Old & New Testament Greek Lexical Dictionary
Strong's #798 - ἄστρον
I mostly in pl., the stars, Il. 8.555, Od. 12.312, A. Pr. 458, Ag. 4, etc.; τοῦ κατ' ἄστρα Ζηνός, = τοῦ ἐν οὐρανῷ, S. Tr. 1106; ἄστρων εὐφρόνη, = εὐφρ. ἀστερόεσσα, Id. El. 19: sg., like ἀστήρ, freq. of Sirius (in full, σήριον ἄστρον prob. l. in Alcm. 23.63), Alc. 39, 40, X. Cyn. 4.6, Thphr. CP 6.10.9, al.; περὶ τὸ ἄ. in the dog-days, Hp. Epid. 7.7; poet. of the sun, Pi. O. 1.6, Pl. Def. 411b: seldom of any common star, Gal. 17(1).16, Sch. Arat. 11; of the fixed stars, Arist. Cael. 290a20; ἄστρα πλανητά, opp. ἀπλανῆ, Pl. Ti. 38c; opp. ἐνδεδεμένα, Arist. Mete. 346a2; opp. ἀστέρες, Herm. ap. Stob. 1.21.9; ἐπὶ τοῖς ἄστροις at the times of the stars' rising or setting, Hp. Aër. 10, Arist. HA 568a18; ἄστροις σημαίνεσθαι, τεκμαίρεσθαι, guide oneself by the stars, Ael. NA 2.7, 7.48; ἄστροις τὸ λοιπὸν ἐκμετρούμενος χθόνα knowing its place only by the stars, S. OT 795: metaph., ἐχθροῖς ἄ. ὣς λάμψειν Id. El. 66.
II of something brilliant, admirable, Ἀκροκόρινθον Ἑλλάδος ἄ. AP 7.297 (Polystr.), cf. 9.400 (Pall.), APl. 4.295; Σωκρατικῆς σοφίης ἄ. IG 3.770 a.
ἄστρον , -ου , τό ,
[in LXX chiefly for H3556;]
(a) mostly in pl. (as in cl.), the stars: Luke 21:25, Acts 27:20, Hebrews 11:12;
(b) in sing. (Xen., al.), only of some noted star; the symbol or image of a star, Acts 7:43 (cf. ἀστήρ , and v. MM, s.v.).†
Copyright © 1922 by G. Abbott-Smith, D.D., D.C.L.. T & T Clarke, London.
In P Hib I. 27.41 ff. (a calendar, B.C. 301–240) χρῶντ [αι ] ταῖς κατὰ σελήνη [ν ] ἡμέραις οἱ ἀστρολό [γοι ] καὶ οἱ ἱερογραμματε [ῖς ] πρὸς τὰς δόσεις καὶ ἀ ̣[να ]τολὰς τῶν ἄστρω [ν ], ";the astronomers and sacred scribes use the lunar days for the settings and risings of the stars"; (Edd.) : cf. .50 f., οὐθὲν πα [ραλ ]λάσσοντες ἐπ᾽ ἄστρω [ι ] ἢ δύνοντι ἢ ἀνατ [έλ ]λοντι , ";without alterations owing to the setting or rising of a star"; (ib.). From the Hadrumetum tablet (Wünsch AF, no. 5.23), on which Deissmann has written in BS, pp. 271 ff., we may quote ὁρκίζω σε τὸν φωστῆρα καὶ ἄστρα ἐν οὐρανῷ ποιήσαντα διὰ φωνῆς προστάγματος . Deissmann compared Genesis 1:16 f.; since there we have ἀστέρας , the substitution of ἄστρα suggests the suspicion that the simpler 2nd decl. noun was beginning to be preferred in the vernacular. (Both, however, figure in MGr, and ἀστήρ is more often found in NT.) Add P Grenf. I. 1.6 (literary—ii/B.C.), ἄστρα φίλα καὶ συνερῶσα πότνια νύξ μοι , P Oxy IV. 731.6 (A.D. 8–9) καὶ τοῖς ἄστροις Ἥρας τρῖς , ";three days at the time of the stars of Hera"; (Edd., who note that the ";star of Hera"; was Venus, but the plural is unexplained), Syll 686.35 (early ii/A.D.) μέχρι νυκτός , ὡς ἄστρα καταλαβεῖν , διεκαρτέρησε , of a competitor in the pancration, OGIS 56.36 (B.C. 239–8), τὸ ἄστρον τὸ τῆς Ἴσιος , i.e. Sirius, the date of whose heliacal rising is defined in the succeeding lines. This last passage agrees with the NT in making ἄστρον a complete equivalent of ἀστήρ . It is MGr ἄστρο .
Copyright © 1914, 1929, 1930 by James Hope Moulton and George Milligan. Hodder and Stoughton, London.
Derivative Copyright © 2015 by Allan Loder.
the Sixth Week after Easter