dominion, Joshua 12:2; Proverbs 12:24 followed by בְּ of the thing ruled over, Genesis 3:16, 4:7 more rarely followed by עַל Proverbs 28:15 followed by a gerund, to have power of doing anything, Exodus 21:8. With a dat. of benefit, Isaiah 40:10, זְרֹעוֹ משְׁלָה לוֹ “his arm ruleth for him.” Sometimes i.q. to be over anything, Genesis 24:2. Part. משֵׁל lord, ruler, Genesis 45:8 plur. lords, rulers, princes, and in a bad sense tyrants, Isaiah 14:5, 28:14 49:7 52:5 compare נְדִיבִים Isaiah 13:2.
Learned men have made many attempts to reconcile the significations of making like, and ruling; see Schultens on Proverbs 1:1 Michaëlis on Lowth, De Sacra Poësi, p.41; Simonis in Lex. etc. However I have no doubt but that from the signification of making like, is derived that of judging, forming an opinion (compare דִּמָּה, and Eth. መሰለ፡ to think, to suppose, to think fit), which is nearly allied to the notion of giving sentence, ordering, ruling (compare טַעַם). Another explanation, approved of by Winer in Lex. p. 585, was given in my smaller Lexicon, editt. 2 and 3, but this is decidedly better. This notion of ruling, which is not found in this root in the other Phœnicio-Shemitic languages [except the Phœnician] seems to have passed over to the Greek, in which βασιλεύς, βασιλεύω has no root in that language.
Niphal, prop. to be compared; hence to be like any thing, followed by אֶל Isaiah 14:10 עִם Psalms 28:1, 143:7 בְּ Psalms 49:13, 21 Ps4 9:21.
Piel, i.q. Kal No. 1, a, to use parables, Ezekiel 21:5.
(1) to compare, Isaiah 46:5.
(2) to cause to rule, to give dominion, Psalms 8:7; Daniel 11:39. Inf. subst. הַמְשֵׁל dominion, Job 25:2.
Hithpael, i.q. Niphal, to become like, followed by בְּ Job 30:19.
Derived nouns, מִמְשָׁל, מֶמְשֶׁלֶת, and those which immediately follow.
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