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King James Version
Isaiah 28:28

Bread corn is bruised; because he will not ever be threshing it, nor break it with the wheel of his cart, nor bruise it with his horsemen.

Bible Study Resources

Commentaries:

- Clarke Commentary;   Birdgeway Bible Commentary;   Barne's Notes;   Bullinger's Companion Bible Notes;   Chuck Smith Commentary;   Dummelow's Commentary on the Bible ;   Constable's Expository Notes;   Ellicott's Commentary;   Meyer's Commentary;   Gaebelein's Annotated;   Morgan's Biblical Exposition;   Gill's Exposition;   Everett's Study Notes;   Haydock's Catholic Commentary;   Ironside's Notes;   Commentary Critical and Explanatory;   Commentary Critical and Explanatory - Unabridged;   The People's Bible;   Sutcliffe's Commentary;   Trapp's Commentary;   Keil & Delitzsch;   Kretzmann's Popular Commentary of the Bible;   Lange's Commentary on the Holy Scriptures;   MacLaren's Expositions;   Henry's Complete;   Henry's Concise;   Poole's Annotations;   Pett's Bible Commentary;   Peake's Bible Commentary;   Hawker's Poor Man's Commentary;   Benson's Commentary;   Biblical Illustrator;   Coke's Commentary;   Expositor's Bible;   Pulpit Commentaries;   Treasury of Knowledge;   Wesley's Notes;   Whedon's Commentary;  

Concordances:

- Nave's Topical Bible - Agriculture;   Cart;   Isaiah;   Judgment;   Parables;   Threshing;   Wisdom;   Thompson Chain Reference - Social Duties;   Temperance;   Temperance-Intemperance;   Torrey's Topical Textbook - Agriculture or Husbandry;   Bread;   Threshing;  

Dictionaries:

- American Tract Society Bible Dictionary - Carts;   Bridgeway Bible Dictionary - Animals;   Easton Bible Dictionary - Agriculture;   Horse;   Holman Bible Dictionary - Contrite;   Isaiah;   Parables;   Spices;   Hastings' Dictionary of the Bible - Isaiah, Book of;   Parable;   Untoward;   Wisdom;   Hastings' Dictionary of the New Testament - Agriculture;   The Hawker's Poor Man's Concordance And Dictionary - Vagabond;   People's Dictionary of the Bible - Horse;   Wilson's Dictionary of Bible Types - Thresh;   Watson's Biblical & Theological Dictionary - Allegory;   Cart;   Floor;  

Encyclopedias:

- International Standard Bible Encyclopedia - Bruise;   Horse;   Isaiah;   Parable;   Proverbs, Book of;   Wheel;   Kitto Biblical Cyclopedia - Agriculture;   The Jewish Encyclopedia - Horse;   Parable;   Root;  

Parallel Translations

The Amplified Bible
Does one crush bread grain? No, he does not thresh it continuously. But when he has driven his cartwheel and his horses over it, he scatters it [tossing it up to the wind] without having crushed it.

The Complete Jewish Bible
When crushing grain for bread, one doesn't thresh it forever; one drives the horse and cart wheels over it but doesn't crush it to powder.

Darby's Translation
Bread [corn] is crushed, because he will not ever be threshing it; and if he drove the wheels of his cart and his horses [over it], he would not crush it.

Bible in Basic English
Is the grain for bread crushed? He does not go on crushing it for ever, but he lets his cart-wheels and his horses go over it without crushing it.

English Revised Version
Bread corn is ground; for he will not ever be threshing it: and though the wheel of his cart and his horses scatter it, he doth not grind it.

Contemporary English Version
Wheat and barley are pounded, but not beaten to pulp; they are run over with a wagon, but not ground to dust.

English Standard Version
Does one crush grain for bread? No, he does not thresh it forever; when he drives his cart wheel over it with his horses, he does not crush it.

Easy-to-Read Version
When a woman makes bread, she works and presses the dough with her hands, but she does not do this forever. The Lord punishes his people in the same way. He will scare them with the wagon wheel, but he will not crush them completely. He will not allow many horses to trample (walk on) them.

The Geneva Bible (1587)
Bread corne when it is threshed, hee doeth not alway thresh it, neither doeth the wheele of his cart still make a noyse, neither will he breake it with the teeth thereof.

George Lamsa Translation of the Peshitta
Grain is threshed for our sakes because man would not otherwise be threshing it, nor break it with many wheels of his threshing instruments, nor crush it under the feet of his oxen.

The Bishop's Bible (1568)
But the seede that bread is made of, is threshed, though it be not alway a threshing, and the cart wheele must be brought ouer it, lest he grinde it with his teeth.

Brenton Translaton of the Septuagint (LXX)
for I will not be wroth with you for ever, neither shall the voice of my anger crush you.

Hebrew Names Version
Bread [grain] is ground; for he will not be always threshing it: and though the wheel of his cart and his horses scatter it, he does not grind it.

American Standard Version
Bread [grain] is ground; for he will not be always threshing it: and though the wheel of his cart and his horses scatter it, he doth not grind it.

The Webster Bible
Bread-[corn] is bruised; because he will not always be threshing it, nor break [it with] the wheel of his cart, nor bruise it [with] his horsemen.

New King James
Bread flour must be ground; Therefore he does not thresh it forever, Break it with his cartwheel, Or crush it with his horsemen.

Good News Translation
They do not ruin the wheat by threshing it endlessly, and they know how to thresh it by driving a cart over it without bruising the grains.

New American Standard Version
Grain for bread is crushed, Indeed, he does not continue to thresh it forever. Because the wheel of his cart and his horses eventually damage it, He does not thresh it longer.

Holman Christian Standard
Bread grain is crushed, but is not threshed endlessly. Though the wheel of [the farmer's] cart rumbles, his horses do not crush it.

J.P. Green Literal Translation
Bread is crushed, but not always does one thresh it with threshing; and he drives the wheel of his cart; and his horses do not beat it small.

Miles Coverdale Bible (1535)
As for the wheate, he gryndeth it to make bred therof, In as moch as he can not bringe it to passe wt treadinge out. For nether the brussinge that the cart wheles make, ner his beastes can grynde it.

New Living Translation
Bread grain is easily crushed, so he doesn't keep on pounding it. He threshes it under the wheels of a cart, but he doesn't pulverize it.

New International Version
Grain must be ground to make bread; so one does not go on threshing it forever. The wheels of a threshing cart may be rolled over it, but one does not use horses to grind grain.

JPS Old Testament
Is bread corn crushed? Nay, he will not ever be threshing it; and though the roller of his wagon and its sharp edges move noisily, he doth not crush it.

King James Version (1611)
Bread corne is bruised; because he will not euer be threshing it, nor breake it with the wheele of his cart, nor bruise it with his horsemen.

New Century Version
The grain is ground to make bread. People do not ruin it by crushing it forever. The farmer separates the wheat from the chaff with his cart, but he does not let his horses grind it.

New Life Version
Grain for bread is crushed. He does not keep on crushing it forever. When he drives his wagon-wheel over it with his horses, it does not crush it.

New Revised Standard
Grain is crushed for bread, but one does not thresh it forever; one drives the cart wheel and horses over it, but does not pulverize it.

The Emphasised Bible
Bread-corn, must be crushed, - Yet would he not be evermore, threshing, it, So he hasteneth over it the wheel of his cart, with his horsemen, He crusheth it not!

Douay-Rheims Bible
But breadcorn shall be broken small: but the thrasher shall not thrash it for ever, neither shall the cart wheel hurt it, nor break it with its teeth.

Revised Standard Version
Does one crush bread grain? No, he does not thresh it for ever; when he drives his cart wheel over it with his horses, he does not crush it.

Updated Bible Version 1.9
Bread [grain] is ground; for he will not always be threshing it: and though the wheel of his cart and his horses scatter it, he does not grind it.

World English Bible
Bread [grain] is ground; for he will not be always threshing it: and though the wheel of his cart and his horses scatter it, he does not grind it.

The Wycliffe Bible (1395)
Sotheli breed schal be maad lesse, but he that threischith schal not threische it with outen ende, nether schal trauele it with a wheel of a wayn, nether schal make it lesse with hise clees.

Young's Literal Translation
Bread-[corn] is beaten small, For not for ever doth he sorely thresh it, Nor crushed [it] hath a wheel of his cart, Nor do his hoofs beat it small.

The Message
On the other hand, wheat is threshed and milled, but still not endlessly. The farmer knows how to treat each kind of grain.

Lexham English Bible
Grain is crushed fine,

Contextual Overview

23Give ye ear, and hear my voice; hearken, and hear my speech. 24Doth the plowman plow all day to sow? doth he open and break the clods of his ground? 25When he hath made plain the face thereof, doth he not cast abroad the fitches, and scatter the cummin, and cast in the principal wheat and the appointed barley and the rie in their place? 26For his God doth instruct him to discretion, and doth teach him. 27For the fitches are not threshed with a threshing instrument, neither is a cart wheel turned about upon the cummin; but the fitches are beaten out with a staff, and the cummin with a rod. 28Bread corn is bruised; because he will not ever be threshing it, nor break it with the wheel of his cart, nor bruise it with his horsemen. 29This also cometh forth from the LORD of hosts, which is wonderful in counsel, and excellent in working.

Verse Review

from
Treasury of Scripure Knowledge

Bread corn is bruised; because he will not ever be threshing it, nor break it with the wheel of his cart, nor bruise it with his horsemen.
Bread
21:10; Amos 9:9; Matthew 3:12; 13:37-43; Luke 22:31,32; John 12:24; 1 Corinthians 3:9; 1 Corinthians 9:9,10
the wheel

Gill's Notes on the Bible

Bread corn is bruised,.... The corn which bread is made of is bruised and ground in a mill:

because he will not always be threshing it; for there is another way of bringing it to flour, that so it may be made bread, namely, by grinding it in a mill; and therefore the husbandman uses his discretion in threshing it; he will not thresh it too much, nor too long, no more than what is necessary to get out the grain, but will take care that he does not bruise and break it; as follows:

nor break it with the wheel of his cart, nor bruise it with his horsemen; though he makes use of the above threshing instrument, drawn upon wheels by horses, or oxen, for the threshing out of wheat, barley, or rye, corn of which bread is made; yet he takes care that it is not crushed and spoiled by the wheels of the cart, or the feet of the horses, or oxen, going too often over it; by all which may be signified the tender regard of God in afflicting his own people; he will not always be chiding, striving, and contending with them, or be always angry, and ever afflicting, and, when he does afflict, it is in a tender and careful manner, Psalm 103:9.

Barnes' Notes on the Bible

Bread corn - Hebrew, לחם lechem - ‹Bread.‘ But the word evidently denotes the material from which bread is made. The word is used in the same sense in Isaiah 30:23.

Is bruised - That is, is more severely bruised than the dill and the cummin; it is pressed and crushed by passing over it the sledge, or the wain with serrated wheels. The word דקק dâqaq means often to break in pieces; to make small or fine. It is, however, applied to threshing, as consisting in beating, or crushing (Isaiah 41:15: ‹Thou threshest the mountains, and beatest them small‘ - ותדק vetâdoq Because he will not ever be threshing it - The word rendered ‹because‘ (כי kı̂y ) evidently here means “although” or “but”; and the sense is, that he will not always continue to thresh it; this is not his only business. It is only a part of his method by which he obtains grain for his bread. It would be needless and injurious to be always engaged in rolling the stone or the sledge over the grain. So God takes various methods with his people. He does not always pursue the same course. He sometimes smites and punishes them, as the farmer beats his grain. But he does not always do it. He is not engaged in this method alone; nor does he pursue this constantly. It would crush and destroy them. “He, therefore, smites them just enough to secure, in the best manner, and to the fullest extent, their obedience; just as the farmer bruises his sheaves enough to separate all the grain from the chaff.” When this is done, he pursues other methods. Hence the various severe and heavy trials with which the people of God are afflicted.

Nor bruise it with his horsemen - Lowth renders this, ‹With the hoofs of his cattle;‘ proposing to read פרסין instead of פרשׁיו pârâshâyv by a change of a single Hebrew letter ס (s ), instead of the Hebrew letter שׁ (sh ). So the Syriac and the Vulgate; and so Symmachus and Theodotion. But the word פרשׁ pârâsh may denote not only a “horsesman,” but the “horse” itself on which one rides (see Bochart, Hieroz. i. 2,6. p. 98. Compare the note at Habakkuk 1:8; 2 Samuel 1:6; Isaiah 21:7, Isaiah 21:9). That horses were used in treading out grain there can be no doubt. They are extensively used in this country; and though in Palestine it is probable that oxen were chiefly employed Deuteronomy 25:4 in the early times, yet there is no improbability in supposing that in the times subsequent to Solomon, when horses abounded, they were preferred. Their more rapid motion, and perhaps the hardness of their hoofs, makes them more valuable for this service (see Michaelis‘ “Commentary on the Laws of Moses,” vol. ii. App. pp. 430-514, Lond. Ed. 1814). There are here, therefore, four modes of threshing mentioned, all of which are common still in the East.

1. The sledge with rollers, on which were pieces of iron, or stone, and which was dragged over the grain.

2. The cart or wain, with serrated wheels, and which was also drawn over the grain.

3. The flail, or the stick.

4. The use of cattle and horses.

Clarke's Notes on the Bible

Four methods of threshing are here mentioned, by different instruments; the flail, the drag, the wain, and the treading of the cattle. The staff or flail was used for the infirmiora semina, says Jerome, the grain that was too tender to be treated in the other methods. The drag consisted of a sort of strong planks, made rough at the bottom, with hard stones or iron; it was drawn by horses or oxen over the corn sheaves spread on the floor, the driver sitting upon it. Kempfer has given a print representing the manner of using this instrument, Amaen. Exot. p. 682, fig. 3. The wain was much like the former; but had wheels with iron teeth, or edges like a saw: Ferrata carpenta rotis per medium in serrarum modum se volventibus. Hieron. in loc. From this it would seem that the axle was armed with iron teeth or serrated wheels throughout. See a description and print of such a machine used at present in Egypt for the same purpose in Niebuhr's Voyage en Arabie, Tab. 17 p. 123; it moves upon three rollers armed with iron teeth or wheels to cut the straw. In Syria they make use of the drag, constructed in the very same manner as above described; Niebuhr, Description de l'Arabie, p. 140. This not only forced out the grain, but cut the straw in pieces for fodder for the cattle; for in the eastern countries they have no hay. See Harmer's Observ. 1 p. 425. The last method is well known from the law of Moses, which "forbids the ox to be muzzled, when he treadeth out the corn;" Deuteronomy 25:4.


Copyright Statement:
King James Version
The KJV is public domain in the United States.

Lectionary Calendar
Wednesday, August 5th, 2020
the Week of Proper 13 / Ordinary 18
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