Old Testament Hebrew Lexical Dictionary
Strong's #853 - אֵת
1) sign of the definite direct object, not translated in English but generally preceding and indicating the accusative
1022) ta (את AT) AC: Plow CO: Mark AB: ?: The pictograph a is a picture of an ox. The t is a picture of two crossed sticks used to make a sign or mark. Combined these pictures represent "an ox moving toward a mark". When plowing a field with oxen, the plowman drives the oxen toward a distant mark in order to keep the furrow straight. A traveler arrives at his destination by following a mark. The traveling toward a mark, destination or person. The arrival of one to the mark. A "you" is an individual who has arrived to a "me". The coming toward a mark. A standard, or flag, with the family mark hangs as a sign. An agreement or covenant by two where a sign or mark of the agreement is made as a reminder to both parties. (eng: at - a moving at something)
Nf) ta (את AT) - I. Plow-point:The plow-point is used to cut a deep furrow in the ground for planting seeds. [A common grammatical word that precedes the direct object of a verb] II. Sign:A sign, mark or wonder (as a sign) . [Aramaic only] III. At:Something that moves near something to be with it. Also used as grammatical tool to mark the direct object of the verb. [df: ty] KJV (7373): plowshare, coulter, sign, against, with, in, upon - Strongs: H852 (אָת), H853 (אֵת), H854 (אֵת), H855 (אֵת), H3487 (יָת)
J) tfa (אות AWT) AC: ? CO: Mark AB: Agree: The coming toward a mark. A standard, or flag, with the family mark hangs as a sign. An agreement or covenant by two where a sign or mark of the agreement is made as a reminder to both parties.
Jeff Brenner, Ancient Hebrew Research Center Used by permission of the author.
אֵת followed by Makk. אֶת־, with suff. אֹתִי, אֹתְךָ, in Pause אֹתָךְ, אֹתוֹ, אֹתָהּ, אֹתָנוּ (all which are just as often written fully), אֶתְכֶם, rarely אוֹתְכֶם Joshua 23:15, אֹתָם, אֹתָן, אֹתָנָה, Exodus 35:26, more rarely אֶתְהֶם Genesis 32:1, אוֹתְהֶם Ezekiel 23:45, אוֹתְהֶן verse 47 Ezekiel 23:47.
(1) pr. a demonstrative pronoun, αὐτός, ipse, felbft, self, this same. This primary strongly demonstrative power which may be generally expressed by the Gr. αὐ̓τός, is more rare in the ancient Hebrew, but it appears, however, to have been preserved in the language of common life, and afterwards revived and made current in the later books, in the Rabbinic and in Syriac. Hosea 10:6, גַּם אֹתוֹ לְאַשּׁוּר יוּבַל “it shall itself (the calf) be carried into Assyria;” the people and priests had already preceded. Joshua 7:15; 1 Samuel 17:34, in a place where the reading has causelessly been questioned, וּבָא הָאֲרִי וְאֶת־הַדּוֹב “there came a lion with the bear itself;” (in Greek it may be rendered σὺν αὐ̓τῷ τῷ ἄρκτῳ, mit fammt dem Bären, und der Bär obendrein, and a bear besides; comp. αὐτῇ σὺν φό́ρμιγγι, Il.ix. 194, and Passow, Lex. Gr. v. αὐτός, i. 6). Joshua 22:17, “it is not sufficient for you, אֶת־ְעַווֹן פְּעֹר this same iniquity of Peor?” as being the greatest that could be; Haggai 2:17, אֵין אֶתְכֶם אֵלַי “yet ye yourselves turned not to me;” Daniel 9:13, “as it is written in the law of Moses הַוֹּאת בָּאָה עָלִיִנוּ אֵת בָּל־הָרָעָה all this very evil (as declared Lev 26:1-46, and Deu 28:1-68) has come upon us;” Jeremiah 38:16, חַי יְיָ אֵת אֲשֶׁר עָשָׂה לָנוּ אָת־הַנָּפֶשׁ “the same who has given us life;” 2 Kings 6:5, “as one of them was felling a beam, the iron (אֶת־הַבַּרְזֶל) fell into the water.” (The word iron should here be pronounced with emphasis.) Nehemiah 9:9. In the Old Testament here also belong
(a) its being used reflectively, אֹתוֹ ἑαυτόν, אֹתָם ἑαντούς; Ezekiel 34:2, “woe to the shepherds אֲשֶׁר הָיוּ רֹעִים אֹתָם who feed themselves,” i.q. נַפְשָׁם; verses Ezekiel 34:8, 10 Ezekiel 34:10; Jeremiah 7:19; Numbers 6:13.
(b) In Ezekiel it occurs even four times without a following noun for αὐτό, id, ipsum, this, itself, while elsewhere, as in a relaxed sense (see No. 2), it everywhere requires a noun or a suffix; Ezekiel 43:7, אֵת מְקוֹם כִּםְאִי וְאֵת מְקוֹם בַּפּוֹמ רַגְלי “this (αὐτὸ) is the place of my throne, and this the place of the soles my feet; Ezekiel 47:17, 18 Ezekiel 47:18, 19 Ezekiel 47:19, compare verse 20 Ezekiel 47:20, where זאֹת stands in the same context. (Some have regarded the reading as incorrect; and in verses 17 Ezekiel 47:17, 18 Ezekiel 47:18, 19 Ezekiel 47:19, would amend it by reading זאֹת, as in verse 20 Ezekiel 47:20 but the similar passage, Ezekiel 43:7, in which זאֹת could not be suitable, defends the common reading; [“Maurer supplies lo! the place, etc., LXX. ἑώρακας τὸν τόπον κ.τ.λ.”]). From the Rabbinic may be added the phrase, באותו היום αὐτῇ τῇ ἡμέρα, on the same day; באותה השעה in the same hour, in derfelban Stunde: from the Syriac ܡܶܢ ܝܳܬܶܗ, compare ἀφʼ ἑαυτοῦ, a se ipso. [“Note. Some have questioned the above use of this particle, choosing rather to refer the passages cited, and others like them, to its use with the accusative, but with little success. See Maurer’s Comm. ii. p. 608. The origin of the word which is treated of below, is not contrary to the above view, but rather favours it.” Ges. add.]
(This true and primary signification of the word was not unknown to the Rabbins, who explain it by עֶצֶם, נֶפֶשׁ, and in the same manner do the Syrian grammarians interpret the word ܝܳܬ. In the Arabic there answers to this أَيَّا, also used reflectively ايّاى ضربت I have beaten myself. As to the origin, I have no doubt but that this word, like the other pronouns, is primitive and very ancient (see אֲשֶׁר p. 88, A ), nor should I object if any one were to compare אֵת, אוֹת with the Sanscr. êtat, hic; Gr. αὐτός. To give my own opinion now, this is more probable than what I lately supposed, that אֵת, אֹת, أَيَّا are i.q. אוֹת a sign, which, however, is also the opinion of Ewald, Gramm. p. 593).
(2) This word by degrees lost much of its primitive force, so that as set before nouns and pronouns already definite, it scarcely increases the demonstrative power; אֵת הַדָּבָר i.q. Germ. diefelbe Sache, diefelbige Sache, felbige Sache, the thing itself, the same thing; often redundantly for the simple diefe Sache, this thing. It is rarely
(a) put before a nominative (Genesis 17:5, לֹא יִקָּרֵא עוֹר אֶת־שִׁמְךָ אַבְרָם “thy name shall be no longer called Abram;” Genesis 4:18, זַיִּוָּלֵד לַתֲנוֹךְ אֶת־עִירָר 2 Samuel 11:25, אַל יֵרַע בְּעֵינֶיךָ אֶת הַדָּבָר הַזֶּה “let not this thing displease thee,” Genesis 21:5, 46:20 Exodus 10:8; Leviticus 10:18; Numbers 11:22, 26:55, 60 Numbers 26:60; Joshua 7:15, etc.); on the other hand it is very often
(b) put before the object of a proposition when already definite (compare the pronouns αὐτός, ipse, derfelbe, which, especially in the oblique cases, αὐτοῦ αὐτῷ, αὐτόν, ipsum, ipsi, desfelben, denfelben, lose their strongly demonstrative power in some degree), thus it becomes a particle pointing out a determinate object. In Hebrew אֶהַשָּׁמַיִם properly therefore signifies, i.q. αὐτὸν τὸν οὐρανόν, but from the common use of language is the same as τὸν οὐρανόν, like in Gr. αὐτὴν Χρυσηΐδα, Il. i. 143, without emphasis for Χρυσηΐδα: אֹתְךָ pr. αὐτόν σε, σεαυτόν, hence the simple σε. In this manner אֵת is frequently put before substantives made definite with the article (אֵת הַשָּׁמַיִם וְאֵת הָאָרֶץ Genesis 1:1 comp. אֶרֶץ וְשָׁמַיִם Genesis 2:4), or with the addition of a genitive or a suffix (Esther 9:14; Ruth 2:15), also before proper names (Jonah 2:1), its occurrence is much more frequent in prose than in poetry. In the whole Old Test. only three examples occur to me in which this word is prefixed to nouns which are not made definite, two of them (Proverbs 13:21; Ezekiel 43:10), where the sense is definite, one (Exodus 21:28), where it is not so. [Also Exodus 2:1; 2 Samuel 18:18; Ecclesiastes 3:15. Ges. add.]
Note. Some have altogether denied that this word is put before the subject of a discourse; and indeed the examples in which it is joined with a passive verb may be taken impersonally, and so explained that the power of the object is retained, viz. יֻתַּן אֵת הָאָרֶץ Numbers 32:5, man gebe das Land, “let them give the land” (see Olshausen, Emendatt. zum A. T. page 25, Hebr. Gram. 9th edit. page 233 [13th edit., § 140, a]), but many others (see No. 2, a) cannot be so taken; and it is not the place of a sober interpreter to have recourse unnecessarily to solecisms and critical conjecture. What has been done with regard to this point which exercised the inquiries of very ancient Rabbins, may be seen in Olshausen loc. cit.; Ewald (Hebr. Gramm. Page 593); Fähsius (Seebode, krit. Bibl. 1826, No. 3), and by their follower, Winer, in Lex. Hebr. page 103.
[“Note. The origin of this particle is still uncertain. Corresponding to it in the Phœnicio-Shemitic languages are Ch. יַת, Syr. ܝܳܬ ipse; but these are of rare occurrence. Cognate are the Eth. enta, who (prop. demonstr. like all relatives), Egypt. ent, who; and especially the demonstrative syllable ent, which in the Egyptian language is prefixed to the personal pronouns, as ent-oten, ye; ent-sen, they; ent-of, he. Here the simple and genuine forms are oten, sen, of; the form ent-sen, corresponds entirely to the Hebr. אֶתְהֶם אֶתְהֶן, and ent-of, to the Hebr. אֹתוֹ, while yet all these forms express the nominative. (See the Table in אָנֹבִי, note; Hebr.Gramm. page 293, 13th edit.) From ent come both אֵת (as תֵּת from תֶּנֶת), and אוֹת; comp. Sanscr. êtat, Gr. αὐτ-ος. Others refer אֵת, אוֹת, to the Aram. אִית, אִיתַי, i.q. יֵשׁ; so Hupfeld on the demonstr. power of the letter ת, see Hupfeld, in Zeitschr. f. d. Morgenl. Lit. ii. page 135.” Ges. add.]
II. אֵת followed by Makk. אֶת־, with suff. אִתִּי, אִתְּךָ, in pause and f. אִתָּךְ Genesis 6:18 comp. 20:18, אִתּוֹ, אִתָּנוֹ, אִתְּבֶם Genesis 9:9, 11, אִתָּם more rarely and chiefly in the books of Joshua, Kings, Jeremiah, and Ezekiel, אֹתְךָ, אֹתָתּ, אֹתָם (so that it seems to be confounded with the mark of acc. אֵת), pr.subst. denoting nearness, and propinquity, prob. for אֵנֶת (from the root אָנָה No. II. to draw near, as בֵּלֶת from בָּלָה) from the common usage of the language, a prep. of a similar power to עִם (which see).
(1) apud, with, at, by, near, used of nearness and vicinity, Genesis 19:33; Leviticus 19:13; Job 2:13; 1 Kings 9:18, “Eziongeber אֲשֶׁר אֶת־אֵילוֹת which is situated near Eloth,” comp. Judges 4:11, אֶת־פְּנֵי פי to any one’s face, i.q. לִפְנֵי see פָּנִים. There is a singular use of it in Genesis 30:29, “thou knowest what thy flock has become אִתִּי with me,” i.e. having me as the shepherd and caring for it, comp. 39:6, “he cared for nothing אִתּוֹ” i.e. while he had Joseph for οἰκόνομος, verse Genesis 30:8. Specially
(a) sometimes it indicates possession of a thing, like the Lat. penes, comp. Gr. τὰ παρʼ ἐμοί, Arab. كان معى (see עִם No. 2, a, b); especially what one has in one’s mind, Job 12:3, אָת־מִי אְין כְּמוֹ אֵלֶּה “who knoweth not such things?” Job 14:5, “the number of the months is with thee,” i.e. in thy mind, determined by thee.
(b) It is rarely used of motion to a place, (like παρὰ with an acc. and vulg. apud te Inscr.Grut. beh dich). 2 Samuel 15:23; Psalms 67:2, יָאֵר פָּנָיו אִתָּנוּ i.q. עָלִיִנוּ; Psalms 4:7.
(c) It is i.q. prœter, besides (compare παρὰ ταῦτα, prœter ista), Exodus 1:14; 1 Kings 11:1, 25 1 Kings 11:25.
(d) It is used ellipt. for מֵאֵת Genesis 49:25, where from what precedes מִן is supplied.
(e) In some phrases and examples אֵת may seem to be inaccurately for in, (as in Lat. apud villam, apud forum, apud Hierosolyma, Sueton. Vesp. 93, apud Palœstinam, Eutr. vii. 13, see Handii Tursell. page 414, 415), but it may, and even ought, in every case to retain the notion of nearness. 1 Samuel 7:16, “he judged Israel, אֶת־בָּל־מְקֹמוֹת הָאֶלֶּה at all those places;” the courts of justice being in the gates of towns, and thus by or near the towns. 1 Kings 9:25, וְהַקְטֵיר אִתּוֹ אֲשֶׁד לִפְנֵי יְיָ “and Solomon offered incense at that (altar) which was before Jehovah.” Compare Suet. Aug. 35, ut thure et mero supplicaret-apud aram eius dei, etc., and Deuteronomy 16:6, אֶל־הַמָּקוֹם … שָׁם תִּזְבַּח. One offered properly at the altar, and in 1 Ki. loc. cit. this phrase is used as the customary expression for offering incense. (I do not see with Winer, how in this passage אִתּוֹ may refer to יְהֹוָה.)
(2) cum, with (compare עִם No. 1), used of accompanying, Genesis 6:13, 43:16 Judges 1:16; Jeremiah 51:59 of connection by marriage, 1 Kings 3:1 of a covenant, Genesis 15:18 of aid, Genesis 4:1, “I have gotten a male (i.e. a son) אֶת־יְהֹוָה by the aid of Jehovah.” Jeremiah 1:8, 15:20. It is said, “to speak with any one,” 1 Kings 8:15 also “to fight, to make war with any one” (where אֶת may be rendered against), Genesis 14:9; 1 Chronicles 20:5; Proverbs 23:11. הִתְהַלֵּךְ אֶת־יְהֹוָה “to walk with God,” Genesis 5:24 i.e. having God as it were for a companion, to lead a life pleasing to God; עָשֶׁה חֶםֶד אֶת־פי “to act kindly with any one,” Zechariah 7:9 compare Ruth 2:20; 2 Samuel 16:17. Noldius, in his Concordance, under this word always confounds אֵת No. I. and II, which it may suffice thus briefly to mention.
מֵאֵת i.q. מֵעִם pr. from with, from near by any one; Syr. ܡܶܢ ܠܘܳܬ, Arab. من عند, from (1 Kings 6:33), after verbs and nouns of departing, Genesis 26:31 sending from any place, Genesis 8:8 also of receiving, Job 2:10 buying, Genesis 17:27, 23:20 asking from any one, 1 Samuel 1:17 performance, Exodus 29:28, etc. Other examples are, Joshua 11:20, מֵאֵת יְיָ הָֽיְתָה “by Jehovah was this instituted;” Exodus 29:28, “this shall be to Aaron … a perpetual statute מֵאֵת בְּנֵי יש׳ to be performed by the children of Israel;” Psalms 22:26, מֵאִתְּךָ תְּהִלָּתִי “from thee my praise,” i.e. “I owe to thee salvation, the cause of praise.” מֵאִתִּי Isaiah 44:24, קרי is i.q. Gr. ἀπʼ ἐμαντοῦ John 5:30, from myself, or by my own authority. Arabic من عندى, Syriac ܡܢ ܕܝܠܝ, and Heb. מִמֶּנִּי Hosea 8:4. Compare as to this, Anecdota Orientt. i. p. 66.
III. אֵת with suff. אֵתוֹ 1 Samuel 13:20, pl. אֵתִים ibid. verse 21 1 Samuel 13:21, and אִתִּים Isaiah 2:4; Micah 4:3 Joel 4:10, an iron implement used in agriculture, with an edge, and sometimes requiring to be sharpened (1 Sa. loc. cit.), according to most of the old versions a plough-share (but in Sa. it is joined with מַתֲרֵשָׁה), according to Symm. and the Hebr. intpp. a mattock. The more general word σκε͂ος is used by the LXX. in the book of Sa. Some compare أَثاَثُ household-stuff, flocks, utensils; but indeed I should prefer regarding אֵת as for אֵדֶת (like עֵת for עֵדֶת from עֵדֶת) = Arab. أَدَاةُ an instrument, أَدِىُّ apparatus, instrument, specially of war, from the root אָדָה أَدَا to aid, also to be furnished with instruments, apparatus; and I should suppose the general word to be used for some particular instrument, perhaps for a plough-share.
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